Their construction, like their interpretation, is altoThis gether free; hence they are best suited to solo rather than to group rendition. The melodies move within a limited ambitus,, often repeat one degree of the scale, and usually are highly decorated. Syllables which are not a part of the text are frequently added either at the beginning or at the end of the musical phrase or within the period. The folk tune in example 59 belongs to a large group of harvest songs sung in Shaitanova, Vanka Popova, Example Harvest song.
Rich ornamentation is characteristic of such work songs. Not all melodies of Bulgarian folk songs are short. Meter 48 but many melodies , this point. The hero song In example 60 Illustrates lunak song. Su-bra-li Hei! There was a meeting Of all seventy iunaksy All seventy-seven. Dakoi was their leader. As in example 60, so In example 61, the song is introduced by a melodic fragment which does not belong to the melody itself.
The length and character of such exclamatory passages vary with the individual performer and are seldom standard even with the same singer. Frequently, as in example 61, the introductory fragment is closely related to the melody. See also examples 62, 69, 73, 89, Meter Example Song 49 dinner table. The Lord himself worked against odds, Worked against odds and erected sam Gospot, zapravil Three churches, three monasteries. He did not build them on earth, Nor did he build them in heavenHe built them between two blue clouds.
Tri tziirkvi, tri monastira. Nito na zemia zapravil, Nito na nebo zaprdvil MeMu dva sini 6blaka. The melodies in either asymmetric or regular meters which include unmeasured phrases are numerous. Most of the unmeasured phrases result from exclamations such as i, o f ay, hey, which are not part of the text and which may dwell on one degree of the scale or spread over a melismatic passage embracing many notes.
More interesting are the folk songs which set an actual poetic text, but, musically, include unmeasured sections within a melody which otherwise follows a definite metric scheme, asymmetric or regular. Such unmeasured fragments may appear at the beginning or at the end of the musical sentence; they may occur one or more example 62 the unmeasured section occurs twice. Mdmi Stoidnu dumashe Mother Told Stoian. Sung by Petko Tzenov, times. In Razgrad-Mahala, Lorn, December, Their position in the song often seems to be improvised and their duration, especially if on a vowel, is rather free.
Of the measured folk songs examined, 34 per cent are in asymmetric meters, 19 per cent in regular meters see p. The remaining It is thus a synthesis of the varied emotions which have gone into the saga of a people. There are undertones of melancholy even in the most lilting of songs, and one always finds the mystic qualities which are typical of the devout peasant. Like the music of ancient nations, like Gregorian chant, and like all true folk songs, the folk songs of Bulgaria are unisonal.
Such monodic music is perfectly self-sufficient and is without harmonic implications. It achieves its artistic aims of tension and climax through intervallic, rhythmic, and formal means. It might, therefore, often be considered to be on a more advanced level artistically than the melodic fragments of the Occident, where the pure line must be aided by harmonic colors, frequently of the most complex nature, in order to transmit an idea.
In the simplicity of external architecture, in the frequent use of free rhythms folk songs are no different from the folk tunes of many other lands. The details of tonal and metric structure, however, are and the limited ambitus, Bulgarian unique. Just as the notated song is only an approximation of the sung version from the point of view of meter, so does the written melody differ in pitch from the actual notes of the folk singer.
Therefore, any study made on the basis of published collections alone must of necessity make allowance for the accuracy of transcription as well as of notation. My own experience has included recording on disk and tape from peasant singers and instrumentalists. Even that from being foolproof, although it has seemed to me a reliable method on which to base conclusions. The difficulties which I have encountered arise mainly from three sources: Bulgarian folk musicians do not use the tempered scale; the instruments which they use are not constructed to give accurate intervallic relationship; and, since the folk singer is somewhat nervous and excited as well as notating folk tunes procedure is far when performing Whether for a collector, his voice frequently loses its exactness.
In Bulgarian music, as in other music termed exotic, the complexity is especially apparent, since discussion of musical thinking divergent from our own must be presented in an exoteric all in familiar terms. Together with meter and rhythm, scales represent one of the important factors that must be carefully considered if the picture of manner and Bulgarian tonal art is to be complete.
Thus the three main sources Bulgaria's scales are from which Bulgarian music has drawn are, first, Oriental scales; second, church modes: the osmogldsie eight-mode singing of Eastern Orthodoxy, and the medieval modes; third, the conventional scales of western Europe only toward the end of the nineteenth century. It is of course not always possible to trace a given folk song directly to one of these three sources, since more than one influence may be present. There are many scales which do not fall into any of the three groups.
Since the five-toned scale is typical of the music of many primitive peoples, local it phenomenon, might easily entirely free be that the pentatonic scales in Bulgaria are a from Asiatic influence. The term posedly is "pentatonic" as applied here does not refer to the scale which supwidely employed in Scotch music and can be played on the five black is rather implied to mean any scale which is limited to five with no predetermined internal relationships.
