Read PDF The Body System Series: The Renal System and its Functions

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The urinary bladder can store up to ml of urine in women and ml in men. People already feel the need to urinate pee when their bladder has between and ml of urine in it. When you empty your bladder, the muscle in your bladder wall tightens to squeeze the urine out of your bladder, while at the same time the sphincter muscles at the base of your bladder relax, allowing the urine to flow out through your urethra. In men, the urethra leads through the penis and is about 20 cm long. In women, it ends above the opening of the vagina. This is one of the reasons why urinary tract infections UTIs like cystitis are more common in women.

In older men, a benign enlarged prostate might push against the bladder and urethra, making it difficult to urinate normally. The ability to hold your urine and pass urine is complex and involves the coordination of muscles, nerve signals and hormones, which is regulated by the brain and the spinal cord. Also, the pelvic floor muscles that stabilize the bladder need to develop first. The brain has to learn how to control the internal organs, too.

Although the most important bodily functions work right after birth, the fine-tuning of the organs takes time. The muscles then open the passage to the urethra and the bladder is emptied. As children get older, they learn to ignore this reflex and keep their urine in voluntarily until they get a chance to go to the bathroom. Eventually, they can do this in their sleep too.

The Heart and Circulatory System - How They Work

Instead of emptying their bladder, they wake up. At the same time, their sleep pattern develops. The brain also has to learn to regulate the production of certain hormones, including vasopressin. During early childhood, the brain starts releasing larger amounts of vasopressin at night. This hormone travels through the bloodstream to the kidneys, where it decreases urine production. Although bladder control problems are more common in children, they can affect people of all ages.

How does the urinary system work? - - NCBI Bookshelf

This happens if the sphincter muscle stops working properly and it can no longer keep urine in the bladder. The possible causes include very weak pelvic floor muscles or paralysis problems with nerve function in the pelvic area. IQWiG health information is written with the aim of helping people understand the advantages and disadvantages of the main treatment options and health care services.

Because IQWiG is a German institute, some of the information provided here is specific to the German health care system. The suitability of any of the described options in an individual case can be determined by talking to a doctor.

Human excretory organs

We do not offer individual consultations. Our information is based on the results of good-quality studies. It is written by a team of health care professionals, scientists and editors, and reviewed by external experts. You can find a detailed description of how our health information is produced and updated in our methods. And the urine is gonna hang out in your bladder that sits about right here, until it's an appropriate time to go to the bathroom.

And that's kind of a broad overview. But let's go into a little more detail about what the kidneys do. So I'm going to draw a box over here. And this box is going to be what the kidneys do.

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So I'm going to give just a really simplistic overview of what the kidneys do. And then in other videos, we'll go dive deeper into detail. So as I mentioned, each of your kidneys gets an oxygenated blood vessel, or an artery that goes to them. And your arteries hold onto all the things in your blood.

This can include things like your nutrients. And so nutrients can be anything from say, your electrolytes like your sodium ions. They can be things like your proteins or your amino acids or even glucose, as well, things that build your carbohydrates. So a lot of things that your body uses as the building blocks, or things that help other structures of your body work. In addition to your nutrients, you've also got oxygen hanging out in your arterial blood. And your arteries also contain waste products. So things your body has made through cellular respiration and all these other processes that we undergo that we don't need anymore, that we want to get rid of.

And they can include things like urea and other toxic compounds that we don't want to build up.

Human Physiology/The Urinary System

And at the same time, it can also include extra electrolytes, like sodium that we don't need. Because if we hold onto a lot of sodium chloride, which is just salt, we'll end up having high blood pressure. So our kidneys also help us maintain our blood pressure, as we'll talk about in other videos.

So, this just kind of underlines the point that if you have too much of your nutrients, they become waste products. And so, your kidneys help to make sure you don't build too much of this good stuff here. So this is all the stuff you've got hanging out in the artery that's coming over to your kidney, right here. And as you might recall, whenever you have an artery coming into an organ or a part of your body, there should be a vein that takes the blood away from it that's going to return it to the heart.

So this is your vein, right here. And so the job of the kidneys then, is to make it so that the nutrients you had in your arterial blood are collected and maintained when we get to the vein. So we want to hold on to our nutrients, right here. So I'll just write "nutrients".

And it stands for all the stuff that I gave examples for on the left side here. And the kidneys, like every organ in the body, need oxygen to do well. So you'll have the oxygen go through the kidneys and some of it will make it out.

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  • Some of it will be used by the kidneys. Because that's how we can maintain some of the tissue. And so when we get to the other side, where the vein is, we'll have less oxygen. So I'll write it really tiny right here to show that there's much less oxygen in your venous blood than there was in your arterial blood. And finally, the kidneys want to take all the waste products your arterial blood brought to the kidney and hold on to it, make it so that this stuff does not end up in the venous outflow.

    And by collecting these waste products, the kidneys will effectively produce your urine. Now, you might notice in this picture that I am missing something. What connects the artery to the vein? Well actually what goes on here is part of what makes the kidney so special. And it answers the "how". How is it that the kidneys are able to do this? How is it that the kidneys can help us maintain our nutrients in our body while getting rid of waste into urine? Well, the kidney is special because it's got two capillary beds.

    I think you might have heard what a capillary is before, alright?