A work which annoyed Sterne, prompting him to write A Sentimental Journey. Voltaire's commentary on Beccaria's Dei Delitti e delle Pene. Later editions of Beccaria's work often appeared with Voltaire's commentary. Many ask, Voltaire wrote, what shall replace Christianity? A ferocious animal has sucked the blood of my family; I tell you to get rid of that beast, and you ask me, What shall we put in its place! Pamphlet published in September which aimed to prove the innocence of Calas and Sirven. It was also published in order to raise money for the Sirven family.
An attack, based on the ideas of Spinoza and Malebranche, on the materialist beliefs of the philosophes. Hume, on his dispute with M. Voulgaris views on philosophy were influenced by Locke and Voltaire. He translated Voltaire's Memnon into Greek in Between and he worked as as librarian at court of Catherine the Great. Rousseau published a protest in the same paper on 8 April. The first of many versions, the last appearing in , with an English translation appearing in First performed 29 January and only moderately successful.
Everywhere vigour and poetry decline as the philosophic spirit has made progress The latter wants more strict, exact and rigorous comparisons: its cautious progress is the enemy of the fluent and the figurative Diderot writes Salon de I do not think them fit to be given to the Public, neither on account of the Style nor the Reasoning: the Form nor the Matter. My Concern for his Reputation obliges me to tell you my Opinion Yet what he found alien and untenable was surely the insistence upon the inevitability of progress, upon the principle of perfection.
These doctrines Hume had repudiated in the philosophes ; it is thus no coincidence that the philosophes , for their part, approved of Ferguson. To overawe, or intimidate, or, when we cannot persuade with reason, to resist with fortitude, are the occupations which give its most animating exercise, and its greatest triumphs, to a vigorous mind. It is vain to expect that we can give to the multitude of a people a sense of union among themselves, without admitting hostility to those who oppose them. Athens was necessary to Sparta, in the exercise of her virtue, as steel is to flint in the production of fire.
Fouth edition. Heathcote defends Hume against Rousseau. The book was partially rewritten by Holbach and amendments were made byNaigeon, who, accordingto a manuscript note by his brother, "atheised it as much as possible. The book constituted a violent attack on the priesthood.
VOLTAIRE – Eloge historique de la Raison | Litterature ohyqukecew.cf
The first German comedy on a grand scale and its first political play. Linguet traced the origins of civil society to the criminal acts of hunters who robbed and enslaved peaceful farmers and pastors; later, the victors established civil laws and repressive government to legitimate these acts of violence. A philosophical romance of sixteen short chapters which was condemned by the Sorbonne in because of its plea for religious toleration in chapter fifteen.
Voltaire sought to vindicate the work of Marmontel by writing to Catherine the Great, Frederick the Great, the king of Poland, and the crown prince of Sweden. In the form of a dialogue Mendelssohn, contrary to the then dominant materialism, defended the immortality of the soul with the help of Leibniz.
Du Pont took part in negotiations with England to grant independence to the United States , a member of the the Estates-General , his defence of Louis XVI led to his imprisonment He returned to France became secretary to the provisional government , again emigrated to U. But I must have some more time to weigh it, before I can pronounce this judgment with satisfaction to myself. Galiani, a critic of physiocracy who witnessed the Neapolitan famine of , argued that no responsible person could advocate anything but the most cautious approach to the lifting of controls on grain prices. Ah, who is the man that should think himself capable of dictating laws for beings that he does not know, or knows so ill?
And by what right can he impose laws on beings whom God has never placed in his hands? To wish to go any further would be a great misfortune and a most destructive undertaking. Published in 2 volumes and regarded as the first published treatise on economics. Steuart spent nearly half of his life in Continental Europe, after completing a "grand tour" , he live in exile from to after have backed the Jacobite rebellion in Marx viewed Steuart's economics in a favourable light. The first edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica was published btween and ; four editions of the encyclopaedia were published with the last consisting of twenty large volumes.
