He is talking from year and he is the one who assigns an order to the visual matter of the film. Singaporean multiculturalism and multilingualism, though all the characters speak English undoubtedly represents a dilemma in terms of the notion of national identity in a country with a population formed by Chinese, Indian and Malayan descendants. This is a psychological element Hui focuses on closely, in various different ways.
An educational example of this is seen in the sequence where Hui goes over the history of cinema in Singapore, or when a Sikh sculptor analyzes the structures scattered in an old Chinese cemetery known as Bukit Brown. The register, in general, is related to the poetics of observational documentary cinema.
All public settings and the architectonical development have a textual and historic function. The panoramic shots over the Marina Bay Sands skyscraper and its crazy hanging pool are a symbol of Asian Capitalism, which is directly and indirectly deconstructed in the film through some testimonials identifiable by a face talking to the camera, as is the case of a young historian, a poet, and a former soldier who fought against the Japanese in his previous life and now is a cat.
The general discourse in Snakeskin is articulated through oblique digressions that form a polyphonic rhetoric with a visual counterpart which is just as diverse and complex as what is being said. A remarkable ludic essay, it can be seen as a heterodox documentary or as an observational Sci-Fi film. The oldest brother was in jail at a certain point but the reasons of his incarceration are never stated , the next brother pretends to be an actor, and the youngest of the three, a year-old girl, struggles to live with her epilepsy.
What first seemed as a relief, a place to start over, quickly becomes a small-scale repetition of their urban despair. This will unleash a confrontation beyond any legal parameter which will end up having fatal consequences.
Without failing to point at everything that needs to be said, as any social drama must, Yerzhanov assumes the point of view of the sick girl and, since her perception is distorted, at moments she looks around as if everything was a dream, a delirium, a fantasy. In those moments, Yerzhanov shows small, kinder sequences that offer a counterpoint to other, more sordid ones. The Kafkaesque representation of a governmental office that has something to do with the legal system is remarkable: the face of bureaucracy remains off screen, darkness prevails, and all men seem helpless when facing it.
Also the end of The Owners is remarkable, with a death dance that brings together victims and perpetrators in some sort of involuntary fraternity of underprivileged people. Roger Koza Como hace Yerzhanov: con delicadeza para establecer lazos entre los personajes, delineando un contexto para no deshistorizar los comportamientos y buscando una forma justa para aprehender una experiencia comunitaria. Under some political circumstances social protest must find a camouflage in absurdity and smallness, even in a childish surreal fable, so censorship and repression are kept at bay. Well, you have to do just as Yerzhanov does: carefully establishing links among characters, outlining a context so their behaviors are not unrelated to their historical frame, looking for the right form to grasp the experience of a whole community.
A man and his cows live in some place near the Pacific Ocean, in the State of Oaxaca. Full wide shots at the beginning of the film establish the loneliness of a subject that will remain unnamed throughout the whole tale. This way of presenting the character is not random. We watch him from behind as he carries on with some of his daily chores in a small ranch in a delightful setting. His household is not deprived of the dignity which characterizes well-managed austerity and is not a mismatch for the unspoiled exuberance of its surrounding area.
In a sequence, a group of young surfers walk near by the house, which suggests maybe this land is actually worth a lot of money. A little before that, there is a more precise hint in this regard —a very elegant sequence formed by one slow tracking shot in a Court where we are informed the old man has lived in that house for a long time and he is now fighting for his legal rights over the land.
At the end, there are some surprises related to this issue. However, Los ausentes is not just a silent social-drama flick, it also presents a metaphysical dilemma. At about 30 minutes into the film, a young man will appear in the screen to mysteriously inhabit the house of the old man, doing the same chores as the old man does cooking, tidying up the place, clea ning a weapon. The duplication will remain unexplained, although in the final shot it may be read as a filmic haiku silently expressing something that is implied in its game of multiple mirrors; this is both the chronicle of a lonely man and a philosophical delving into time and the insubstantial nature of the self.
Where Are Their Stories? Here, repetition has to do both with form and concept; the poetics of this film works in terms of repetition and its subject also has to do with repetition applied to the mystery of identity. When a man gets to his old age, is he the same man as when he was young? La forma de presentar al personaje no es antojadiza. Se lo ve de espaldas realizando algunas tareas cotidianas.
This is a story about fragility and love, about the intangibility of emotions and desires. The Dominican landscape is also an elusive protagonist in the tale, especially with the contrast between its luscious vegetation and decrepit streets. This is a film that allows its viewers to feel a deep empathy, to approach it in a delicate and at the same time sensuous way.
This is, without a doubt, a powerful and beautiful feature to be watched on a theater screen, one of the most memorable Mexican films produced last year. By translating those tensions into a feminine dimension, the directors present a new turn: the tale is made richer through different hues which allow to more-fully questioning the complexity of human relationships. Muros is his most recent work. Mexico Sonora , Israel Jerusalem , Morocco Sahara , Ireland Belfast , Germany Berlin are presented on the screen to exhibit territories where walls are part of local history and everyday life.
There are a set of similar circumstances which I was able to record. What we have here is just Rocha and his eyes; his camera moving in tiny jerky movements through these territories. Mariana Linares Cruz. El cine es para algunos un motivo de vida. Le gusta mirar y entender el pasado. For some, cinema offers a reason for living. For Gregorio Rocha, a Mexican filmmaker, films are life itself and the documentary genre is his way of life. He is also a collector of old movies, in formats not longer used but filled with stories that age with time, as well as of old machines that were used in the past for making films.
He likes to observe and understand the past. Descaradamente subjetiva. Los muros de Rocha quedan zumbando en la mente, en el cuerpo. Se insertan en la memoria como una serpiente que se sabe eterna —sin fin y sin muerte—. Out from its total running length of an hour, about 50 minutes are just everyday actions: cleaning up, cooking breakfast, smoking, working, painting and singing. The only companionship the protagonist has in his world is a dog which will lead to an almost-unnoticeable but rather good gag. From then on, the film consciously assumes a stance related to the physical realm as well as to the realm of abstraction and it gets rid of its linear plot.
The forest, the naked protagonist and his ontological transformation, as well as the thunderbolts that shed light on the place are not only unforgettable, but also the moment the director wanted to film above all. What is going on? How did it happen? Fixed shots abound although the occasional camera movements become truly manifest because of their unorthodox nature.
