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White fringes fade while black ones turn brighter. Transfer functions do not properly exist for many non-linear systems. For example, they do not exist for relaxation oscillators ; [6] however, describing functions can sometimes be used to approximate such nonlinear time-invariant systems.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article may contain too much repetition or redundant language. Please help improve it by merging similar text or removing repeated statements. December Learn how and when to remove this template message. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Laughton; D. Electrical Engineer's Reference Book 16 ed.

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Self- love refers to characteristic self absorbance. They are grandiose, and fantasize about excessive success in love, beauty, happiness, and influence. However, their self-love is excessively unstable and relies exclusively on praise and admiration of others. When the environment does not respond as expected, or when they perceive an inability to achieve their grandiose aspirations, they come crashing downwards with intense feelings of worthlessness, depression, and extreme anger.

They have a tendency to take advantage of others in order to feel superior. This precludes the ability to form stable and long lasting relationships. According to Kernberg, this pathology develops as a result of early pathological object relations, which result in negative and ambivalent internalized mental images of the self and other.

The defense mechanism characteristic of this state is splitting, a primitive method where the self and others are regarded as either entirely good or entirely bad. Having been let down by early relationships, the narcissist develops a mechanism where he becomes self sufficient by creating a pathological symbiosis between the self, the ideal self, and the ideal object. Meaning, in fantasy, the narcissist unifies the desires he has of himself and other, and therefore does not need others.

However, by taking the ideal self from the superego and unifying it with the self, the superego is weakened and becomes overly strict. Taken together with the fact that the narcissist does not have comforting object relations to fall back onto, failure becomes imminent and debilitating. Recommendations 2. Useful Tools and Resources. Contributors Otto F. Normal adult Narcissism Normal adult narcissism is considered the narcissism characteristic of typically developing individuals.

Normal infantile narcissism As children develop, their objects relations and self concept are not yet fully integrated. It easily leads to deterioration in technical competence Spence et al.

SICK and TWISTED Ian Huntley the Soham Killer">SICK and TWISTED Ian Huntley the Soham Killer

Transference Number Calculations for Sodium Polysulfides

Even so, the second subtask asks this of us. We must prepare to deal with the unregulated or underregulated forces that underlie transference and countertransference love. We must temporarily relinquish the adaptive goals and values inherent in our rational mind Schwaber, The good news is twofold. First, regression can be managed. It is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon that cannot be brought under control.

We can set limits to how long and to what degree we engage in it. We can end it before it impairs our basic ego functions Levin, We can come in and out of it so that we never lose sight of the fact that what clients are transferring to us still belongs to them Deutsch, Furthermore, we can stop ourselves from actually performing the transferential roles we are being assigned or the countertransferential roles we are assigning ourselves.

We can accomplish all of this by skillfully setting limits to regression even as we are experiencing. We can interweave regression with grounding. We can make sure we go back and forth between the then-and-there and the here-and-now. We can make sure we dialogue with ourselves about what is occurring and what needs to be done with it Kernberg, Second, regression gives us insight into what is actually going on in the therapeutic interaction at hand and thus what is very likely to be going on in extra-therapeutic interactions.

As a consequence, it sheds light on the affiliative conflicts a particular client needs to resolve.


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It enables us to zero in on precisely what will ensure a positive therapeutic outcome. Decoding what our clients transfer to us is difficult because we are simultaneously reacting to our own feelings, attitudes, and thoughts. Decoding is even harder with countertransference love. Hence, we must permit the third subtask to be a multi-step process of interweaving intensive cognitive work and meticulous attention to detail with the emotional-sensory-motor experiences we are having. Their expression of affect?

Reported dreams or fantasies? Small movements?

What Is Transference Risk Control Strategy?

Or our own tension? Then we must put to the side the apparent meaning of what we have observed so that we can identify less obvious indications of meaning, such as tone of voice, volume, word emphasis, gestures that match or fail to match content, muscle movement that supports or contradicts speech, and other nonverbal forms of human communication. We must also identify our own spontaneous response to what we are noting: our feelings, sensations, thoughts, movements, and urges to do something.

