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Thank you, Kerry. I am no expert but natural gas extraction is but one method of producing hydrogen. You can use electrolysis, methane extraction waste and flatulence , and probably some others. So as far as I know, the explanation that hydrogen comes from a non-renewable source is not accurate. Dear Dr. Also, thank you for one of your most thoughtful essays. To quote you:. What evidence are you observing? I really want to know.

A continuation of you essay, for all to read, would be a better answer. Many thanks and have a great weekend. Thank you. My evidence is 1 dropping popularity of reliance on main stream corporate news. The Trump administration has done everything so far to make that much harder to reach. Allegedly, the economy added K new jobs in June. If Bill Maher is calling for a recession just to replace a politician, I would be concerned about where his priorities lie.

We can still have a good economy and remove Trump if that is what you wish. Why would people want more suffering just because they hate Trump? Ed, I tried to answer your last comment on my iPhone at least twice, but it does not show up when I try to go back to it on my computer. Here it is again: Whether you hate Trump or not, Bill Maher is right about having a recession, because it certainly will happen if we continue along the economic course that Trump has plotted. Your email address will not be published. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.

A bit of an anthology blog tonight but try to follow my train of though.

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Tonight, I feel guilt but also the comfort that old man Brooks from Shawshank Redemption felt when he went back into prison. You see, after three years of driving a clean hydrogen fuel cell car, I once again feel the roar of internal combustion under my feet. Some producers have also taken the opportunity of creative intervention or control on the final editing process to introduce their own signatures onto the films.

Lost and Found: Six Glances at a Generation utilizes the sixth film as a transition in between the five shorts. Nicolas MacClintock introduces intermediate shots of flowing water, with a specific choice of sound track that allows him to name his anthology Ten Minutes Older in two parts, The Cello and The Trumpet , the two musical instruments that mark the transitions.

Other than these exceptions, producers have exercised their creativity in sequencing rather than creating transitions between the films. The most salient example of this is the anthology Visions of Europe , which presents 25 short films from participating European nations. Some countries chose to screen in theaters and broadcast the anthology in its entirety and some preferred to play only the contribution of that specific country.

What was meant to be a contiguous project was cut into a separate entity. The success of Ten Minutes Older: The Trumpet and The Cello as well as other anthology films on DVD format has underscored how individual films achieve greater recognition through isolated viewing although the producer with great care and vision put the entire anthology together. The changes brought about my distribution system and the possibility opened up by flexible modes of viewing- the Internet and DVDs- do not undermine the role of the producer in arranging short films in specific sequences.

It is possible that the impending changes and trends may alter that role in the future. On the other hand, these vicissitudes of the form are overcome by an entirely different vision of Emmanuel Benbihy who has approached his role of a producer in a more creative way in his anthologies as short films in his anthologies are not presented as a distinguishable sequence of shorts but as a continuous stream of films with subtle transitions in between and without any credits.

I have emphasized an active, creative role for the producers in anthology films. While it is true that in most cases, producers who engage in anthology films have taken on single projects. Even successful and committed producers among these have not had a chance to place an imprint of their style on sequencing or presenting anthology in a certain order, to make a statement. To that extent, a single producer has not been able to produce a distinct style as some producers have done it in Hollywood.

Consider for example, the case made by Bernstein for producers like Daryl Zanuck or Jerry Bruckheimer who have become "producer-auteurs" by seeking out various directors who realize their vision and create a consistent signature style in a series of films. Anthology films are "collections" of short films, where the value of the film is not simply its measure in time but its brevity in achieving the aims assigned to it.

At the heart of it, anthologies give a reverent importance to short films as an art form. The challenge to established auteurs as well as other filmmakers is to imagine their perspectives on given themes in this specific form. Short films allow producers to achieve broad diversity of viewpoints in feature-length films of This is yet another dimension that separates the anthologies produced in Europe in recent years to the pronounced production of the 's where three to four directors would comprise a feature length film.