Repetition is another noticeable resource used in the edition and it might be linked to this already-discussed idea of mutation. Also, the sequence of a nap is nothing but beautiful. El devenir del mundo, de una obra de arte, de un hombre y de su cuerpo. A fixed panoramic shot. The visual field is diverse and permanent: buildings, a park, grass, trees, people walking and riding bicycles.
There is nothing remarkable going on except for the juxtaposition of different notions of time: on the one hand, in ten minutes and without the old-fashioned technique of lap dissolves, the landscape changes and, paradoxically, its transformation is both perceptible and imperceptible; on the other hand, the time established at first seems to never stop, if it begins in the morning, or at noon, it will end at night. The transition is almost indiscernible, which is another procedure for speeding-up time without affecting the movement of people walking or riding their bikes, or the branches of trees moving under the wind, or the leaves falling from trees, or the snow that will eventually fall.
That is actually his third time-related experiment: the movements of men and women are autonomous in relation to both the changing stations and the different lightings which signal the passing hours during a day. This is a new experiment related to images as movement and images as time. Inspired by a simple application for a cell-phone camera, Meyer returns to the experimental streak we saw before in his film Wadley, when the director tried to grasp the altered state of consciousness produced by a psychotropic substance. Some may say this is merely an exercise; but even if it were, it would also be a rather relevant and fascinating one.
This is 21st-Century cinema; or, to say it with a more precise technical term, this is post-photographic cinema. In the era of photographic cinema a film like Le Champ. Time, Space, and La Estancia. Director Carlos Armella began doing this film as a documentary; he found his location in the State of Guanajauto and after meeting his protagonists he began portraying their story. He worked four years on it using a script but also improvisation and a constant adaptation to external and personal circumstances.
Then, he found actors to mix the static reality of the town with fiction and En La Estancia was the result of it. No tags are needed to define the genre of a film that has a documentary-like approach but also uses the tools of fiction; defining its genre is very little, or not at all, important. What does matter is the presence of a filmic concept that moves and provokes emotions, an involving and basic narrative that wins over the viewer.
These are sounds that fight against abandonment. Armella makes films to experiment and challenge himself, to erase borders and limits. And just as in his former works, in En La Estancia the personal moment lived by the director is relevant in terms of how his filmic language is established. There are clear autobiographic references but that is of no ultimate significance. At the end of the day, it is the viewer the one who defines his or her own references and personal experimentations when watching the film.
La Estancia es un pueblo. La Estancia, entonces, deja de ser un lugar para transformarse en el momento de un proceso, en el de un trayecto creativo y existencial. Espacio, Tiempo y La Estancia. La Estancia, then, stops being a place and becomes a moment within his creative and existential process.
En La Estancia es el resultado. Acordes que envuelven los paisajes, las emociones contenidas de los protagonistas, y las reflexiones del espectador. Sonidos contra el abandono. Al final el espectador construye su propia referencia y experimento personal. Originally, Herida sin cuerpo was a written essay where Dirdamal exposed the doubts and conflicts that arose in him after becoming a parent.
Images of abandoned building sites, men clinging to the landscape, waters inhabited by boats, weeds growing wild, unique rocks that overcome any conceivable idea or project, this is a documentary essay that nestles in our memory until finding the right moment to fly away under the form of a new possibility. Esta es una llamada de auxilio. This is a call for help. This is also a movie, a seven-minute film featuring survivors, aban-donment, emptiness and the intuition of a broken potentiality.
Ensayo documental que se anida en la memoria hasta encontrar el momento oportuno de volar como nueva posibilidad. Mariana Linares Cruz It is shocking because nothing is said, nothing is shown and the viewer is left to imagine and give some structure to his or her conclusions using only the set of actions offered by the director. This striking difference is shocking too. The setting is also shocking; it could be anywhere in the world, at any moment. Uribe works with non-professional actors and this is evident in the way they interact with the camera, in their intentions, in their language.
That is shocking too. And it is so because the limits between fiction and reality fade and the viewer sees the moving images in complete absorption. De hombres y bestias is a filmic work in which a contemplative style turns into tension, angst, and even rejection. De hombres: el secreto.
Argentine people of Syrian descent
De bestias: la sobrevivencia. Un joven que vive y trabaja en un rastro de cerdos. Las bestias son con quien elige estar. Of men: the secret. Of beasts: survival. He feeds the beasts who also keep him company as he tries to solve the secret that lies on his bed and lives behind his eyes. Beasts are whom he has decided to be with. La propuesta de Uribe perturba. Uribe trabaja con actores no profesionales. Es evidente. It cannot be manufactured; it has to be a mental product made with words.
This is a film about words, about their poetic and political use. Amorales manages to make a filmic piece that also stands on the performance and animation arenas. Words become gestures, momentum, surreal and allegorical images registered by a wisely choreographed camera. From then on, the script is built using avant-garde poems of those days as well as interviews with the protagonists of the movement and some news clips. At the beginning there is a truthful illustration of the propagation of evil. The long fixed panoramic shot showing a burning crop field just before dawn is superb.
The fire evokes an archaic figure of evil while ashes spread all over the visual scope. Evilness travels in little bits. The main character here is a very old peasant who dreams of making a movie including twelve musical themes about a tragic love story. Chatting with friends, he says his woman left to Honolulu with another man. Also, he confesses he tried to kill her and it is later conveyed now he is dying.
At a certain point, he travels to Mexico City to ask the Mexican Film Institute for funding for his movie. Meanwhile, one of his closest friends is trying to put everything in order so he can leave this world in peace the shot-countershot scene in which he asks for the price of coffins is brilliant. The climax of the movie happens in a political demonstration. People are outraged and the old man is exhausted. In 74 minutes, Gil circles infamy and from time to time there are glimpses of beauty: a forking green road, the fog in the afternoon, and the lightning bolts at night.
O tal vez no. Here, evilness is physical, emotional, and political; bodies grow old and sense death, sometimes because of sheer exhaustion or due to cellular malfunctions. An aspect of evilness: the fact living matter decays. Evilness is also manifest in loving matters: the pain felt when someone loves without being loved back. We are before a multi-faceted vision of evilness; though everything shown here might be nothing but an allegory.
Or maybe not. El extenso plano general fijo sobre la quema de un cultivo, un poco antes del amanecer, es soberbio. El fuego invoca a una vieja figura arcaica del mal mientras las cenizas se esparcen por todo el campo visual. El mal viaja en fragmentos. En una charla de amigos cuenta que su mujer se fue a Honolulu con otro.