We must determine whether they contradict or correspond to what our client is overtly communicating. Those which contradict are more likely to be transferential. Those which correspond may or may not be transferential.


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  5. Keep in mind, of course, that we are always contributing something to our client's transferential communication. It is a matter of how much and to what degree. She is intelligent and articulate and seems to want to make progress. Though she does so nonchalantly, she keeps placing her hand on her low-cut blouse. In looking at his own countertransference, however, the therapist recognized that he was also experiencing distress in his abdomen.

    He had to admit that he was frequently looking at where that hand was guiding him. What are some hypotheses? Hypothesizing, the second function of the third subtask, is a matter of determining possible explanations for why the phenomena we have decoded are occurring: the most probable reasons why something that occurred in the past has become part of the present. Ideally, hypotheses are simple statements. The fourth subtask is a matter of verifying the most likely hypothesis or hypotheses that we have formulated. Sometimes we simply do so by ourselves.

    At other times we seek out third parties. At still other times we share the hypotheses with our clients and ask for their feedback. One would presume that the fourth subtask is easier than the previous three, that just as we are eager to confirm our hypotheses, we are also eager to disconfirm them.

    In fact, however, disconfirmation is more difficult for us than confirmation, for formulating hypotheses inaugurates a bias or fondness for what we have conjectured and an unconscious search for supportive evidence. Indeed, most of us do not actually want to re-consider our hypotheses. We just want to accumulate more evidence to prove them — and ourselves — right. Hence, the fourth subtask requires us to impose on ourselves the discipline of being as objective as possible about our hypotheses and about whether we should verify them by ourselves or do so with others.

    When we have more than one most-likely hypothesis, one effective way to start is to pay close attention to our own somatic response to the one that is most emotionally powerful. Being physically energized, for example, usually suggests an accurate hypothesis, while experiencing uneasiness or tension suggests the hypothesis is at least partially inaccurate. Third parties can be invaluable during the verification process. Particularly in cases involving significant countertransference love, we are wise to share our hypotheses with colleagues, supervisors, consultants, or our own therapist.

    We might also share our hypotheses with our clients, sometimes before, sometimes after getting supervision or consultation or meeting with our own therapist. If we share sensitively and tactfully, we can give our clients a wholesome interpersonal experience. They can learn how to clarify their affiliative needs and desires and decide how best to pursue them rather than simply repeating unsuccessful solutions or trying an unpromising new one. However, before considering just how we might share our hypotheses with clients, let us explore a meta-task that must be performed throughout the four subprocesses: monitoring.

    In order to use transference and countertransference love benevolently, we must monitor both ourselves and our clients.

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    We must monitor ourselves in order to evaluate how well we are performing the subtasks and auto-regulating our countertransferential love. Concurrently, we must monitor our clients in order to make sure that they stay within a window of anxiety that permits meaningful, even deep, experiencing of transference but does not overwhelm or retraumatize them.

    As we attend to conscious communication, we must attend to our own and our clients' emotional and physiological functioning in the course of allowing our unconscious minds to penetrate our conscious minds. Self-monitoring begins with noting how well we are observing our own countertransference love, for we must base our outward response to clients no less on how they are doing than on how their displaced material is affecting us.

    Clients may be extremely embarrassed, for example, and therefore unable to hear what we have to say. At the same time, we may have become defensive and desirous of setting limits to our clients' expression of affiliative needs. The question, of course, is always what is best for clients within the limits of our own tolerance. We must continuously self-monitor because transference love and countertransference love can impact the therapeutic relationship at any time.

    We never want to either minimize or maximize them, but neither do we want them to impair our clinical functioning. As we self-monitor, of course, we monitor our clients' tolerance levels. We observe how well they are auto-regulating: balancing thinking with emotions, along with balancing judging, wondering about, observing, and controlling intrapsychic and intrapersonal phenomena. As a consequence of this monitoring, we can create the conditions under which clients can become increasingly aware of what once was — and remains — conflictual, but not repeat past experience.