The challenges now have been varied as the length of short films varies from three minutes to minutes, where most anthologies choosing shorter length contributions. This centralized significance of short films in anthology films is recognition that short film is a challenge in capturing vision with brevity and economy. There is a greater respectability to short films as a distinct form in European film practice than there has been in other parts of the world, including the U. Some of this is cultural as well as historical. While film studies have ignored short film as a distinct art form in itself, shorts have been quite prominent in experimental or avant-garde cinema.

That is, short films have existed outside of the ordinary economic and distribution networks. In Europe, the situation has been different as there has been a wide spread recognition and support for short film. European films have been dominant in recent years in sheer numbers at world film festivals, where a number of them are devoted to the art form. That there is much resurgence of anthology films in Europe over the past two decades is a testimony to the culture of short film production in Europe over the years.

Short films have existed outside of the revenue structures of the mainstream industry; their focus has been to make artistic or interventionist statements in the public sphere, with an incision and a vision that works outside of the economic pressures of the industry. Anthology films, with very few exceptions, exist mainly within the realm of the mainstream industry.

Many of these films, particularly those occasioned by specific historic or commemorative moments were shown at public events. Most notable amongst them, the "first Bulgarian omnibus" called 15 , with its full tag line, 15 Authors, 15 Years, 15 Short Films , was screened in the city during normal working hours. The event, according to producer Maritchka Bozhilova worked as an occasion of public and because of broadcast national exercise in reflection on nation's memory. Since that event, the anthology 15 has been one of nation's major contributions and a pronounced one at that at Film Festivals around the world.

One of the shorts from the anthology, Omlette by Nadeja Koseva has had broader circulation and recognition even in competitive festivals. Various producers welcome and utilize this opportunity of releasing short films separately from the anthologies speak of a true dispersion of the film as well as the potential of short films to continue to have broader impact either on behalf of or independent of anthology films.

Mama Mia , the Short film from Zagreb Stories received similar circulation and recognition. Producers of anthology films have also discovered that the broadcast and Internet distribution of anthology films can occur in short film form. This allows for broader and selective distribution as it serves to broaden the appeal of anthology films for funding from broadcast networks.

If systematic study of anthology films is rare in scholarly field, one producer has thought through these issues more than any other, perhaps more systematically than most practitioners of the form today. Emmanuel Benbihy, the main producer and visionary behind the project, Cities We Love has dedicated much of his energies in producing anthologies with a conceptual framework that is unique and distinctive for this form. There are other projects in the works; for Jerusalem and Rio de Janeiro through the franchise he has created to produce exclusively anthology films in major cities around the world.

He terms his Cities We Love project as a "franchise," where producers from around the world may take on the theme and produce anthologies of specific cities. Benbihy has called his projects "anthology films," "collective feature films," and "omnibus films," or "multi-director films. The perspective of "love" is to be interpreted broadly, as it turns out to be love about the city as much love in the city. His thematic commitment is firm and continuous through all anthology film projects. This is to be attributed to him and the team of producers he has assembled together.

In Benbihy's involvement as a producer, he envisions the project himself and provides an entirely different production process than what the other produces have practiced. He believes in providing a single, centralized crew to individual directors, whose involvement is limited to coming with a partial production team, only with scriptwriters and the acting ensemble. The limits on length of the films are in place often 3 minutes as are the production schedules.

His production team is involved in the project both as participants and facilitators. While individual directors shape their short films, the creative control of the production process of the entire anthology rests with Benbihy and his team. The format practiced here is challenging. In his projects, shorts are not simply compiled but edited into a seamless, single feature film where one narrative ever so subtly moves into another.

Individual shorts are not separated by credits and cannot be viewed in isolation from others even on a DVD. What others like Bordwell have found irritating about this format, that watching the shorts becomes a game of guessing which auteur's style is best reflected in segments just watched, becomes a defensible strategy in Benbihy's view.