The movie shows a lonely boy who lives by the seaside in an abandoned house near a tourist area. With contemplative and powerful images, as well as a smooth sound design, the protagonist is followed in his everyday life as he fishes, ferociously hunts a seabird filmed in an impressive sequence-shot mixing fiction and documentary , harvests coconuts with a man, and roams around an abandoned hotel.
One day, the boy steals a fish toy from a family of tourists at the beach. The boy never utters a single word, except for the song he hums with murder-related lyrics. And there are no dialogues at all.
The film itself conveys a metaphysical dimension right since its first images of sea and land, which bring us back to the origin of times. Another day the boy watches a beautiful tourist as she swims naked magnificent images of an ethereal body against the turquoise light of the sea. The woman becomes, in something that might be a dream, a ghostly image the boy chases without ever getting to reach.
After that vision, the duality of the character is revealed: the woman seems to represent an absent motherly figure and sexual desire, but also socioeconomic envy, resentment. And the death drive overcomes, as we see through the use of a pertinent cinematographic resource —the transition between a harpoon being fired and some breaking waves.
Free, but doomed to fatality, the boy departs into the infinite darkness, into the unknown. Libre pero condenado a su fatalidad, el muchacho se adentra en la oscuridad, en la inmensidad, hacia lo desconocido. Almost all the first half of the film is set in a party that lasts until the early morning; then, the following day, the characters carry on, with even greater intensity, in a mansion outside Mexico City. All their acts and words —flawlessly realistic— seem both senseless and revealing of the malaise they feel in their lives and their complete disconnection from everything surrounding them: when they find some corpses inside a car, their only reaction is to hide behind the camera as they take a picture and flee.
Throughout the film we see scattered fragments of an excruciating social reality thieves, a taxi driver, a car stealer, a picket, etc. In Los muertos, director Santiago Mohar takes many risks and uses interesting filmic resources, such as a sequence repeated from a different point of view that provokes a loop-like effect, conveying a similar confusion to the one the characters feel.
Mexican cinema has not often portrayed in such an honest and disturbing way the youths of its higher classes, the politic and economic future of the country, both physically and emotionally locked away from their environment: the clash between a violent Mexico and an empty one. A meticulous portrait of wellto-do youngsters whose everyday life is reduced to partying, boozing, having sex, taking drugs, and having all kinds of perverted fun.
Above all, Los muertos is a pertinent glance on Mexican society where two apparently opposed realities coexist in a same space: an elitist and decadent youth surrounded by a brutal and violent social condition. In terms of the narration, Artemio builds a film of symbolic reversion and blatant cruelty in which it is impossible to empathize with the characters, as it is impossible for them to empathize among themselves; even in the case of the girl who, as a European, would seem a candidate to be the most sensitive soul in all that mishap.
But here there is mercy for none, not even for Mexico, a country where violence permeates all elements and individuals who reside there. Artemio offers a portrait of decadence entrenched in the banality of individual whims, a portrait of that something which dominates a fierce feminine world which usually would play the victim role for brutality. This is a parable about the violence suffered in Mexico; but it is turned upside down in order to dig into the bottom of human greed.
Finally, this is cinema for all. Bien, de eso se trata. Many will feel upset about a film that might be offensive for some sensitivities and moralities; not to mention some will even find it offensive in relation to their aesthetic conceptions. Me quedo contigo is the first feature by Mexican artist Artemio, and it is also a conscious provocation, a gesture, a political expression. Although this is a contemplative work without dialogues or music, Los silencios manages to say a lot right from the first shot when the photograph of a face on a wall with a black ribbon is shown.
Thus, the mourning theme will be present throughout a film with a delicate and paused rhythm, comparable to a suffering march. The next shots of an old man and a boy are filmed as closely as possible to their bodies feet, back of the head, backs, faces, hands ; these are sensory, almost organic images that announce the aesthetics of the film. The framings, sometimes asymmetrically beautiful, sublimate the gaze a naked foot cleaning up the mud from a shovel; feet with sneakers full of ants.
The ordering of the images is expressed in such a way the viewer has to put the film together, reciprocally completing the shots. These are contemplative images that, instead of judging, observe certain realities. This is a film that needs to be decoded at all times, even when we are watching the protagonists eat. In a luxurious and powerful act of looking, Andrade incites the spectator to re encounter the visual and symbolic power of a shot, and he also articulates a subtle insight into the subject of death in Mexico. These men speak different languages and their ages are different too.
They know nothing about the deceased. Their connection with him, therefore, is not of a familiar order, but rather an existential and philosophical one. The man who passed away summons the living to think about their own lives through the immanence of his objects that still retain —somehow— the aura of their former owner. Books, little decoration pieces, a couch, a photo album, they tell a story an also question these amateur "archeologists" who try to read the past using the signs left by the man.
It could be said the constellation of objects constitutes here a secret story and functions as brilliant stars that have already died but still say something of their place in their owner's life. There will also be affective, humorous and vocational revelations, and a last minute ghostly twist that will reorganize entirely all that has been seen and said at the moment in which the loudly omnipresent windup clock stops being heard.
A brief universal meditation on self and time. This man is all men.
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Alguien ha muerto. Un hombre mayor. Somebody has died, an elderly man. There is nothing extraordinary about his death, and not a single witness to tell something about his life or to claim his objects and the home where they are at. His little apartment becomes then an intimate museum in which belongings manage to say something about someone whose existential status is now revoked. Before the bluntness of his absence becomes absolute oblivion, a group of men visit the space this man once inhabited to understand who the person who lived there for a long time was.
Aparentemente, estos hombres que hablan en distintos idiomas y que no tienen ni siquiera la misma edad entre ellos, nada saben del difunto. Ese hombre es todos los hombres. However, this documentary is not just a story of regrets and redemption; Gamou also depicts for us the elements that surround not only this story but also many other stories of abandonment in Mexico. The director shows a country horrified by violence and its aftermath, which is sometimes rendered invisible or hidden out of the way. The edition manages to convey the dreamlike dimension in which characters live their own downfall.
By the way, the edition was one of the biggest challenges, and one of the greatest achievements, for a film that was shot throughout a four-year period El regreso del muerto never succumbs to the temptation of telling it all; on the opposite, it manages to offer a coherent filmic universe without repeating a leitmotif, which is a characteristic trait of consistent documentaries. Para escaparse del crimen organizado al que dedicaba sus actividades, es decir, para sobrevivir, Don Resendo decide cancelar su vida al representar su muerte frente a todos sus familiares y conocidos.