Of the Idea of Necessary Connection?. At the time France had announced its intention of annexing Corsica and people were eager for information about the island and Paoli. Catcott was a clergyman based in Bristol. He was a vocal anti-Newtonian. Euler's main philosophical work which became extremely popular. He covered a whole range of scientific issues including mechanics, optics, acoustics and astronomy. Gauchat edited the journal Les littres critiques Critical Letters. Haller used his own rather than Linnaeus's classification scheme in this work dealing with about twenty-five hundred kinds of plants.
The book also contained Collins' The Scheme of literal Prophecy considered which was first published in A translation of Toland's Letters to Serena , a work which generated controversary on its publication in It included five essays on prejudices, the immortality of the sould, idolatry, superstition, Spinoza and matter.
The translation included a preface by Holbach and Naigeon and was published in Amsterdam. The book is by Holbach. It has gone through many editions and been translated into English and Spanish. The first edition had an introduction by Naigeon. According to him manuscripts of this book became quite rare at one time and were supposed to have been lost. Later they became more common and this edition was corrected by collation with six others. The letters were written in , according to Lequinio Feuilles posthumes , who had his information from Naigeon, to Marguerite, Marchioness de Vermandois in answer to a very touching and pitiful letter from that lady who was in great trouble over religion.
Her young husband was a great friend of the Holbachs, but having had a strict Catholic bringing up she was shocked at their infidelity and warned by her confessor to keep away from them. Her natural good sense and love for her friends struggled with her monastic education and reverence for the priests. The conflict rendered her miserable and she returned to her country seat to brood over it. In this state of mind she at length wrote to the Baron and laid open her situation requesting him to comfort, console, and enlighten her. They were carefully revised before they were sent to the press.
All the purely personal passages were omitted and others added to hide the identity of the persons concerned. Letters of the sort to religious ladies were common at this time. A French translation published in Amsterdam of a work that first appeared in England in The work has been attributed to Peter Annet and to John Noorthook. The Letters on Archaeology were published between and After publishing this work Meister was suspended as a minister in Zurich and deprived of his civic rights. He was rehabilitated in Holbach wrote the last chapter of this work, a critique of all official religions.
Grimm recognized that the last chapter was by another hand and considered it the weakest part of the book. Porter was ambassador to the Porte from to , an edition of the Observations was also published in A presentation of European philosophies in the fairyland of The Thousand and One Nights , with an interesting excursion into sexual politics.
A work on political economy. An investigation of the past and future of living things and an endorsement of the idea of the immortality of all forms of life. A verse translation of Virgil's Georgics by Jacques Delille which made him famous. Delille was elected to the Academy in Discovered only in and given its title by Franceo Venturi, in this short work Diderot took Frederick II to task for his authoritarian views.
II, A short essay in which a gift of a new dressing-gown leads Diderot to wonder if he is succumbing to the corrupting hand of luxury, a doubt which he eventually dispells. Galiani was a friend of Diderot. He was a Neopolitan and worked as secretary to the Ambassador of Naples in Paris. He was an economist, literary critic, a mimic and a raconteur. The Dialogue consists of an attack on the physiocrats who claimed if all controls on the grain trade were lifted then distribution would improve and prosperity would follow. Galiani had once been sympathetic to physiocracy but had changed his views as a result of near-famine and unrest in France in Diderot defended Galiani in But not a single one of these is not subject to an infinite number of exceptions in practice.
Granger collected 14, engraved portraits for his History and used them for illustrations. Holbach's translation of Whitefoot's The Torments of Hell, the foundation and pillars thereof discover'd, search'd, shaken and remov'd which was originally published in London in Two short works on eternal punishment. Holbach claimed they were translations of two works in English but the originals have never come to light.
The second work was translated into English under the title Hell Destroyed! Deyverdun was a clerk in the Secretary of State? A work which contrasts the ugly skeleton figure of the middle ages with the youthful spirit with the lowered torch, who the Greeks viewed as the brother of sleep. The venture failed in Lessing collected his papers from this period and published them in two volumes. The papers took the form of notices of over 50 performances appearing parts. Montagu's work help to established the reputation of Shakespeare.