Example 63 gives several such keys of the piano. It tones, types found in Bulgarian folk songs. Some make use of the others contain intervals smaller than a half tone. The folk hears such small intervals in everyday life and imitates them: the steam escaping from a simmering kettle and the whistling sounds of the dying embers of green wood, which buselik, the half -flatted in of the sebaa, frequently have definite melodic contours very similar to the drawn-out, sad melodies of the gdida. Christov, Technicheskia stroez Sofia, , pp. XIV Nicolas Slonimsky gives forty4 that by no means exhausts the possibilities.
In his System of Musical Composition Joseph Schillinger suggests methods for obtaining an almost unlimited number of pitch scales. Some theorists believe that all pentatonic scales are incomplete forms of seventone scales scales, with and have less called them "gapped" or than seven notes is "transilient. I believe that in countries such as musical theory, scales limited Bulgaria, before the establishment of any standard existed six tones and to three, four, five, independently and that there are no gaps in such scales, as the notes necessary to complete the octave were never there.
Helmholtz, Sensations of Tone London, , pp. Melody 54 Example Most of the songs, supernatural, songs of ornamented. It also occurs in mi to express sorrow, Ru mlat - ian. The lyrics of the song, of which of young Ruian. After death of the in detail tell are there tragic forty-six strophes, is near, he professes sacred love for his family end as the of months agony, long and longing for the forest and friends.
He begs his mother to assist him in donning his best attire, then , '. She brought his best clothes. Best clothes. The spirit came back. Then it left. It left. The spirit left Ruian. Of the pentatonic scales in which quarter tones are found, only the ones that use the half flat exist in complete form. Songs using scales in example 63 o, p, q, and r are conspicuous. In Libe Dobrinke example 66 , which employs the lasthalf flat is an intermediate sound between A and A flat.
Libe Dobrinke Sweetheart Dobrinka. Vasil Stoin, , p. Hereafter cited as Hereafter cited as Ot Timok Melody 55 In Bulgarian folk music are found Arabic Magamat scales and modes which correspond to Persian and Turkish scales hidschas, hidjaskiar, huseni, uschak, suuzinak, and others. Such scales are uncommon, however. Glasove II and VI of the Eastern Orthodox chant have characteristics similar to the scales mentioned and have been confused with them by some collectors. Example 67 gives Arab and 8 Persian scales as listed by Dobri Christov. They differ from those given by Ellis, 10 Farmer, and Helmholtz.
Example A Helmholtz, op. In all probability the sound of that note is somewhere between B and B flat; if so, Example the scale would read as in example The melody and only once does it go below the final. Bolen Doichin Sick Doichin. Notated by K. Zagorov, len tuk-mo le-zi bo -len tuk-mo le-zi tre che che gle go iu - tish-la - da na - va - vet de -vet po - - go - go di-ni, di - ni, nik - Pe ses-tra bis de Doi-chin, - na iu - bos Kla tar - - ni-tza, de-iietz.
Sick Doichin grew even sicker. Stoin, etc. Melody 57 Ere Tudore. Song for swinging. The designated by and seventh degrees of the scale are emphasized in example The predominating motion is descending. The raised third step invariably proceeds down to stress the interval of the augmented second. Sung 13 by Slavka lordanova, of Pudra, Vratza, May, Example 72 shows such a succession of notes, apparently a mixture of several scales. This melody is one of the very few to use both chromatic alterations of the same note. Scientific research into the history of Russian church music and the church music of the Balkan Slavs is by no means complete.
For the present, at least, it may be safe to assume that musicologists who believe that the eight-mode singing is of Slav origin are correct. It would not be at all surprising to discover that this method of liturgical singing had its beginnings in Bulgaria, whence it was transplanted to Russia. See discussion on pp. The first liturgical music used in the Russian services was notated in what was known as znamenny notation, also referred to as slaviano-bulgarski signs.
The names of many of them are still preserved in manuscripts. Many of the composi- gldsie of the Russian tions themselves are called bolgarski rospev; that Bulgaria played a much more hence there is good reason to believe important role in the spread of Christianity throughout Russia than is usually supposed. Macedonian-born Anastas Nikolov , one of the few specialists in the old Bulgarian chant, spent twenty years in Russia studying and transcribing bolgarski rospev which he found in Russian manuscripts of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
In close collaboration with Vasilii Smolensky himself an authority on the subject and P. Lavrov, Anastas Nikolov made a thorough study of the famous Titov collection, kept at that time in the St. Petersburg Public Library. Wellesz, ''Eastern mentary Volume, New his study complete. Melody 59 Nikolov writes in the introduction to his Staro-Bulgarsko Tzurkovno penie, "Now, there exists for me no doubt that the liturgical chant notated in Russian manuscripts under the name 'bolgarski rospev' in an epoch when not only distant nations, but even our own had forgotten to identify itself with its own name, was a creation of our [Bulgarian] forefathers.