    Rather than have one more negative affiliative experience, clients should feel safe enough to risk feeling unsafe again in order to work through their affiliative conflicts. If clients assign us the role of a sexually abusive caregiver, for example, we want to experience being such to the degree that we realize what our clients have gone through. Concurrently, we want clients to realize that we know experientially what they have gone through. However, we are not going to go so far as to abuse them, even verbally. Rather, we are going to help them learn how to defend themselves from being victimized in the present, and lower, if not erase, the power victimization memories have over them.

    Similarly, if clients displace positive feelings toward us, such as experiencing us as a nurturing mother figure, we will allow the transference love to continue until basic bonding takes place. But we will not allow clients to become dependent on us for meeting their nurturance needs. We will not console them each time they are disappointed. We will not protect them from feeling abandoned when we take a vacation.

    We will not be the mother figure they are capable of being for themselves. Monitoring is important during the first subtask when we consciously take in transference and countertransference love Hinshelwood, , for we need to decide whether we might perform those roles on a temporary basis as a means of bonding with clients. Those who feel very unlovable, for example, might benefit from time-limited signs of parental acceptance and approval.

    They might not be able to bond with those who do not appear to accept or approve of them. Monitoring during the first subtask also enables us to gauge the extent to which we are unconsciously projecting our own unresolved affiliative conflicts onto or into our clients.

    Without this internal supervision, even experienced therapists are prone to simply re-enact their own and their clients' maladaptive interpersonal experiences in countertransferential behaviors Dreher et al. Monitoring is crucial during the second subtask when we contain transferred material and permit regression. We must stay with clients on a psychobiological level in order to engage in necessary experiential learning.

    Monitoring becomes especially important when we permit conscious regression. We must become vulnerable to the workings of displaced material at a sufficiently — but not dangerously — deep level Winnicott, We must be partially aware of the process we are undergoing in order to discontinue it at any time. Furthermore, only if we monitor our own regression can we be aware of the regression our clients might be undergoing.

    They can benefit only from carefully regulated exposure to the pain that so overwhelmed them in the past that it could not be processed. They cannot benefit if they are retraumatized. Monitoring is necessary during the third subtask when we decode and hypothesize about transference love, for it is operating even as we are deriving meaning from it and determine exactly what is going on. We must stand aside to decode and hypothesize yet remain available to our clients.

    We must not allow the length and intensity of the decoding and hypothesizing processes to decimate interpersonal contact. Clients want to be accepted, listened to intently, and followed closely. On the other hand, we need to self-monitor to see if we are allowing ourselves enough time to decode and hypothesize. Though we may not be certain of what is occurring, we must come up with hypotheses that can be tested. Monitoring is crucial during the fourth subtask when we verify hypotheses, for we need to balance testing hypotheses with keeping an emotional connection with our clients.

    At the same time, we must continue to receive and hold new material that will allow us to revise inaccurate hypotheses. Finally, we must monitor during all four subtasks in order to be able to move quickly and smoothly from one subtask to another. At times, we must decode what we have uncovered in order to know what more we need to discover. Similarly, we may need to experience more in order to verify what we think we understand. At other times, we must gather new information in light of our hypotheses proving inaccurate.

    At still other times, when we suspect inaccuracy, we must stop decoding and test our hypotheses. Put simply, wholesome interpersonal interactions rely heavily on monitoring our decisions related to focusing: what to focus on, whom to focus on, where to focus, and even how to focus Hubble, To summarize, by systematically performing the four subtasks while judiciously monitoring ourselves and our clients, we can know our clients on a deeper, more meaningful level than we could otherwise.

    We can also gain insight into ourselves. Thus we can facilitate a detoxification process whereby clients can finally address their unconscious affiliative conflicts. They can strip transferential material of its dangerous characteristics Grinberg, and use the truths it reveals to finally meet their affiliative needs.