Tijuana is a city on the border between Mexico and the USA. It is a place where many different hopes meet and also a town transformed into a space of eternal forgetfulness and wait. The protagonist of this third documentary film by Gustavo Gamou represents an allegory for vanishing time and memories. In order to escape from organized crime, which he used to work for, in order to survive, Don Resendo takes the decision of checking out from his own life by staging his death in front of family and friends and then living an anonymous existence without a past, without a history.
Gamou met this man in a temporary shelter and made him the main character in his documentary just at the time when the man, feeling old, wanted to go back to his former existence and see his family again. This spatial dislocation will go hand in hand with another, and mysterious, time discontinuity; at some moments Ventura thinks he is in , while at others he recognizes he lives in current times. The only clear thing is Revolution and History happened not only in a bygone era; rather, they still have an effect in the bodies of their subjects.
There remains much more to be seen; this movie is not only inexhaustible, it is one of the few films that establish a powerful and cinephile link between 20th-century analogical films and 21st-century digital cinema. We move from this fixed shot on the painting little by little, through a movement of the camera which then follows a man from behind as he walks at a slow pace. Those who already know him will know this man is Ventura; but, where is he? Usually, paintings are shown in museums or displayed as decoration in public spaces or home interiors.
Although Ventura looks as if he were taking a walk through some catacombs, soon it will become clear he is in some sort of institution, with guards and bars. Is it a prison, a hospital, or a limbo made of numerous Kafkaesque halls? En ciertos momentos, Ventura cree estar en ; en otras escenas, reconoce vivir en nuestro tiempo. Las manos de Ventura tiemblan y las cicatrices de viejas luchas persisten frente al envejecimiento. Estas coordenadas espacio-temporales delimitan la forma del relato. Uno de ellos es Vitalina Varela, una mujer hermosa que llega tarde al funeral de su esposo.
Here, the film is made of fixed shots with a great sense of framing and detail. The narrative structure is complex, a mosaic mixing the present and memories magnificently transcribed by an edition of chirurgical precision and an unusually fast and sharp rhythm. The square format is chosen to isolate and imprison the characters, and the images remind us of still-life paintings in which sensuality is displaced by reminiscence. At the end of the day, the central idea of this film is something that cannot be named: the mystery of the attraction between two people.
An enigma of a film, it forces the audience to decode each shot. La Chambre bleue goes well beyond solving who killed whom and it brings the viewer right into the skin and the sensations felt by these lovers. Festival Internacional de Cine de Viena, Largometrajes. With 10 short films and 6 features, Amalric has proved he truly is a film director and can prove it with a body of work. From then on, scenes of the results of this natural disaster will mix with shots of various situations in which children are playing in improvised street swimming pools, dividing garbage as it is being dragged by the current or unclogging sewers.
However, this is no impediment to feel the state of almost-cosmic orphanage in which the survivors, especially the children, live. The semantic counterpoint for these sequences is when we see a year-old boy carrying drinking water from a street faucet to his home. The presence of the State is never seen on screen, maybe to underscore its incompetence. However, the articulating point of view for the film is existential rather than political, closer to Life and Nothing More Although the title would appear to announce a police film, it will soon be clear this not the case.
This is also not a psychological flick about teenage angst. A week after the shots, Mariano will return to the family house, with his mother. However, this is just a detail and the tale soon focuses on the lives of Ezequiel and his mother. With this description, Dos disparos could be taken for an independent comedy in the tradition of the novel of manners. However, that is not the case; this is a comedy in the tradition of behaviorism that gives shape to a way of being in this world encompassing a wide generational spectrum —specifically within a particular social class— and centered around transience and an emotional state similar to serenity, which might be as well an involuntary virtue of the characters.
The film ends with a shot in which we see a poster of the film Gravity. El resto son casi imperceptibles. Is it possible to begin a comedy film with a failed suicide attempt? Yes, it is; especially since this particular suicide attempt was not caused by an existential angst capable of making seem not breathing a plausible way to stop suffering.
The only issue here is hot weather, unbearably hot weather. They may, in the words of Virginia Woolf, think "back through" their mothers but they also unavoidably think back through their fathers as well Showalter The presence of myth in "The Gorgon Child" and "Ode to Suburbia" can be read as attesting to the dominance of the latter. However, this is not to say that Boland is 9 promoting a patriarchal order any more than belief in the myths contained in these poems.
Thus in "The Gorgon Child," Medusa is presented as a powerful but not destructive figure and, in "Ode to Suburbia," Cinderella's sister is ugly but not subjected to ridicule. In both poems, Boland directs us to look upon female images which we have been told to turn away from traditionally because they are said to be either evil or unworthy. Central to the construct of both texts is a repossession of myths in order to poetically reconstruct a female view of the world.
In an essay entitled "Imagining Ireland," Boland speaks of the special difficulties for herself as a woman writer. The problem with the present is that it does not fit anything in the past or what Boland says she "had come to think of as a national literature and a national identity," although her life as a young mother in Ireland's new subur- bia "would have been recognizable to any woman" Boland 21, In "The Gorgon Child" and "Ode to Suburbia" she treats subjects which are conventionally regarded as especially recognizable to women: childbirth, motherhood, and domesticity.
Through Boland's revision of myths, however, a breaking with conventions is implied from the start in the particular form these treatments take. Feeling an increased dissatisfaction with "conventional interpre- tations" and a lack of connection between her personal experience particularly of motherhood and its depiction in poetry led Boland to conclude that "being a woman, I had entered into a life for which poetry has no name" Boland Similarly, Boland sees the contin- ued rural mythmaking of Ireland as being out of touch with the emer- gence of suburbia whose exclusion on any literary map "must call the very act of cartography into question" Boland As if to re- dress these imbalances, female experience and urban living are the subjects of "The Gorgon Child" and "Ode to Suburbia.
In "Ode to Suburbia," Boland personifies suburbia as Cinderella's "ugly sister" to give this uncharted place both a literary and literal form. Motherhood In "The Gorgon Child," female identity is presented as some- thing to be understood through physical experience, the act of giv- ing birth being directly equated with the birth of new consciousness for the mother.
Boland depicts this mental journeying through im- ages of physical separation from the child. In contrast to many de- pictions of the woman as motherland for example in Seamus Heaney's "Act of Union" a woman during childbirth is envisaged by the male speaker as taking on the very shape of Ireland's land- scape , there is no such elevation of the mother figure in this poem. While images of transformation make up an integral part of the poem, the power associated with the child differs from that of the traditionally destruc- tive Medusa who turns men to stone. Boland revises the myth of Medusa in two principal ways.