Bulgarian authorities are inclined to believe that the there seems to be osmogldsie originated there. The osmogldsie is not a scale or a mode; it is rather a manner of grouping notes into typical melodic contours which differ with each glds. Each of these gldsove further distinguished by its individual beginning as well as by an extended cadence. These characteristics apply more strictly to the gldsove of the liturgy; illustrations from folk songs are naturally somewhat altered, as will be obvious from the accompanying illustrations.
Only tunes of unusual tonal and structural nature are given.
The complete form of the glds. Glds I moves within the pentachord dominant. The complete form Example In Bulgarian liturgy Glds I is usually transposed down a fourth. Poiskdla Rddka Radka's Desire. Radka has decided to get married, shirt nor has she stockings, But she has no But she has no shirt nor has she According to Dobri Christov, the second degree of cit. To give presents to her husband's parents, To her husband's parents and his sister. F and B, with D dominant and as G sometimes B as examples Typical cadence of Glds II.
Sldveiche pee The Song of the Nightingale. A the several varieties of Glds IV, the type illustrated in as example 82 uses E as final. The fifth degree may be either B flat or B natural in ascending dominant, or in descending form. Example G or A and the final D. J J In all J, J J J VI example 86 the lower tetrachords make use of the difference lies in the upper tetrachords, where each of the three forms of Glds augmented second.
The three displays a different arrangement. Example Forms of Glds VI. A quite infrequent ; B more frequent ; C as frequent as B. B A s The structure of the first glds, example 86, A, is identical with the raga Bhairava found in Hindu music. The dominant may be either B or A, and the final, E.
Konia f konia, rdnen konia Beautiful Horse. It is primarily a love song, but customary type headings it with many other delightful songs which are sung at dinner. The usage places This song, like homely and simple; yet had been conceived by a finished artist. The first made my bed with fresh linen, The second tucked me in, but the third o. Are you thirsty? Is your master engaged? Is he married? If not, he should marry me. Sadila momd Maiden Planted Onions. Sung by Efimia Tzvetkova, Kamburov. Notated by Ivan M. To the young lad said the maiden, "Since I love you, come again, come again.
Notice the descending melodic motion in Pozgodil mi sa mldd Georgi example The third type of Glds 89, Example Example 19 - ir Ot Timok do Vita, p. Ot Sredna Severna Bulgaria, p. Typical cadence of Glds VII. C is Example A large number of unusual scales which are firmly established in the various parts of the country fall into no particular classification. An explanation may be that they are combinations of various gldsove and Oriental scales.
From the extensive group of folk songs built on such examples scales, three examples have been chosen 95, 97, Sung by Raika Petkova, a 50; Pena Hr. Lazarova, 45; and Nanka V. Seikova; of Gloiene, Teteven, March, Dali gurmi? Is It Thundering? Da da 1 a Stoin, - li - li f gut- mi, gur - mi Ot Timok do Vita, p.
The phrases are rather short and loosely constructed, and follow no specific pattern. The melody has a limited range, moving by conjunct motion chiefly, the descending motion being predominant. The songs are richly decorated and vocal interpolations are frequent. The melody is either unmeasured or it uses additive meters; if the latter, the various units within the measure are treated rather freely.
The subject matter, in the majority, is unusual, dealing with talking birds, faith in the curative powers of herbs, the life hereafter, and so on. The presentation of gldsove and other unusual scales in modern notation is at best only a rough approximation of the actual sounds. Since the tempered scale is not used in Bulgaria, all indicated half-flatted and half-sharped notes are by no means in quarter-tone relationships to the two notes between which they appear. For instance, B half sharp in buselik example 67 is closer to B than it is to C; B half flat in huseni example 69 is closer to B than it is to B flat; E in Glds III and B in uschak are somewhat flat in comparison with the same notes in the tempered scale; E flat in Glds VI is a little higher, and so on.
Examples in the Dorian, Phrygian, Lydian, mixolydian, and Aeolian modes are quoted. Dorian mode. In example the opening on the seventh degree of the mode is unique, also the repetition of the first two measures and then of the first four measures. The syncopation in measure thirteen is equally rare. Idi, mdmo, u Donkini Call on Donka, Mother. Sung by Kina laneva, of 84 August, 19 II. Pusni mi, Notated by Dobri Christov. Moderate Pus - ni le - mi, lio ma - ri, To - dor ka, II Dva - ma na 16 - ze, le - lio, da dem, i 2 dem.