    Therapists who share their hypotheses about transference and countertransference love provide a protective factor for both themselves and their clients by fostering within themselves an attitude of humility and detachment. They thereby reveal that they do not have all the answers. They are simply observing and wondering. To observe and wonder with humility and detachment is not to have an agenda for what clients are to supposed to think or feel. It is not to be ahead of clients in ascertaining personal and interpersonal reality. Indeed, it is to be open to whatever happens when two persons try to understand unfamiliar phenomena.

    We are to simply observe and wonder so that we do not become attached to our interpretations despite our attempts to treat them as hypotheses Cooper, To simply observe and wonder rests on therapists' willingness to describe nonjudgmentally what seems to be transference and countertransference love. In other words, therapists need to be open to rejection or revision no less than acceptance or confirmation of their hypotheses. They need to respect clients' experience of their therapy sessions and their relationship with their therapist.

    At the same time therapists need to bring directness, pertinence, inclusivity, and concreteness to what are fundamentally subjective experiences. They need to await something relatively definitive: truth that requires the active cooperation of clients to develop Bezoari et al. Indeed, both therapists and clients are holders of partial truth that can be known in its fullness only when the parts are shared.

    Indeed, if transference love or countertransference love are occurring during therapy, it will be verified — eventually if not at the moment — in the psyches of both therapist and client. Therapists who wish to collaborate with their clients to verify suspected transference and countertransference love begin the process by using a transference or countertransference interpretation. A transference interpretation TRI is an explicit reference to what a client appears to have displaced from the past, including the very recent past, to the present therapeutic setting.

    A TRI makes unconscious material conscious so that it can be subjected to legitimate evaluation. If it is inaccurate, it can be revised. If it is accurate, it can be used to resolve an intrapsychic affiliative conflict. A TRI reveals how present behavior is a re-enactment of past experience rather than something happening on its own. The use of TRIs is based on a therapeutic premise espoused by clinicians of major theoretical orientations: it is crucial that TRIs be subjected to legitimate conscious evaluation as well as to unconscious attitudes and beliefs to which clients have been holding fast.

    Some of them may be adaptive and thus worth holding. Others, however, may have been adaptive in the past but are detrimental to wholesome relationships in the present. They create unresolved conflict-based anxiety both for the one who holds them and for the one to which they are supposed to apply. That belief — that maternal love can replace paternal love — kept anxiety in check at the time. Thus it became a schema or principle of knowing that the client could unconsciously use in both male and female relationships. As a consequence, a client who holds the schema continues to rely only on maternal love without questioning her belief.

    She not only overvalues it but also requires one maternal figure after another to play a maternal role in her life even though having to mother another adult does not work well for most maternal figures. Even if it did, because the client is no longer a child, it is developmentally inappropriate. In brief, a TRI is intended to help clients acquire new experiences from which more adaptive principles of knowing can be derived and reality-based schema can be created. The TRI above, for example, is intended to help the client question her belief that all maternal figures should be willing to give her extra time and attention because she must rely primarily on maternal love.

    It is intended to help her restructure an old belief and resolve its underlying conflict: being an adult biologically and intellectually but a child emotionally and interpersonally. A TRI is a therapist's means of asking clients to consider how their thoughts and feelings toward their therapist might be coming primarily, though not solely, from past experiences with persons similar to the therapist.

    Carl Gustav Jung - Transference and Archetypes

    Though it may or may not directly mention the client's past, a TRI is intended to address what the client has displaced from the past. Thus a TRI is an invitation for a client and a therapist to consider together various explanations for the dynamics of their sessions, to tease out what is past-based or outside-of-therapy-based and what is actually happening in their sessions. It is an invitation to distinguish between the past and the present, as well as between the in-here and out-there foundations of feelings and thoughts. A TRI is an implicit acknowledgment of the powerful impact that people not actually in the therapy room, and events connected with them can have on what arises in therapy.

    A TRI is also an implicit acknowledgment of the need to make conscious an unconsciously held maladaptive attitude or belief. At the beginning of the session, the therapist remarked that her client had not paid her fee for the third time in a row. Though the client acknowledged this and promised to send a check the following day, she responded curtly to several of her therapist's subsequent compliments on her accomplishments that week. Using this feedback the client admitted that she was angry with her therapist.