A woman, not a man, is looking at it. The act of doing so is constructive rather than destructive because knowledge is gained rather than life lost. In this poem, there is also a break with the tradition in which the women featured in the work of male Irish writers had, according to Boland, been "passive, decorative, and raised to an emblematic status" Kibert First, the mother figure is not silent but the speaker in the poem.
Second, she is depicted as active during the birth. The presence of the active voice throughout the poem never allows us to think that this woman is a passive figure. The pattern is set for the poem's seventeen stanzas in these initial lines: I wove under the lights my lace of sweat. Lifted, I looked down at the snaky wet my legs beheaded, the slick, forked tongues of your head and for a glance I petrified with the season. The second part of the poem concerns the early days of mother- hood once the speaker and child have gone home from the hospital.
A night feeding is the subject of these stanzas in which the focus moves from separation in part one to return. A refusal to employ domestic imagery for national ends is in keeping with Boland's handling of nature images in the opening stanza where she writes: It was the dark month when ice delivers from the earth crocus by quick crocus snow's afterbirth. Nature here is not nationally metaphorical, as it might be in a poem of national rebirth, but rather physiologically so.
It points to the indi- vidual woman's body, not the body politic. The words "delivers" and "afterbirth" serve to introduce the birth scene which follows. Additionally, nature is shown to govern our sense of time. According to what grows i. This formulation foreshadows how what grows in a woman's body alters her vision of the world thereby governing her sense of herself in relation to it. With motherhood, the woman becomes a producer literally of life and an intimate of life's order.
Not only is she presented as physically active but also mentally engaged in under- standing the meaning of the event. What motherhood reveals to the speaker is that a woman is not merely a vessel to carry and be emptied of life. She has the capacity for creating new bonds as well through nurturing.
Although she is a part of the nursery world of "bears and rag dolls," the speaker sees herself as distinct from simply 12 decorative things. It is important to note that the repeated use of "we" by Boland's speaker in the second part of the poem expresses not only the bond between mother and child but also between two women. For the title "The Gorgon Child" suggests from the start that a daughter is born and is the "you" being addressed throughout the poem.
The specific gender of the child is significant on two counts. First, the mother's lack of passivity is matched by the powerful image of the newborn daughter emerging from the womb like a mythological being with the power to turn onlookers to stone. Women are thus presented as being naturally strong, leaving open to question traditional concep- tions of women's innate passivity and feebleness and directly con- trasting late nineteenth-century nationalist representations of Ireland as a woman in bondage. Second, since the speaker imparts her knowledge of specifically female experience to another female, Boland can be said to be reworking the gorgon myth as a piece of women's oral history.
If revision is understood as rewriting, then Boland's empowering of her female figures suggests a rewriting of history both personal and national in which the image of Ireland as a helpless woman is called into question. The predominantly female setting of the poem has important implications as well. In contrast to a male figure "delivering" the woman of a child, the only attendants at the birth are nuns. The inclusiveness of this intimately female world is hardly disturbed by the milkman who remains literally an outsider, permitted to venture only as far the doorstep of the speaker's home.
Unlike the nuns who are regarded by the speaker as "knowing" what she would also learn from giving birth, the milkman is characterized by his empty bottles. The latter suggest a lack or absence i. The milkman's humming suggests word- less songs or tunes.
In contrast to the speaker whose sole purpose is to convey a message of significance, the milkman's sounds are es- sentially devoid of meaning. These juxtapositions and the dominance of female figures in the text amount to a reversal of the peripherizing of women or their subjugation as objects of idealization. In "The Gorgon Child," we find perhaps the two most recurrent features in women's writing which treats the subject of gender differ- ence. In her essay 13 "On Female Identity and Writing by Women," Judith Kegan Gardiner observes that such texts "inevitably return to the special nature of the mother-daughter bond" and that the "current proliferating literature about motherhood stresses that the daughter's identification with and separation from the mother is crucial to the daughter's mature female identity" Gardiner Where "The Gorgon Child" diverges from the rest is the way in which Boland has the daughter give knowledge to the mother, another reversal in addition to her rework- ing of the gorgon myth from a destructive to a constructive force.
Boland's choice of title additionally directs us to think in terms of the origin of identities. Although the figure of the Medusa is com- monly reduced to the snake headed image which Perseus beheads and is fixed to Athene's shield, the word "child" reminds us that this gorgon was not born monstrous but made so. As the only mortal born to Phorcys and Cato, she was beautiful and loved by Poseidon. But this incurred Athene's wrath, which resulted in Medusa's being transformed into the shape more often associated with her name.
Thus the title alone alludes to the concept that identities are born and made. A child is made but so is the mother remade in the process. Similarly, a nation is made and remade through history and myth making. The vision of the world as a series of metaphorical departures and returns is rendered through images of its physical occurrence during childbirth. Allusions to Medusa's snake-like head make for an unflinchingly vivid picture of a new born infant "slick" with blood and embryonic fluid. The sheer violence of delivery is conveyed by the paralleling of the mother with Perseus and the pushing of the child in the world and a beheading.
Instead of sentimentality, a strength and matter of fact tone resounds particu- larly in this first section which declares that knowledge is power. This is yet another example of revising male notions in that it tellingly inverts the Foucaultian message that "power and knowledge directly imply one another" and that power produces truth Foucault , To conclude that "The Gorgon Child" is a piece of feminist writing on the principle that "describing experience typical of women is a feminist act" is too much grounded in s' notions of 14 consciousness-raising to satisfy many feminist critics today Moi To quote one: To believe that common female experience in itself gives rise to a feminist analysis of women's situation, is to be at once politically naive and theoretically unaware.
The fact of having the same experi- ence as somebody else in no way guarantees a common political front The millions of soldiers who suffered in the trenches during the First World War did not all turn pacifist—or socialist or militarist— afterwards. Moi Even the entry on Boland in a popularizing volume like the Pocket History of Irish Literature distinguishes between feminine sub- ject matter and feminist treatment in her poetry: The poems of Eavan Boland b are written from a self- consciously feminine, often deliberately feminist point of view. They explore the possibility of creating a new woman's pastoral; she thinks that women are deprived without their own cultural rituals, that there is an alienation from cultural roots in modern Irish urban society.