Auntie, Indian and hypolydian modes. These are extremely rare, so much so, in fact, that I have been unable to locate examples of them in complete form. There are some songs, however, which- are built on one of the tetrachords of these modes example Example fi Eld sa viva. Moma - va, mo- o - ma sasro-da pro-shta-va. The willow bends its branches, While the maiden bids her family farewell. This wedding song, according to Angel Bukoreshtliev, who has made an extensive which are among a study of the central Rhodope district, belongs to group of songs in the that He believes the oldest in that sector.
Lydian mode, which is one songs 24 Col. XXXIX , p. Angel Bukoreshtliev, "Sredno-Rodopski pesni," Sbornik. He also states 87 especially in Macedonia ex- Notated by Dobri Christov. The Aeolian mode is well represented in Bulgarian peasant music. In most of the songs, however, the octave above the final is not included; instead, the melody extends a second or even a third below the final. Example is quite unusual. Nor was any direct result of the earliest West immediately noticeable. Just as the Byzantine clergy Middle Ages failed in their desperate efforts to convert the Bulgarians, so cultural overtures on the part of western Europe had no discernible effect.
In both instances, attempts to proselytize were doomed, since they affected only the population in the bigger cities. Four-fifths of the nation's population remained in the villages, almost unschooled and completely nonindustrialized. There, isolated and self-contained, with its rituals and customs, traditions and folklore, the Bulgarian peasantry has managed to preserve its identity for some twelve centuries. The nation's leading theaters and symphony In the orchestras gave performances in rural sections; schools were opened throughout the country.
An impressive number of students sought education in the famous universities of continental Europe, England, return they brought with 27 The Pomaks them are Bulgarians who and the United States, and upon their the patterns of a different culture. They inhabit the regions from Chepino to the Rhodope Mountains. Although the Pomaks have accepted Mohammedanism, their speech and song are in the pure Bulgarian language. The influence which the singing of the hodjas has exercised on the Pomaks seems to be negligible, as has been that of the professional Turkish musicians.
Thus the conflict between the applied music is folk song which has remained applied to both folk poetry and dance and the theoretical music of the academies; the monophonic music of the folk singer and the highly colored, harmonic settings of art music; the gldsove and the that concept of the major-minor tonality. In recent years many melodies which from indications postdate the meeting all and West have been included in published collections of Bulgarian folk songs. There can be little doubt that they stem directly from the influence of an alien art music and do not properly belong in the folk-song category.
More often than not they display a regular metric signature, consist of regular phrase and period divisions of four, eight, or sixteen measures, exhibit an unusually wide compass, and follow definitely harmonic outlines. See example 4. Melodic fragof East ments example are indeed very unusual in Bulgarian them use devices atypical to Bulgarian folk music, such as modulation, chromaticism, excessive syncopation, and sequences. Another Western influence on Bulgarian folk music that is more widespread like measures 7 to 11 in folk music.
Many of than the addition to standard collections of unauthenticated, perhaps artificial is the inaccurate notation of actual folk songs by Bulgarian musicians who have been trained in foreign countries, and who find it difficult to record what they hear exactly, without editing it to conform to Western theory. For nearly a folk songs half century a bitter struggle has raged in the Bulgarian press in regard to the notation of Bulgarian folk songs in a manner that portrays their genuine sound and structure.
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Paradoxically enough, both points of view in the argument sound logical as far as they go. It seems to me, however, that the major premise of the Bulgarian scholars of music who have been trained in Europe is false; they have the order and theory confused. Nearly all the music Western known to intervals appear both in ascending and descending form.
In the music of the Rhodope district, however, the octave appears frequently at the beginning of the period, ascending example In rare instances, the leap of an octave appears within the phrase, in descending motion example Example is also unusual because of the leap of a seventh, followed by the leap of an octave in the opposite direction.
Ostdna kozd idlova The Barren Goat. The minor seventh, on the contrary, is very com- especially at the beginning of the musical sentence example ChMam sa mdicho I Wonder, Mother. Stoin, 4. Bukoreshdiev, op. If I gives further instances of cit. Melody Example The use of the minor seventh at the beginning of the phrase, as in examples is typical of the music of the Pomaks. In the music of other parts of the country the minor seventh may occur within the phrase example , or it may and , appear as a nonverbal interpolation at the semicadence, or at either end of the phrase example ; see also examples Example 7, 73, , Examples of the major sixth are rarely found in genuine folk songs.
But the minor sixth is frequently present in actual folk is melodies, especially in those from Macedonia. The perfect fourth and fifth may be called the most characteristic intervals in the construction of Bulgarian folk melodies. They may appear in melodic form at the beginning or within the phrase, and often as part of the cadence.
The perfect fourth is an important structural interval. Two or more successive fourths are rather typical. See examples 7, 28, , , , The melody either turns back, scalewise, after the second leap example , may return to the point of origin and leap to another fourth in the opposite direction examples , , or may be connected by a step with the second leap example ; see also example Example 11 2.