    She refused to admit, however, that she was expressing that anger inappropriately. She was then able to slowly own the painful humiliation she still experienced when others found her at fault. Thus TRIs enabled client and therapist to explore previously inaccessible material. A countertransference interpretation CTRI is an explicit reference to the client-therapist relationship as it is being experienced by the therapist. CTRIs are based on therapists' countertransference: what a client has displaced onto or into them or what therapists transfer to a client from their own past.

    Thus CTRIs reflect the fact that countertransference, like transference, is co-created. They are means of sharing what therapists believe a client is unconsciously communicating as he or she is reminded of past events and persons. They are also means of sharing what therapists are bringing from their own past to the therapeutic setting. It might appear as if CTRIs are invitations to explore therapists' conflicts. But that is not the case. Rather, CTRIs are ways into exploring clients' conflicts. How do you feel right now? Consider, for example, this CTRI shared with a client wanting to deal with her habit of obsessing about the mistreatment she has suffered:.

    I feel trapped in an unending hopeless situation. The client elaborated on a pleasure trip he had just made, providing comical anecdotes interspersed with interesting descriptions. Though at first the therapist was intrigued by her client's account, she soon noticed herself becoming morose. The incongruity between his enthusiasm and her negative response was striking.

    The therapist began to recall confronting her client previously about taking numerous trips with his friends in light of his goal being to spend more time with his autistic son. She also believed that she had modeled how to put the child first by rescheduling an appointment so that the client could attend his son's school play. Is it shedding a light on how your son might have felt when you left home without him?

    Thus the therapist suggested what might be at the heart of her client's difficulty in implementing his goal: the deep sadness that impairs his judgment when it comes to choosing himself and his friends over his son. Though it was true that the therapist was also recalling times when her alcoholic father's failure to keep his promise to come to her school events caused her deep emotional pain, she did not refer to it in her CTRI. Rather, she chose to set an appointment with her own therapist.

    In sum, CTRIs are intended to shed light on the heart of the matter, the reason for clients' presenting problems: why they might find it challenging to bond with another, for example, in spite of their good intentions; what they might need to address before they can even address their goals as such; and how they might be contributing to problems they see as being caused solely by others. It enables therapists and clients to collaborate in observing and exploring what they may never have suspected.

    Transference of Traditional Versus Complex Strength and Power Training to Sprint Performance

    The client insisted that his wife, who had recently divorced him, was unjustified in saying that she was doing so because of how angry he was. He was conscious of the opposite: he did not express his anger. He simply accepted her verbal abuse and went on. I do not have to retaliate or even express my own anger toward her. However, gradually his therapist became aware of subtle signs of feeling belittled during sessions. It seemed that he routinely corrected her reflective summaries with low grade impatience and subtle criticism.

    You should be smart enough to remember and get it right! She reminded herself, however, that she saw him at the end of a long day. I am not that perfect recorder of his communications, that infallible computer that encodes every communication given me.

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    Rather than change his appointment time, she chose to stay with the pain of being an unacceptable person. As she purposely regressed in performing the second subtask, the therapist experienced excruciating sadness related to her own past. She also noted subtle signs of distress in her client: his fighting back tears, his furrowed brow, and his hunched shoulders. Was he doing the best he could to prevent her from finding him unacceptable?

    Because her countertransferential reaction allowed her to put her finger on what neither she nor her client had previously suspected, she was able to hypothesize. Could your ex-wife have felt the same way? In the next session, he entertained the thought of how hurt his wife may have felt. In subsequent sessions, he made efforts to stop himself in the course of correcting his therapist.

    He was on his way to addressing what he had contributed to his marriage ending in divorce. Interpreting countertransference is especially valuable, perhaps even essential, when clients have experienced trauma at preverbal stages of development or trauma so severe it could not be put into words.