Jeffares Emphasis on the physiological is regarded by this male critic as "feminine" and he goes on to cite Boland's use of "previously taboo- in-print-outside-women's-journals words such as masturbation and menstruation" Jeffares A resentfulness toward men as evinced in the poem "Mastectomy" combined with its physiological subject matter is given as an example of her "feminism" Jeffares Such differentiating between the "feminine" and the "feminist" as the difference between subject matter and its treatment is integral to an understanding of the function of revisionist mythmaking in Boland's poetry.
As "The Gorgon Child" illustrates, old myths can be used to convey new messages. They are not the exclusive domain of male writers, nor do women writers have to employ them according to their example. As we observe in "The Gorgon Child," hard realities are very much "the stuff" of her writing. Here as in other revisions such as "The Women Turns Her- self into a Fish," a reworking of Yeat's "The Song of Wandering Aengus" Boland would seem to be redressing what Declan Kiberd calls "the fusion of the feminine and the national in previous Irish poetry which seemed to simplify both in ways that were unaccept- able" to her Kiberd Boland is certainly not alone in her efforts to reconstruct both a 15 female and a national identity Belfast-born Medbh McGuckian and the Irish language poet Nuala Ni Dhomhnaill are equally notable in this regard.
Neither is this the mission solely of contemporary Irish woman writers. In American literature, for example, a deliberate con- frontation of the selflessness of the "mammy," which had epitomized womanhood and African American identity for so long, has given rise to a proliferation of new constructions by African American women writers Davies But what Boland has in common with writers who question or seek to redefine images of women in literary texts is a necessary plurality directly presenting women's experiences and simultaneously borrowing from male myths to do so because there is no exclusively feminist or female space from which she can speak Moi The revision of myth in "The Gorgon Child" is a perfect example of the reappropriation of male "space" for female ends.
Suburbia The first intimation that "Ode to Suburbia" is a piece of feminist revisionist mythmaking comes in the opening stanza where Boland writes: Six o'clock: the kitchen bulbs which blister Your dark, your housewives starting to nose Out each other's day, the claustrophobia Of your back gardens varicose With shrubs make an ugly sister Of you suburbia. Comparable to the opening of "The Gorgon Child," Boland immedi- ately overturns commonly accepted assumptions that ugliness is to be equated with evil or, at the least, that a woman who is ugly is undeserving of attention. What is made apparent from the title and opening lines of the poem, is that suburbia is the focus of attention although there is no doubting that she is not beautiful.
By describing the back gardens as "varicose" with shrubbery, Boland evokes an image of the backs of women's legs which are marred by varicose veins. In the third stanza, this image is further extended to the whole of the woman's body You swelled so that when you tried The silver slipper on your foot It pinched your instep and the common Hurt which touched you made You human. The expansion of the suburbs is thus equated with pathological 16 growth such as the abnormal dilation of veins or the effects of oedema which is a common complication of pregnancy.
While neither exclu- sively effects women, both are generally associated with female age- ing or pregnancy and detract from conventional ideals of beauty such as faultless skin and slenderness. In spite of these features, Boland does not ask us to conclude that her subject is abhorrent because it is not outwardly attractive.
On the contrary, imperfections make this subject more human than its unnamed opposite, Cinderella. By inference, Cinderella with whom we are conventionally meant to identify is less human, more removed from reality, than her ugly sister. One reason for this is the impossibility that Cinderella's beauty would be so undiminished and bear no marks in spite of her hardships. The other concerns her fantastic rescue. Boland's picture of suburbia is thus presented from the start as being one which we can trust to be true.
Warts and all, it will be a true portrait. Even the regularity of each six line stanza seems to reinforce a sense of solidity as opposed to fantasy. This is further supported by the recurring juxtaposition of the ugly sister with Cinderella in order to give meaning to the former in lines such as these: No creatures of your streets will feel the touch Of a wand turning the wet sinews Of fruit suddenly to a coach, While this rat without leather reins Or a whip or britches continues Sliming your drains.
No magic here. As in "The Gorgon Child," the implication is that women's lives can- not be told through images which are any more purely female than the language of their making. Like Caliban, the feminist writer finds her power in turning the master's language back upon itself. The fairy tale of Cinderella is employed as a text to contrast with and give substance to a reality which otherwise could not be communicated.
On the basis of what it is not, suburbia takes its shape. From the first three stanzas, we learn that suburbia is not beautiful. From the fourth and fifth stanzas, we are led to understand that this is not a place from the realms of fantasy. Yet in a change from the listing of detail in earlier stanzas, the image of a housecat is more fully developed and takes up two stanzas.
This change coincides with an almost camera- like spanning first of exteriors "back gardens," "windows," "streets" , then interiors "in every house," "beside the coals". Along this route, we are told of suburbia's "mystery" and "powers," which small de- tails "defined. Appreciate the cat's existence, Boland suggests, and we can comprehend all that suburbia is. By implication, Boland implies that suburbia is overlooked and wrongly underestimated.
This comes from the correlation of the cat's existence with a suburban reality. Both appear to be harmless if not powerless, decorative, and on the peripheries of the centers of power. Yet the effect of the final image of the cat catching a mouse is to challenge these suppositions. This is no mere decorative pet but a beast with the power and will to crush the life from another. This image is in keeping with the picture of suburbia encroaching on "The shy countryside" which is "fooled" by its "plainness.
The inference is that cities and country- side may have traditionally drawn the most attention, but that suburbia is just as deserving although the criteria for evaluating it may be different. It may be lacking in beauty or history, but it is rich for being the space in which so many people live their lives.
Boland's depiction of suburbia leads us to revise conventional assumptions about space much as many feminist critics have asked us to read women's texts differently from those written by men. Ireland's new suburbs may not have the historical significance of the General Post Office in Dublin, scene of the Easter Rising, or even those landscapes in Connemara still barren it would seem as an eternal reminder of the Great Famine.
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Yet by making suburbia the subject of this poem and others, Boland is challenging the exclusion of "ordinary" over "extraordinary" subject matter as worth writing about or indeed reading. Concurrently, Boland is challenging the dominance of symbolically female experience as it is presented in Heaney's "Act of Union" for example over authentically female ex- perience in much Irish literature. In conclusion, the very existence of "The Gorgon Child" and 18 "Ode to Suburbia" should make us revaluate common assumptions about the connection between subject matter and the literary worth of a text.
The fact is that a conflict between what may be perceived as male and female values did not cease when Virginia Woolf first pointed out its bearing on literary valuations. Summing up the way differing male life values become literary values, Woolf writes: This is an important book, the critic assumes, because it deals with war.