In rare examples the fifth may be followed by a fourth, and vice versa example See example 8, p. It is not unusual to find folk songs consisting almost entirely of perfect fourths and fifths example That the natural intervals of the fifth as well as the Example Ptistite r Pus-ti Of the ir - te augmented r mu ir - mi, Ibid. Diminished intervals, as in example 99, are Ot Timok do Vita, No. Stoin, to com- i mo rare. Melody No- tated by P. Ai da ta vo-da data ai-de du-de, de, du-de, na-she vo - se lo. The major and minor third occur almost as frequently as the second.
Often they appear in succession to form major and minor triads examples 34, 64, 89, , ; note also measures 7, 8, 9, and 10 in example The augmented second has been conspicuous throughout the musical illustrations and needs no further comment. See examples 20, 23, 43, 53, 60, 61, 65, 71, 73, 79, 88, 89, 90, 95, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , The unusual by the various scales employing intervals smaller than a minor intervals created second are many; they belong in an entirely separate classification and therefore are not discussed in detail here. However, see examples 66, 69, 70, 73, 99, The half flat appears more frequently than the half sharp, and resolves downward.
The half sharp does not necessarily resolve scalewise. The two never in the same appear melody, although there are instances where a half sharp and a flat are used, as in example In a few instances, two half sharps are used in the same song, as in example Examples further illustrate the use of the half flat and the half sharp. Bulgarian folk music uses the untempered scale, and the intervals resulting from the half sharps and flats are not quarter tones. In example the final exhibits an interesting relationship to the rest of the melody.
Note the interval B to D half flat. Christmas Carol. G half sharp to B flat in the second measure of example Rdvna zeldna mordva The Level Green Meadow. Sung by Ivanka N. Vasileva, 42; of Golem-Izvor, Teteven, March, Of Sredna Severna Bulgaria, p. The gory conclusion of the brothers' rivalry varies widely; in the fatal battle over Vangelina, rivers of blood sufficient to start the mill wheels turning, or torrents of blood to water dry plains may flow.
In one version, Dimo has five sons in the toils of Vangelina, who are advised to visit her on succeeding days. It is significant that the tragic material of brothers killing each other over a woman has, in this folk-tale song, always been treated in a burlesque manner. When a half-flatted note concludes a melody, this note is usually higher than the But a note half-sharped note which completes a phrase is example Melody Not 73 infrequently, melodies begin with the tone below the final example ; see also examples Example 17, 32, 38, Diatonic ascending motion at the beginning of the melody is apparent in Bulgarian folk song.
However, there can be no conclusion drawn concerning the 41 General descending motion within the phrase, as in thirds, fourths, and fifths. The caesura is effected by a note of longer duration, by cessation of motion altogether, by an exclamation, or by a fermata. Either or both sections thus resulting may be repeated with the same or, more rarely, with different text. The half cadence may fall on the note of the final itself example 76 , on a note which is a major or minor second or a major or minor third above or below the final examples 10, 11, 38, 48, 97, , , , on a perfect fourth or fifth above or below the final examples 7, , , or on a minor or major sixth or seventh, or even an octave above the final examples 14, 45, The half cadence may further fall on the seventh degree or on the octave below the final, although this is much less common.
Frequently the half cadence has an ornamental form, the general contours of the decorative grouping resembling the various ornamental cadences given in example The interval of an eleventh final The Example The octave remains the largest interval to appear with any frequency. The free construction of the folk song makes possible more than one semicadence within the melody, as in examples 9, 62, 69, , , At the cadence itself, the descending second ending is most frequent.
At the beginning of the phrase there are approximately as many fourths downward as upward. Melody 74 Example A Final. Frequently, Ji TT. It is demonstrably correct that where limitations of intellectual development preclude the grasping of intricate and abstract concepts, an excess of may be turned instead to devices of ornament. The opposite, how- technical skill that extraordinary craftsmanship implies lack of is not necessarily true intellectual powers. Consider, for instance, the music of K.
Bach, Couperin, eyer, Mozart. In folk song the individual performer customarily adds his own ornamentation to simple folk melodies. Ornamentation is the most obvious communal addition to the folk melody, the creative work of the singer or instrumentalist, added to the original patterns to serve a twofold purpose; that of pleasing the audience, and of gratifying the performer himself as a demonstration of his great dexterity.
I believe, however, that these ornaments must also be recognized as exhibiting distinct creative ability, since they are in strict agreement with the form, the tonal pattern, and the general artistic design of the folk song. In this way they are as creative as they are interpretative. Melody 76 Melismatic passages precede many songs and serve no other purpose than to attract the attention of the audience; they set a vowel which is not part of the text example Example J Sed - ni, Mar - ko, etc.