    Regardless of how many times the therapist returned her client's frantic phone calls — or chose not to in non-emergency situations — he consistently rebuked her for either taking too long or not doing so at all when she sensed she was being manipulated. She found herself feeling resentful. She became increasingly eager to enforce the limits she had set early in their work: no phoning between sessions unless there was a true emergency. She could put the matter on the table without damaging the therapeutic license, she thought.

    So she endeavored once again to help her client see how some of his frequent phone calls were not as necessary as he made them out to be. Nonetheless, each time the client disparaged his therapist's viewpoint and protested that he had to have his phone calls returned. Finally, the therapist decided to share her countertransference. Could we talk about this? During the following week, he called only once. Thus, by using carefully worded CTRIs, the therapist modeled how to be honest as well as how to explore unintended consequences of her client's behavior. She gave him a real-life example of how his behavior was contributing to his unmet affiliative needs.

    Additionally, by interpreting her countertransference, the therapist strengthened the therapeutic alliance. She offered concrete and convincing evidence of her attunement to her client and her willingness to accept and respect him. She gave him a safe place to consider replacing his maladaptive way of meeting his nurturance needs with more adaptive ones. To summarize, transference love-related TRIs and countertransference love-related CTRIs are statements or questions that shed light on client-therapist dynamics in therapy sessions related to affiliative needs.

    They are means of bringing into consciousness unresolved conflicts regarding those needs. They are invitations to identify distortions, misinterpretations, and unfair attributions as a prerequisite for arriving at accurate meaning. They enable clients to work with their therapist to replace old schemas and patterns of relating with other people with new, age-appropriate ones. Thus they give clients an opportunity to finally meet their affiliative needs, perhaps not totally but as satisfactorily as possible. The bad news is that TRIs and CTRIs regarding transference and countertransference love are usually uncomfortable for therapists to voice and clients to hear.

    If they refer to negative phenomena, they can make therapy participants experience embarrassment and shame, if not humiliating rejection. Furthermore, if shared TRIs and CTRIs are verified by clients, they call for the difficult, risk-taking work of replacing familiar old patterns with unfamiliar new ones. Thus therapists tend to shy away from using them. The good news is that if TRIs and CTRIs are worded carefully and shared sensitively, they create a safe environment in which to launch that hard work. The client, a mid-ranking naval officer, kept coming to therapy but made only minimal progress in managing her anxiety in spite of learning and using several new cognitive-behavioral interventions to reduce her anxiety during presentations she made to her superiors.

    Very early in therapy she had revealed her extra-marital affairs to her therapist, but six months later she said that she had not engaged in any inappropriate relationships since beginning therapy. She is clearly an attractive woman, but I greatly enjoy my relationship with my wife.

    Why now? What might I be contributing? Can we talk about what might be going on between us? She opened her mouth slightly but could not speak. After some silence, however, she said that she was seriously considering having an affair with a married colleague. Nothing had happened yet, but she had been struggling for a few weeks. With this disclosure, the therapist was able to help her better understand why she continued to be anxious when meeting with her superiors. The military would never condone what she was thinking of doing. Her entertaining such an affair was an impediment to managing her anxiety.

    She had to make a choice. However clients respond, they will not be criticized. They can deny, confirm, question, revise, or reject the TRI, all with impunity. TRIs calm a client when therapists simply indicate that they have received a communication from their client. This holds even though it might be a criticism Casement, Am I right? TRIs that calm clients make them feel secure. Their therapist can survive the negative thoughts and feelings they have transferred.

    Of course, therapists must convey calm through such prosody as tenor, volume, tone, and pitch. In order to make TRIs calming, therapists might need to take a moment between hearing and speaking: a short pause between what clients say and what they say. During that time they not only become calm themselves but also find gentle wording for potentially disturbing thoughts.

    TRIs must also be emotionally immediate Strachey, They must clearly identify distressful or problematic feelings, however uncomfortable it may be for both client and therapist to hear them.