Joseph Raphson was a Cambridge mathematician. The second editon which was published in included De spacio reali. A work which became widely influential and led to an invitation in to Spallanzani to take up the chair of natural history at the prestigious University of Pavia. Drama containing the much quoted line, Le monde avec lenteur.
In June Diderot correctly identified Voltaire as the author of the pseudonymous history. We woould have seen its intolerant, bigoted, stupid, preserving its gothic and vandal privileges and proscribing good sense. We would have seen it burning to meddle in everything: religion, government, war, finance, the arts and sciences, and mixing up everything with its ignorance, its self-interest, and its prejudices.
We would have seen it too bold under feeble kings, too feeble under firm kings. We would have seen it further behind the times, less in touch with intellectual progress than the monks locked in the cells of Chartreux. Denis Diderot, La Religieuse Diderot begins to write his second novel in David Garrick, The Enchanter.
Henry Home, Principles of Equity. Charles Johnstone, Chrysal, or the Adventures of a Guinea. A Treatise on the Art of Midwifery. Jean-Georges Noverre, Lettres sur la danse et sur les ballets Noverre was the leading figure in the development of the ballet d'action and came under the influence of David Garrick during a visit to London. Voltaire, A une demoiselle. Voltaire, Fragment d' une lettre de lord Bolingbroke. Voltaire, Le Pauvre diable. Voltaire, Plaidoyer de Ramponeau. Voltaire, Le Droit du seigneur. Voltaire, Extrait des nouvelles … la main de la ville de Montauban en Quercy.
Voltaire, Lettre de M. Voltaire, A M. Voltaire, Memorandum on the Gex salt monopoly, Voltaire, Avis. Edmund Curll, The use of Flogging, as provocative to the pleasures of love. With some Remarks on the Office of the Loins and reins A revised version of Treatise of Hermaphrodites that originally appeared in Denis Diderot, Salon Diderot writes his second Salon.
Denis Diderot, Lettre sur les sourds et muets A short work, published anonymously, on the origin of language. Arthur Murphy, The Citizen. Arthur Murphy, Zenobia. Joseph Priestley, The rudiments of English grammar, adapted to the use of schools; with notes and observations, for the use of those who have made some proficiency in the language An expanded edition appeared in Robinet, De la nature.
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James Steuart, Dissertation upon the doctrine and principles of money applied to the German coin. Voltaire, Collected Works 38 volumes, translated by Smollett and others, published in England between and Voltaire, Rescrit de l' empereur de la Chine. Voltaire, Epigramme ['Connaissez-vous certain rimeur obscur' ].
Voltaire, L' Education des filles. Blin de Sainmore. Voltaire, Olympie. Voltaire, Les Car … M. Lefranc de Pompignan. Voltaire, Les Ah! Voltaire, Conversation de M. Voltaire, Sermon du rabbin Akib. Deodati de Tovazzi. Voltaire, Entretien d' Ariste et d' Acrotal. Voltaire, Memoranda on the building of the church at Ferney, May Elizabeth Carter, Poems on Several Occasions. Denis Diderot, Eloge de Richardson Written in Sarah Fielding, Memoirs of Socrates.
The young man was intrigued by Britain's constitutional monarchy in contrast to the French absolute monarchy, as well as the country's relative support of the freedoms of speech and religion. He was also influenced by several of the neoclassical writers of the age, and developed an interest in earlier English literature, especially the works of Shakespeare, still little known in continental Europe at the time. Despite pointing out his deviations from neoclassical standards, Voltaire saw Shakespeare as an example French writers might look up to, since drama in France, despite being more polished, lacked on-stage action.