This is an insignificant book because it deals with the feelings of women in a drawing-room. A scene in a battlefield is more important than a scene in a shop—everywhere and much more subtly the differ- ence of value persists. Woolf 80 If, as many feminists argue, "the automatic devaluation of women's experience and consequent attitudes, values, and judgements springs from an automatic devaluation of women per se," these revi- sions of the gorgon myth and "Cinderella" can also be read as revi- sions of a world order Russ Whether or not we choose to accept the view presented in these poems, their revaluation of "female" subject matter through the revision of myth reminds us that percep- tions of women outside literature still influence what is written, how it is written, and how we read.
Works Cited Boland, Eavan. Paul Brennan and Catherine de Saint Phalle. Dublin: New Island Books, Davies, Carole Boyce. London and New York: Routledge, Foucault, Michel. Paul Rabinow. Harmondsworth: Penguin, Gardiner, Judith Kegan. Elizabeth Abel. Chicago: U of Chicago P, Jeffares, A. A Pocket History of Irish Literature.
Dublin: O'Brien Press, Kiberd, Declan. London: Vintage, Moi, Toril. Ann Jefferson and David Robey. Ostriker, Alice. Elaine Showalter. New York: Pantheon- -Random House, Russ, Joanna. How to Suppress Women's Writing. London: The Women's Press, Showalter, Elaine. Woolf, Virginia.
A Room of One's Own. Cambridge: Press Syndi- cate of U of Cambridge, Cheryl Alexander Malcolm University of Gdansk Poland 20 the alien insider Saikat Majumdar In the "Lordship and Bondage" section of The Phenomenology of Mind, Hegel writes: "Self-consciousness is primarily simple exist- ence for self, self-identity by exclusion of every other from itself. It takes its essential nature and absolute object to be Ego; and in this immediacy, in this bare fact of its self-existence, it is individual. That which for it is other stands as unessential object, as object with the impress and character of negation" Hegel A little later, he classifies this duality of the subject and the other in the celebrated model of the master-slave—"The one is independent, and its essen- tial nature is to be for itself; the other is dependent, and its essence is life or existence for another.
The former is the Master, or Lord, the latter the Bondsman" Like many other strands of the project of Enlightenment Reason, the construction of the Subject in terms of its dialectic with the other has been fundamental to the complicity of discourse and power, the detection of which has been central to much twentieth century liter- ary and cultural theory. This discussion has been widely prevalent in existentialist philosophy, as in Being and Nothingness by Sartre, where the terms are used to define the process of identity-formation.
More significant to the application of theories of subject formation to the detection of the workings of discourse and power in postcolonial literatures are Freudian and post Freudian analyses of the formation of subjectivity, predominantly in the work of Jacques Lacan. Espe- cially significant are the parallels between Lacan's "other' and its efforts to construct its identity through the mirror stage with the colo- nized "other," the process of whose identity formation is contingent on the gaze of the imperial "Other" or the subjective centre of the Empire which in turn corresponds to Lacan's "grand-autre".
As has been often observed by many of its commentators, 21 J. Coetzee's fiction tempts the reader to read endless variations of this subject-other dialectic in it. Coetzee's location with respect to the established canons of Western literature, of course, may be the genesis of such readings as for instance discussed by Derek Attridge in "Oppressive Silence" , but what excites their further possibilities is the clear play of the motifs of power and subjectivity and subse- quently of ethics, in the mutual relationships and obligations of such conflicting subjectivities in almost all of his novels.
However, all this has been much dis- cussed. The result of such problematizing of the subject-other dialectic is the creation of the kind of character I like to call the 'alien insider,' those who exist, sometimes, on the periphery of the colonizing subject position even though there is no doubt about their existence within the matrix of such positions , and on other occasions, when they move more towards the centre, have their own subjectivity violently ridden with disintegrating forces.
There are several other variations of this problematizing process, some of which are discussed below. Either way, the expected 'Other' in such locations, seems ill-equipped to play the role of the Lacanian 'grand-autre,' whether or not the texts ascribe the role to figures more suitable to such positions. These alien insiders seem to cause Coetzee's fiction to move farther from the Hegelian dialectic of the master-slave which is not to say there aren't instances of the Hegelian process of subject-construction in Coetzee's fiction; there are—but they are not of interest to me here , and in a troubled way, align itself to the more democratic phenom- enology of Alexandre Kojeve: "It is only by being 'recognized' by another, by many others, or—in the extreme—by all others, that a human being is really human, for himself as well for others" Kojeve 9.
The tortured, often self-deconstructing subjectivity of the alien insider in Coetzee's fiction makes contingent the formation of differ- 22 ential centres of subjectivity in an irregular hierarchy of power, ren- dering the absolute position of the imperial centre almost irrelevant or ineffectual, at least so within the paradigm of such fictions. The classic case of the novelistic centrality of the alien insider, to my mind, is Waiting for the Barbarians. Postcolonial theorists have often singled out this novel as an instance of 'othering,' or to use a more recent term brought into currency by Spivak, the 'imperial soul- making,' mainly focusing on the decisive actions of Colonel Joll.
It is said that Joll's entire project concerning the 'barbarians,' absurd in practical terms, as there is really no border trouble before the arrival of the 'Third Bureau,' "is in the business of creating the enemy, of delineating the opposition that must exist, in order that the empire might define itself by its geographical and racial others" Ashcroft ef al. Such active process of 'othering' clearly establishes the classical Subject-other duality, placing a figure like Joll at the impe- rial centre of the power structure.
However, of higher significance in the novel and greater relevance to this paper is the figure of the magistrate, who is aptly described as being 'situated at the edge of the 'empire' Ashcroft ef al. He is, to my mind, the classic Coetzee protagonist, given supreme importance in terms of the nar- rative constituted as the novelistic 'subject,' one may say , but clearly positioned on the margins of the matrix of decisive, operational power that moulds the circumstances, in this instance, the Empire.
Though undoubtedly in a superior power position with respect to such colonized 'others,' their interaction with the alien insiders seems to be a process of a construction of mutual subjectivity, rather than that of the subjectivity of the 'other' in the gaze of the imperial 'grand-autre'—and this is a process which nec- essarily lacks the conventional hierarchy of power embedded in the Lacanian process. The washing of the 'barbarian' girl's feet by the magistrate seems to me such a Kojevesque moment of mutual con- struction of subjectivity where in fact the magistrate seems to have more at stake than the girl.