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    Furthermore, to be most helpful, TRIs should be given as closely as possible to clients' experience of their feelings. At first it seems a contradiction for a TRI to be both calming and emotionally immediate. But these qualities are not actually mutually exclusive because emotions can be expressed in varying shades of intensity. The challenge for therapists is to find that balance between accurate reflection of and containment of the client's feelings. If that is true, can we talk about it?

    Thus it conveys that although hate seems to be the primary feeling of the client toward the therapist, the therapist has not internalized the hate. Moreover, it is not being returned. With certain kinds of material, it is especially important for therapists to make TRIs emotionally immediate. As a consequence, the therapist's activity can become a re-enactment of a past person turning a blind eye to the client's plight Casement, TRIs must be neutral statements, not unquestionable pronouncements or indisputable moral judgments. They must come across as objective observations that expose, clarify, or explicate.

    They simply reflect what the therapist has noticed. They are invitations to do some reality testing in order to acquire insight Casement, Neutral TRIs are devoid of moral judgments. They do not suggest to clients that their therapist finds them guilty of something. Of course, the requirement to keep TRIs neutral requires a tolerant tone, restrained tenor, modulated volume and speed, subdued pitch, and dispassionate inflection, which combine to create mood and interpersonal atmosphere.

    TRIs voiced with neutrality enable clients to conclude that their therapist is simply noticing. Especially when very disturbed and in need of soothing, clients acutely scan interpretations to assess what is happening in their therapist's mind Hinshelwood, Is it retaliation? Is it resentment? Is it forgiveness? An important corollary to making TRIs neutral is that it is helpful for therapists to use what they think they know and to find a way of approaching this through not yet knowing than it is to simply reflect what clients are saying. They convey that the therapist needs the client's collaboration to arrive at the truth of the matter.

    When clients use strong terms in describing themselves or others, formulating neutral TRIs becomes a special challenge. Would you like to say more about that? Am I on target? In phrasing TRIs in these ways therapists play back clients' descriptions as clearly their perception, rather than both theirs and their therapist's. Thus therapists keep a balance between respecting clients' points of view as subjectively valid and questioning their objective validity, that is, their not necessarily being objective facts.

    As a consequence, the therapy room stays a safe and secure, open and receptive space in which to process what is most disturbing to clients. Their therapist has remained neutral but has also noted the forcefulness and immediacy of their feelings. They can safely look at a painful experience that they might or might not be perceiving accurately.

    Neutrality is extremely important when clients give feedback in such a way that therapists feel criticized. They must then find some way of dealing with their clients' experience without reacting with hurt feelings or anger that would dissuade clients from being honest in the future. At times it is best for therapists to simply refrain from even naming their client's or their own feelings.

    Though TRIs are neutral, they must also be precise and clear about the transference love distortions clients seem to be making or about the specific relational actions that are affecting their therapist Kiesler, They are specific: detailed and concrete Strachey, TRIs are not abstractions or vague assertions. They might also have a chance to thwart their therapist's attempts to make unpleasant unconscious material conscious Strachey, If the hypothesis is shared in a clear, concrete, and precise TRI and it is true, the client will resonate with it.

    Intrapsychic boundaries will be permeated Lear, Client and therapist can then collaborate to discover the exact nature of an interpersonal affiliative issue. Effective TRIs are tentative. They are not as much informative as communicative Brodbeck, , not as much certain as probabilistic Schafer, Thus TRIs pave the way for further clarification.

    They allow therapists to watch and listen for evidence of consensual reality or organized experience that supports clients' and their own perceptions or conclusions Schafer, If therapists come across as certain rather than tentative, clients then have to contend with an individual who seems to already know what is going on. They have already decided what the client is contributing — versus what the therapist is contributing — to an interpersonal problem in therapy.

    But the truth is that there are no reliable means of identifying for sure what belongs to whom Field, other than through interactive work: client and therapist testing the validity of the TRI together Bacal, Thus clients benefit from TRIs therapists phrase tentatively.

    Far from being dogmatic and certain, therapists make it clear that they are intending their perceptions to be explored for potentially different meanings Winnicott,