Later, however, as Shakespeare's influence was being increasingly felt in France, Voltaire would endeavour to set a contrary example with his own plays, decrying what he considered Shakespeare's barbarities. After almost three years in exile, Voltaire returned to Paris and published his views on British attitudes towards government, literature, and religion in a collection of essays in letter form entitled the Lettres philosophiques sur les Anglais Philosophical Letters on the English. Because he regarded the British constitutional monarchy as more developed and more respectful of human rights particularly religious tolerance than its French counterpart, these letters met great controversy in France, to the point where the book was burnt and Voltaire was forced again to flee.
Cirey was owned by the Marquise's husband, Marquis Florent-Claude du Chatelet, who sometimes visited his wife and her lover at the chateau.
The relationship, which lasted for fifteen years, had a significant intellectual element. Voltaire and the Marquise collected over 21, books, an enormous number for the time. Together, they studied these books and performed experiments in the "natural sciences" in his laboratory. Voltaire's experiments included an attempt to determine the elements of fire. Having learned from his previous brushes with the authorities, Voltaire began his future habit of keeping out of personal harm's way, and denying any awkward responsibility. Again, a main source of inspiration for Voltaire were the years of his British exile, during which he had been strongly influenced by the works of Sir Isaac Newton.
Although both Voltaire and the Marquise were curious about the philosophies of Gottfried Leibniz, a contemporary and rival of Newton, they remained essentially "Newtonians", despite the Marquise's adoption of certain aspects of Leibniz's arguments against Newton. She translated Newton's Latin Principia in full, adjusting a few errors along the way, and hers remained the definitive French translation well into the 20th century.
It is often considered the work that finally brought about general acceptance of Newton's optical and gravitational theories. Voltaire and the Marquise also studied history These, along with his Letters on England mark the beginning of Voltaire's open criticism of intolerance and established religions. Voltaire and the Marquise also worked with philosophy, particularly with metaphysics, the branch of philosophy that deals with being, and what is beyond the material realm such as whether or not there is a God or souls, etc.
Voltaire and the Marquise analyzed the Bible, trying to discover its validity in their time. Voltaire's critical views on religion are reflected in his belief in separation of church and state and religious freedom, ideas that he had formed after his stay in England. On a visit to Paris that year, he found a new love: his niece. At first, his attraction to Marie Louise Mignot was clearly sexual, as evidenced by his letters to her only discovered in Much later, they lived together, perhaps platonically, and remained together until Voltaire's death.
Meanwhile, the Marquise also took a lover, the Marquis de Saint-Lambert. Sanssouci After the death of the Marquise in childbirth in September , Voltaire briefly returned to Paris and in moved to Potsdam to join Frederick the Great, a close friend and admirer of his. The king had repeatedly invited him to his palace, and now gave him a salary of 20, francs a year. Though life went well at first This greatly angered Frederick, who had all copies of the document burned and arrested Voltaire at an inn where he was staying along his journey home.
Voltaire's chateau is now owned and administered by the French Ministry of Culture. In the Scottish Enlightenment the Scots began developing a uniquely practical branch of humanism to the extent that Voltaire said "We look to Scotland for all our ideas of civilisation". Once in a letter to Frederick II, King of Prussia, dated 5 January he quoted that, Attitude toward Jews Though many books have been written taxing Voltaire with anti-semitism, they do not explain, nor usually even mention, the numerous pamphlets he wrote attacking anti-semitism itself.
This apparent contradiction led many to conclude that his remarks were in fact anti-Biblical and not anti-semitic. His "Sermon du rabbin Akib", for example, is a scathing attack on Christian persecution of the Jews, and similar remarks can be found scattered throughout his odd pamphlets and books on religion.
It has been pointed out that thirty of the articles in his Dictionnaire Philosophique described the ancient Jews in consistently negative ways, as barbarous, absurd and deeply superstitious; however, this ignores his qualifiers, in which he points out that "all of antiquity was", as a rule. Peter Gay, the best known contemporary authority on the Enlightenment, wrote that "Voltaire struck at the Jews to strike at Christianity," a view shared by certain leading Jewish Voltairians Voltaire grew exceedingly vocal against the Church during the campaign for tolerance of his later years, openly writing that it had been the "consistently implacable enemy of progress, decency, humanity and rationality" and that it had been the Church's interest to "keep people as ignorant and submissive as children".