Sometimes the ornamentation consists of a group of grace notes to facilitate the singing of very wide intervals that are entirely out of character in a particular song. These unorthodox leaps may result from a singer's transposition in order to find a more comfortable range for the phrase; this, however, does not seem to be true in example Seite, drushki Sow, Friends. Sung Lorn, December, Besides the type of exclamation which appears at the beginning of the musical period, illustrated in example , there is a type of exclamation consisting of fewer notes, setting a single syllable; frequently there is a note as well only example single However, the Bulgarian folk singer has sometimes felt purposes the psychophysiological necessity of anacrusis and fulfills this need by adding, during performance, a note which is not part of the melody, set to a nontextual anacrusis syllable is example ; see also examples Example 99, In and , , , Example Sin Some mi kerko te three- and four-measure phrases in the and first connection see also examples 20, 54, 73, , of the modulations are quite irregular.
The narrowest melodic range which I have found is that of the minor second example This vivacious song, performed during the Example Zdrdva godinchitze A Prosperous New Year. Sung by Anka Nikolova, Notated by P. Before I left Bulgaria I never thought that I would be in a place different than my mahala where I could be happy, but here it is, Balkan camp. There I was that close to my culture, my music, my little home, Gotse Delchev. What I liked is that I had a chance to do the thing that I love, and do it from my heart to dance.
And this was my reason to go to camp to learn how to teach, so I can show my kind of dance, which is like Turkish Roma dancing. My schedule for the week was: Morning dance Afternoon dance Night dance Just that. I love to dance. This was a big plus for me, because I met a lot of people and made many new friends. With her, we have made a performance group and auditioned at the Ethnic Dance Festival, the biggest festival of its kind in San Francisco, and there, for the first time, I had a chance to dance on a real stage, like a real professional.
After that performance I felt confidence in myself and the first thing I thought was if it wasn t for Balkan camp maybe I would never feel comfortable doing that. But not only I was happy there. For the first time since we came to America I saw the little lights of happiness in my daughters eyes. Erolina and Salina had an unbelievable time there. They had a chance to take singing lessons with the amazing Eva. They became very close friends with her and love her.
They were also in Frank s kids class and Erolina also took a tupan class with her grandfather, my father, Rumen Sali Shopov. They both were very free and happy. I didn t see them all day only late at night to go to bed. And now Erolina wants to go to camp instead of going back to Bulgaria this summer! And the last person who was very happy there was my lovely husband Alyo. Even though he didn t have a chance to spend the whole week there, he didn t mind driving up for both weekends, in order to have that amazing time. Balkan Camp June-July was for us one of the most amazing weeks, which we will never forget.
And I think this a wonderful thing the Board is doing to give people like me a chance to see what is going on there. Thanks from all my heart. Stefka Kamburova lives with her family in Albany, Ca. I misunderstood. Oh, I m sure I ll be fine, I said. I m a pretty heavy sleeper. No, she repeated. I mean you won t want to sleep. You ll miss the magic. I remained a skeptic for the first few days, unable to nap for the zurna ensemble outside my window, bleary-eyed and dubious.
But on my fourth day, suddenly and there really is no other way to say this the magic happened. I m still not sure what collective instinct tipped us off conversations stopped midbreath, drinks paused in their arcs towards waiting mouths. Everyone hushed. Somehow, we knew. Georgi played for 90 minutes straight, only stopping when his cigarette burned down to a nub; he d light a new one, dangle it casually from the side of his mouth, and resume.
An accordion and doumbek joined in. The instruments spoke to each other in a wordless, recognizable language. They told long, sad stories and short, percussive jokes. They lamented. They laughed. We all listened, rapt, only vaguely aware of the sun slowly coming up behind the soccer field. I occasionally exchanged glances with other listeners: Happening now. Take note. For one long crepuscular moment, time stretched out like the curved sides of a ship, temporarily becoming more spacious.
What made this strange shift possible? Probably just the decision that the dance trumped the hour, music trumped sleep, today trumped tomorrow. Around 7 a. We applauded. His response has stayed with me since: Thanks, he said. Thanks to be with you. She currently lives in New York City, where she writes, teaches, and sings. Anne Stadlmair I teach mostly. For anyone who works with young people, having a general, encyclopedia-ish, jack-of-alltrades kind of knowledge, comes in handy at least once a day.
A half scholarship to camp this past summer gave me an opportunity to expand on these qualifications. I had every intention of taking just one or two classes and acclimatizing myself gradually to the new environment. That plan had pretty much evaporated by the end of the first morning. Inevitably, I could not resist the temptation of learning about something that had been sitting on my to-do list ever since I can remember.
I wanted to have the time to learn basic hand drum technique, as well as getting a closer look at clarinet ornamentation that fascinated me while listening to recordings from Greece. In addition to the clarinet class my original intended workshop I happily signed up for beginning doumbek, beginning frame drum and zurna. This was possible because of the generosity of my fellow campers who lent their instruments. Thank you! Earlier this fall, thanks to a donation of used and renovated instruments, one of my innercity school band students had the possibility to start on the oboe. As a non-double reed player, anything to do with oboes, embouchure and especially reeds, is a little daunting, but I did not run and hide.