There is no doubt, of course, about the magistrate's position in the matrix of functional power of the sys- tem—it is even institutionalized. He is the magistrate, though clearly the provinciality of his jurisdiction and its distance from the central- 23 ized high-command places it literally on the margins of Empire.
But more interesting is the way his imperial subjectivity, or whatever fragmentary, peripheral agency of such subjectivity he is vested with, is conjoined with his centralized subject-position in the novel as its protagonist, a recurring process in several of Coetzee's novels.
Even as there is no way of denying Joll's superior or more effective impe- rial agency, the foregrounding of the troubled and marginalized sub- jectivity of the magistrate and our close narrative distance to him, to recount Wayne Booth's term is almost Coetzee's way of drawing attention to the alien insider who problematizes the very subject- other dialectic through the unique fictional privilege ascribed to him.
Menan Du Plessis, while concurring that Colonel Joll is engaged in the futile process of 'creating' the enemy futile because the barbar- ians refuse to enter this combat, remaining elusive and invisible so as to delineate the contours of the Empire through the consequent dialectic, feels that the magistrate, "as the citizen of one of Empire's outposts," might be "one of Hegel's pseudo-masters—a slave with- out a master, a master without a slave" Kossew This is per- haps another way of stating the reality of the figure whom I call the 'alien insider,' and I would eventually agree with Du Plessis that "if Coetzee is working through these forms of the Hegelian dialectic, it is always as part of a project that is directed towards a repudiation of the Right-Wing Hegel.
But even then, it is clear that his interaction with the girl is something other than the exercise of the power relation that exists between them, and more significant to this argument, divergent from the pro- cess of demarcating her as the clear 'other' so as to expedite the strengthening of one's own Subject position, as might be expected from the impression of his still relatively unimpaired alliance to the Empire. Rather during the epiphanic process of washing the girl's feet, there seems to be a dissolution of all subjectivities: I lose myself in the rhythm of what I'm doing.
I lose awareness of 24 the girl herself. There is a space of time which is blank to me: perhaps I am not even present. When I come to, my fingers have slackened, the foot rests in the basin, my head droops. Coetzee, Barbarians 28 As the novel moves on the illusion of the magistrate's real alli- ance to the Empire is progressively shattered. A representative move- ment is the expedition to the land of the barbarians which he leads, one that contrasts itself starkly with Joll's project in that it is not directed towards seeking out the barbarians in an effort to 'create' them, but an effort to return the girl to her people whose existence he is already assured of.
It is an action which pushes him farther out on the margins of the empire but never quite out there with the barbar- ians , as it earns the disapproval of those in power, thus revealing with greater directness and clarity, his position as the alien insider. And by the end of the novel he can clearly enunciate this decons- truction of subject-other position that the empire plays out, or more importantly, his desire for it: I wanted to live outside history. I wanted to live outside the history that Empire imposes on its subjects, even its lost subjects. I never wished it for the barbarians that they should have the history of Em- pire laid upon them.
How can I believe that this is cause for shame? Coetzee, Barbarians The unforgettable Eugene Dawn of The Vietnam Project in Coetzee's very first book is just as clearly situated within the matrix of imperial agency. He is working on the project of carrying out a suc- cessful psychological warfare directed towards the Vietnamese against the backdrop of the US-Vietnam war Coetzee's interest in different historical variations of imperialism may be an indication of his interest in the idea of imperialism in an almost abstracted form, less so than in specific historical incarnations, even though South Africa presents a peculiarly detailed and complicated situation in his fiction.
It is instructive to remember his complaint that perhaps it is "that vast and wholly ideological superstructure constituted by pub- lishing, reviewing and criticism that is forcing on me the fate of being a 'South African novelist. The actual preoccupation with motifs of subjectivity and a rather Lacanian idea of a forbidding father figure for the Vietnamese in Eugene Dawn's contribution to the "New Life for Vietnam" is indeed striking.
Dawn's work, as such, is rather so- phisticated—not the typical imperialist's roughshod ride over the identity-construction of the colonized or sought to be colonized and the thoughtless imposition of western models of subjectivity, widely divergent from the indigenous paradigms, on them. In a strik- ing gesture of relevance to the anti-foundational critique of the Enlightenment carried out by post-structuralist philosophy, Eugene 25 Dawn acknowledges the ineffectually of the voice of the Western subject in the role of the propagandist as that he describes in the following words: "It is the voice of the doubting self, the voice of Rene Descartes driving his wedge between the self in the world and the self who contemplates the self" Coetzee, Dusklands Aware of the discrepancies in western and Vietnamese para- digms of subjectivity, Eugene Dawn is busy in devising better ways of intensifying the effectiveness of the father figure which will eventu- ally subjugate the disobedient subjectivities of the colonized as they emerge, as it were, from the imaginary to the symbolic order, in a venerating submission to the phallic Law of the Father: The father cannot be a benign father until his sons have knelt before his wand.
The plotting of the sons against the father must cease. They must kneel with hearts bathed in obedience. When the sons know obedience they will be able to sleep. Dusklands 28 The official location of Dawn within the matrix of imperialist agency is matched with his privileged narratorial position within the novella.
The Vietnam Project is his story, first and foremost. He is the first person narrator, and as such the only character into whose mind we are allowed a direct glimpse. The problems we encounter in the novella are all his problems, even though we are aware that there are other pressing issues at hand, including his wife Marilyn's discon- tent, his son Martin's unhappiness, not to speak of the whole troubled history of the US-Vietnam war.
But they are clearly relegated as secondary by the narratorial privilege of Eugene Dawn, and inducted into this fictional universe, we are willing to buy this primacy of his issues. Dawn's 'alienness' within his status as an 'insider,' in the matrix of imperialist power, however, is a little different from that of the magistrate. Coetzee's intense preoccupation with the internal and the psychological in his earlier fiction In the Heart of the Country being the other notable instance of this preoccupation leads Dawn's destabilization in his position to being more overtly a matter of the inner construction of subjectivity and the consequent power relation- ships that come into existence than a working of the concrete forces of administrative and political power as in between the Magistrate and Joll.
Created by OddThemes. My Redeemer lives - Nicole C. Mullen Publicado por Angelo abril 19, 1 Comentario. El tema de hoy se titula " My Redeemer lives " Mi Redentor vive. Emma 19 de abril de , No pienses, pues, que, por parecer tener alguna buena cualidad, todo el mal que hay en ti pueda ser excusado u olvidado por eso solo. En las Redes. Recibe los post en tu correo.