Freemasonry Voltaire was initiated into Freemasonry one month before his death.
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Voltaire distrusted democracy, which he saw as propagating the idiocy of the masses. Voltaire long thought only an enlightened monarch could bring about change, given the social structures of the time and the extremely high rates of illiteracy, and that it was in the king's rational interest to improve the education and welfare of his subjects. But his disappointments and disillusions with Frederick the Great changed his philosophy somewhat, and soon gave birth to one of his most enduring works, his novella, Candide, ou l'Optimisme Candide, or Optimism, , which ends with a new conclusion: "It is up to us to cultivate our garden".
His most polemical and ferocious attacks on intolerance and religious persecutions indeed began to appear a few years later. Candide was also subject to censorship and Voltaire jokingly claimed the actual author was a certain "Demad" in a letter, where he reaffirmed the main polemical stances of the text. Voltaire is also known for many memorable aphorisms, such as: " Si Dieu n'existait pas, il faudrait l'inventer " "If God did not exist, it would be necessary to invent him" , contained in a verse epistle from , addressed to the anonymous author of a controversial work, "The Three Impostors.
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Voltaire is remembered and honored in France as a courageous polemicist who indefatigably fought for civil rights Voltaire has had his detractors among his later colleagues. The Scottish Victorian writer Thomas Carlyle argued that, while Voltaire was unsurpassed in literary form, not even the most elaborate of his works were of much value for matter and that he never uttered an original idea of his own. He often used China, Siam and Japan as examples of brilliant non-European civilizations and harshly criticized slavery,.
The town of Ferney, where Voltaire lived out the last 20 years of his life, is now named Ferney-Voltaire in honor of its most famous resident. Voltaire's library is preserved intact in the National Library of Russia at St. Petersburg, Russia. In Zurich , the theater and performance group who would become the early avant-garde movement Dada named their theater The Cabaret Voltaire.
A lateth-century industrial music group then named themselves after the theater. A character based on Voltaire plays an important role in The Age of Unreason , a series of four alternative history novels written by American science fiction and fantasy author Gregory Keyes. Geneva and Toronto, — The Selected Letters of Voltaire. Edited by Richard A. New York, The Works of Voltaire. Translated by William F. Fleming, et al. Pearson, Roger. Oxford, I believe, however, that marriage is some weeks the more ancient. They even partake of divinity, since to preserve and renew is almost as noble as to create.
Voltaire was a prolific writer and produced works in almost every literary form including plays, poetry, novels, essays, historical and scientific works, more than 20, letters and more than 2, books and pamphlets. He was an outspoken supporter of social reform, despite strict censorship laws and harsh penalties for those who broke them. A satirical polemicist, he frequently made use of his works to criticize Catholic Church dogma and the French institutions of his day. Voltaire was one of several Enlightenment figures along with Montesquieu, John Locke, Thomas Hobbes and Jean-Jacques Rousseau whose works and ideas influenced important thinkers of both the American and French Revolutions.
By the time he left college, Voltaire had decided he wanted to be a writer — however, his father wanted him to become a lawyer. Voltaire, pretending to work in Paris as an assistant to a lawyer, spent much of his time writing satirical poetry. When his father found him out, he sent Voltaire to study law, this time in the provinces.
Nevertheless, he continued to write, producing essays and historical studies not always noted for their accuracy, though most were. From early on, Voltaire had trouble with the authorities for his energetic attacks on the government and the Catholic Church. These activities were to result in numerous imprisonments and exiles. Its success established his reputation. Richard Holmes supports this derivation of the name, but adds that a writer such as Voltaire would have intended it to also convey its connotations of speed and daring.