I attribute this surprising reaction to zurna boot camp. It was so satisfying to be immersed in discussions about reeds, techniques, and the elaborations that can be made over the playing qualities of one particular zurna reed. Discussing oboe reeds with my band student makes me feel still connected with my fellow zurna players from last summer. It was a whole lot of life crammed into a few short days and, well I had a blast. Thanks to the EEFC community and the Dick Crum Scholarship, I met all kinds of great people, learned heaps and along the way renewed my friendship with ouzo it was exhilarating and all this thanks to a half scholarship!
Anne Stadlmair lives in Toronto, Ontario, and teaches music and movement for small children as well as concert band for grades 5 to 8. She plays weekly in an Indonesian Gamelan ensemble, a samba percussion group, has a varied assortment of earplugs in almost all pockets and bags, and otherwise excels at doing things that are not lucratively forthcoming but do nourish the soul. One of my last images of Balkan camp was a woman passed out on her luggage amidst a field of bags with thirty minutes left to leave the campsite. I sympathized with her state, having seen her late at the kafana the previous night.
While one could go to Balkan camp just for the classes, it is difficult to pass up the evening dances and after-hours coffee shop. Considering the diversity of talented teachers, performers, and campers at camp, it is a highly stimulating place for people, such as Ian and myself, who do not like to miss out on all the fun. I think we are both still processing and recovering three months later. Camp was an otherworldly experience, to say the least. Between the lack of sleep, the wine and the hours of dancing, events at camp are difficult to recall in any logical fashion.
Dreamy, circus-y images swirl through my memory. Camp was certainly more than we expected. Ian and I returned to the mundane world overflowing with information on Serbian, Greek, and Turkish folk dancing, to be expected after taking up to six dance classes per day no, I am not exaggerating; we really like to dance. I also went home with a newfound desire to pursue Balkan music. Being surrounded by great music at every hour was inspiring. We heard students practicing in the distance during dance class.
We sat by spontaneous music jams during meal times. In between classes, bands rehearsed on the porches of their cabins. We have both vowed to sacrifice a few beloved dance classes at camp next summer for beginner doumbek. We look forward to many more summers of inspiration at Balkan camp. Who knows where it may lead us next. Thanks again for a great experience! She is also a student of Balkan and Turkish folk dances and dances monthly with the Balkan Dance group in Brattleboro. Ian Bigelow is a painter, carpenter, bicycle mechanic, dishwasher, and community activist in Brattleboro, Vt.
He folk dances monthly with the Balkan Dance group in Brattleboro and performs the wash bucket bass with the folk punk band Wingnut Dishwashers Union in Brattleboro and beyond. Corrine Sykes For about three years ever since I first started into the Balkan music scene , Balkan Camp was this mystical, magical, fabled land of Balkan wonders, to be heard of only in the stories and memories of those who had found their way to this wooded wonderland of music.
But now, thanks to the generosity of the scholarship donors, I too have found my way to Balkan Camp, and it was more than my wildest imaginings! At the time I had no idea what I was getting into. When I got to Balkan Camp, I was overwhelmed with all the wonderful classes and activities, and I of course set out to take a class every period.
After holding out for about two days, taking beginner gaida and tupan, Bulgarian singing, Balkan dance, and brass band, I quickly deteriorated into a sleepless lump of Balkan overload! Left with a healthy offering of tupan and brass band, and partying all night at the glorious kafana, I went home grinning from ear to ear with zurna music still ringing in my brain as I slept. The memories of watching the sun rise over mind-blowing gadulka playing, dancing til my feet went numb, and chugging Turkish coffee in hopes of not missing a thing will stay vivid in my mind, as I wait patiently for next year s camp!
- Through a Looking Glass!
- Selected Poems (Dover Thrift Editions)!
- Smith and the Pharaohs, and other Tales.
My sincere thanks to all who helped me along the enchanted path to Balkan Camp! Corinne Sykes lives in New Haven, Ct. She plays doumbek and, now, tupan with the chorus in concert, and seeks out Balkan dances in the area as often as possible. Our drive is well on its way. Please check out our website for an updated list of members and join today! Thanks for your generous and much-needed contributions!
Allison Stefanie Anderson Susan K. Cohen Gladys M. Meloche Janice A. Smith Lewis R. Stephen R. He is survived by his wife, Jeanne, three children and a brother. He was a sought-after dance performer, teacher and choreographer, produced folklore programs and events throughout North America, and inspired a generation of folk dancers. Athan later founded the Athens Intersection in Athens below the Acropolis. Athan directed the Intersection s Greek dance performing group. He wrote numerous articles on Greek dance and music.