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His goal, which he often states fondly, is to "create unity within diversity. If a short film is attributed to a single auteur, as is the practice in most anthology films, it becomes an isolated part and not a part of the collective. This approach from a producer to shape individual director's work as it is compiled and edited into continuous film allows for an experience that is different from any other.

It is Benbihy's belief that anthology films that employ this strategy assume a higher degree of sophistication in film audiences and thus appropriate for the times in which we watch films. This is a rather strong position but it takes the form of anthology film onto a distinct level. Benbihy says that "identification in cinema is a mystery" and that multiple identifications must be allowed in a given film. A single director "cannot create diversity. Among all the anthology films that have emerged from Europe and indeed from the world cinema, Benbihy's productions have been targeted more directly for theatrical releases, in addition to the Festival screenings.

His commitment here is to both, anthology films and to short films. The challenges to anthology films are unique and must be dealt with in contemporary cinema.


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  4. This daunting challenge is just taking shape in his production and in increasing number of other anthology films produced in Europe today. Perhaps Benbihy summarizes the condition aptly as he says that the challenge to anthology films is much like the challenge to the European Union; that is to create unity within diversity. The emergence of both at this historic juncture may be a telling moment.

    Each film festival and each major occasion brings the news of an anthology film.

    Most major events in recent years, from the expansion of the European Union to the commemoration of the fall of the Berlin Wall, are used as key moments of reflection in anthology films. And yet the range of their concerns is broad and expanding. This is a new avenue in filmmaking as it is a fresh horizon for producers to shape collective film productions. Lana Ujdur , the producer of Zagreb Stories captured it well to say that anthology films are a "channel for new generations of directors and also for discovering new talents and cooperation for all those involved in it.

    Minsk Anthology Vol2 - (page )

    He is the media editor of Little India magazine and has written on anthology film, European cinema, film and philosophy. Contact: deshpans arcadia. Allen, Robert C. Benbihy, Emmanuel. Betz, Mark. Like the "real Slim Shady", they stand up. The anger and energy that drives rap gives it a lawless, visceral power.

    It is the predominant means of creative expression for young, working-class African-American males, and to a lesser degree women. I was like, how else can a young black girl of my age be heard all around the world.

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    I gotta rap". The form is intrinsically outspoken, speaking out, to and against, which puts it at odds with the poetry of implication, obliquity and nuance. The best raps show raw power, linguistic ingenuity and wit. But rap is a multi-billion-pound global industry and its mix of spoken word and music reaches across boundaries.

    At worst its cultural and sociological influence is pernicious, but it is undoubtedly a phenomenon. Unlike almost every other kind of "poetry", it reaches a mass audience. Poetry publishing in Britain was and remains overwhelmingly white. Back in the Nineties, the language, rhythms, tropes and freedom American rap offered inspired a new generation of young black poets to find their voices and deliver their own brand of lyric creativity. The most skilful made the transition to publication, such as Patience Agbabi, whose individualistic poetry is as dynamic in performance as on the page.

    Others found that populist, personality-based performance poetry was no substitute for poetic complexity and craft. Further back in the Eighties, Linton Kwesi Johnson was a pioneer of dub poetry - spoken word drenched in the vernacular and beats of reggae. Now published by Penguin Modern Classics, his poetry is accepted on its own terms. Placing rap lyrics so firmly in the poetry camp inevitably does rap a disservice. It is a performance genre and what is weak on the page - awkward metrical syntax, sloppy rhyme, corny lyrics, rambling verses - can be camouflaged on stage by music and delivery.

    Yet this anthology achieves its purpose in drawing attention to the themes and techniques of rap throughout its historical development. And with nothing between us and the words, we can see clearly what is really being said. The editors write, "Far from denying rap's value as music To study rap as poetry is to pause in contemplation before returning to the beats and rhymes of the music itself. And if dipping into it doesn't cause you to go and listen to some, then surely nothing will. You can find our Community Guidelines in full here. Want to discuss real-world problems, be involved in the most engaging discussions and hear from the journalists?

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    Anthology of the Ghetto, Volume 1: The World as I "C" It

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