The aptitude for quick, perceptive, cutting, witty and often scathingly critical repartee for which Voltaire is known today made him highly unpopular with many of his contemporaries, including much of the French aristocracy. After Voltaire offended the young French nobleman Chevalier de Rohan in late , the aristocratic Rohan family obtained a royal lettre de cachet, an irrevocable and often arbitrary penal decree signed by the French King Louis XV, in the time of Voltaire that was often bought by members of the wealthy nobility to dispose of undesirables.
They then used this warrant to force Voltaire first into imprisonment in the Bastille and then into exile without holding a trial or giving him an opportunity to defend himself. He was also influenced by several of the neoclassical writers of the age, and developed an interest in earlier English literature, especially the works of Shakespeare, still little known in continental Europe at the time.
Despite pointing out his deviations from neoclassical standards, Voltaire saw Shakespeare as an example French writers might look up to, since drama in France, despite being more polished, lacked on-stage action. After almost three years in exile, Voltaire returned to Paris and published his views on British attitudes towards government, literature and religion in a collection of essays in letter form entitled the Lettres philosophiques sur les Anglais Philosophical Letters on the English.
Because he regarded the British constitutional monarchy as more developed and more respectful of human rights particularly religious tolerance than its French counterpart, these letters met great controversy in France, to the point where copies of the document were burnt and Voltaire was again forced to leave France. The relationship, which lasted for fifteen years, had a significant intellectual element. Voltaire and the Marquise collected over 21, books, an enormous number for the time. Again, a main source of inspiration for Voltaire were the years of his British exile, during which he had been strongly influenced by the works of Sir Isaac Newton.
Voltaire and the Marquise also studied history — particularly the people who had contributed to civilization up to that point. Voltaire and the Marquise also worked with philosophy, particularly with metaphysics, the branch of philosophy dealing with the distant, and what cannot be directly proven: why and what life is, whether or not there is a God, and so on. Voltaire and the Marquise analyzed the Bible, trying to find its validity in their current time. After the death of the Marquise in childbirth in September , Voltaire briefly returned to Paris and in moved to Potsdam to join Frederick the Great, a close friend and admirer of his.
Faced with a lawsuit and an argument with Maupertuis, then president of the Berlin Academy of Science, Voltaire wrote the Diatribe du docteur Akakia Diatribe of Doctor Akakia which satirised Maupertuis. This greatly angered Frederick, who had all copies of the document burned and arrested Voltaire at an inn where he was staying along his journey home. He would stay in Ferney for most of the remaining 20 years of his life, frequently entertaining distinguished guests, like James Boswell, Giacomo Casanova, and Edward Gibbon.
From he began to champion unjustly persecuted people, the case of Jean Calas being the most celebrated. This Huguenot merchant had been tortured to death in , supposedly because he had murdered his son for wanting to convert to catholicism. His possessions were confiscated and his remaining children were taken from his widow and were forced to become members of a monastery.
Voltaire, seeing this as a clear case of religious persecution, managed to overturn the conviction in In February , Voltaire returned for the first time in 20 years to Paris, among other reasons to see the opening of his latest tragedy, Irene. His heart and brain were embalmed separately. This was an instrument that originated in Roman times as the cornu but had been recently revived under a new name. A widely-repeated story that the remains of Voltaire were stolen by religious fanatics in or during the Pantheon restoration and thrown into a garbage heap is false.
Such rumours resulted in the coffin being opened in , which confirmed that his remains were still present. From an early age, Voltaire displayed a talent for writing verse and his first published work was poetry. He wrote two long poems, the Henriade and The Maid of Orleans, besides many other smaller pieces. The Henriade was written in imitation of Virgil, using the Alexandrine couplet reformed and rendered monotonous for dramatic purposes. La Pucelle, on the other hand, is a burlesque work attacking religion and history.
Candide in particular is the best example of his style. Almost all of his more substantive works, whether in verse or prose, are preceded by prefaces of one sort or another, which are models of his caustic yet conversational tone. In a vast variety of nondescript pamphlets and writings, he displays his skills at journalism. The phrase refers to abuses of the people by royalty and the clergy that Voltaire saw around him, and the superstition and intolerance that the clergy bred within the people.
The most oft-cited Voltaire quotation is apocryphal. Tallentyre in her biographical book The Friends of Voltaire. Voltaire also engaged in an enormous amount of private correspondence during his life, totaling over 20, letters. His personality shows through in the letters that he wrote: his energy and versatility, his unhesitating flattery, his ruthless sarcasm, his unscrupulous business faculty, and his resolve to double and twist in any fashion so as to escape his enemies.
Voltaire, though often mistaken for an atheist, did in fact take part in religious activities and even erected a chapel on his estate at Ferney. Like many other key figures during the European Enlightenment, Voltaire considered himself a deist. He did not believe that absolute faith, based upon any particular or singular religious text or tradition of revelation, was needed to believe in God. Is it to believe that which is evident? It is perfectly evident to my mind that there exists a necessary, eternal, supreme, and intelligent being.
This is no matter of faith, but of reason. These beliefs did not hinder his religious practice, however, though it did gain him somewhat of a bad reputation in the Catholic Church. From translated works on Confucianism and Legalism, Voltaire drew on Chinese concepts of politics and philosophy which were based on rational principles , to look critically at European organized religion and hereditary aristocracy.
There is an apocryphal story that his home at Ferney was purchased by the Geneva Bible Society and used for printing Bibles, but this appears to be due to a misunderstanding of the annual report of the American Bible Society. Voltaire was initiated into Freemasonry one month before his death. Voltaire distrusted democracy, which he saw as propagating the idiocy of the masses. Voltaire essentially believed enlightened despotism to be the key to progress and change. Voltaire has had his detractors among his later colleague. The Scottish Victorian writer Thomas Carlyle argued that, while Voltaire was unsurpassed in literary form, not even the most elaborate of his works were of much value for matter and that he never uttered an original idea of his own.
The town of Ferney, where Voltaire lived out the last 20 years of his life, is now named Ferney-Voltaire in honor of its most famous resident.
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Petersburg, Russia. In Zurich , the theater and performance group who would become the early avant-garde movement Dada named their theater The Cabaret Voltaire. A late 20th century music group then named themselves after the theater. A character based on Voltaire plays an important role in The Age of Unreason, a series of four alternate history novels written by American science fiction and fantasy author Gregory Keyes.
Voltaire wrote between fifty and sixty plays, including a few unfinished ones. Among them are these:. I ; Vol. William F. Sidetracks: explorations of a romantic biographer. A History of the Modern World. McGraw-Hill, Inc.. ISBN New York: Oxford University Press. Please accept my apologies for having, quite unintentionally, misled you into thinking I was quoting a sentence used by Voltaire or anyone else but myself.
You left, Sir, des Welches for des Welches. You will find everywhere barbarians obstinate. The number of wise will always be small. It is true…it has increased; but it is nothing in comparison with the stupid ones; and, by misfortune, one says that God is always for the big battalions.
It is necessary that the decent people stick together and stay under cover. There are no means that their small troop could tackle the party of the fanatics in open country. I was very sick, I was near death every winter; this is the reason, Sir, why I have answered you so late.
I am not less touched by it than your memory. Continue to me your friendship; it comforts me my evils and stupidities of the human genre. Receive my assurances, etc. Voltaire, moreover, did not hesitate to wish censure against works he did not like. A whole people, whose bad government authorized such infamous licences, deserved well what it got, to become the slave of the Romans, and today of the Turks.
Dugdale, A Philosophical Dictionary ver 2, , Page sec 1. Accessed 31 October The Cambridge Companion to Mozart. Cambridge University Press. To whom could I with more propriety inscribe a satire on the cruelty and errors of a false prophet, than to the vicar and representative of a God of truth and mercy? Your holiness will therefore give me leave to lay at your feet both the piece and the author of it, and humbly to request your protection of the one, and your benediction upon the other; in hopes of which, with the profoundest reverence, I kiss your sacred feet.