He taught regularly at such venues as the Basil P. Caloyeras Center, St. He helped bring the Parthenon Dancers of Greece to the U. He was the U. Thousands of folk dancers across North America first became exposed to Greek folk dance music through Soul Dances of the Greeks, an album he produced and popularized. He starred in the Greek-American film noir, Dark Odyssey. The film is available on DVD, and on YouTube you can see a clip from the film, in which the young Athan performs a beautiful Levendiko Tsamiko with a sword. Thanks to the Karras family and Dick Oakes for their contributions to this article.
He is survived by two sons and a sister. He had worked as a school teacher and retired from the Harrisburg school district. What key are we in?! He paused for a moment and looked around questioningly at the musicians who were playing in a tight circle around him. No one answered, so after a moment he just shrugged and said with a grin, Oh, what the hell, I can t hear it anyway.
He gave his hearing aid a little twist and dove back into the tune, bowing with an energy that seemed to make a direct connection to the feet of the dancers whirling around him. More recently, he played for Balkan music aficionados throughout the Mid-Atlantic. As he got older, his hands became a little shaky, but when he played you could still hear the echoes of his more than 70 years of fiddling. George recently lived in a Harrisburg suburb, but he grew up in the heart of the city.
His parents came to the United States just after World War I, settling, as George music, the song of the mill and coal towns of Pennsylvania and the industrial Midwest, transported us to a place where hard times and hard work flowed into celebration to the heavens, at weddings, church picnics and in the West Virginia hills, on sunny afternoons and late into the night. You were the ultimate good egg, George. You embodied both the heartland of Romania and the heartland of America. In the course of your long life, you brought joy and good times to Romanians, Serbs, Croatians, Hungarians, Jews, CakeEaters and all alike.
Playing music with you, just being with you, was a tremendous pleasure for all of us lucky enough to know you. We will miss you always, but you left us a legacy with which we will celebrate and celebrate you forever. George s father was a stenciler at what became Harrisburg Steel, swinging an eight-pound hammer all day to engrave serial numbers onto the sides of helium gas tanks.
Almost everyone the family knew was Romanian, and George grew up surrounded by traditional culture and music. His father was a cantor at the Romanian Orthodox Church and sang folk songs as well. Women in the neighborhood also sang together, though George said, They didn t believe in harmony, you know what I mean? In those years, the Harrisburg Romanian community had festivals that followed the seasons, traditions from a time when everyone lived out in the country instead of in sooty row houses next to a steel mill.
At the dances, George would watch the band. Mom wanted me to dance, he said, but I liked to listen to the music. At that time, in the s, the band had just three musicians: Steve Barbu, the fiddler who later taught George how to play; a man who played the contra, a sideways-held violin with a flattened bridge that provides chordal accompaniment; and a bassist. George started playing violin during high school. His father bought his fiddle for him from the Montgomery Ward catalog violin, case, bow and an extra set of strings, all for ten dollars.
George also played varsity football, and the boys would tease him when they saw him going to his music class with his fiddle under his arm. I was embarrassed, a big football player playing violin. So going to music school I always went by every alley I knew. But he didn t enjoy learning theory and scales, and finally he said to his father, I d just like to learn Romanian music. His father said he would have to ask Steve Barbu, who had grown up in Romania just down the road from George s parents village. Barbu was happy to pass along his music and gave him lessons for free.
So once a week, George would go to the home of the old man for a lesson. Steve Barbu had his own system of music notation. Each note on the violin fingerboard had a number the E string, the highest, was 1, so the open string was written as The next note higher was notated as 11, and the next as The next string down was called 20, and so on. One time, George looked at the notebook where he wrote down his tunes and said to me, I look through this and I think, how the hell did I learn all this?
The pages are filled with long columns of numbers: 30, 33, 21, You read down one column, and then down the next. I read music like it s Japanese! George kept boxes of old photo albums, all neatly labeled. There were snapshots of him playing music with Barbu and George s brother John, who learned to play accordion as a teenager when he was home recovering from appendicitis. George described one night in the early s playing with Steve Barbu: We played for two hours without stopping. The old man was blind, he couldn t see, and the dancers would dance and then they d go sit down, and then other ones would come in, and everyone kept stomping and talking and hell, Barbu heard somebody stomping and talking so he thought he should just keep playing!
There s a shot of dancers at a party in Waynesboro, Pa. George said, People just came up to the band; we were playing one of the folksongs, and then somebody started singing. Then we played together. It was just a good time for everybody. When George played for dances, he called the tunes by number, like take-out Chinese: ones, twos and threes There are other types of dances throughout Romania, but these were the village dances that George learned as a child.
The first time I went to an American dance, it seemed like everyone was all over the place! George said, I know some dance steps that are different but the guys that were really the good dancers, they did all kinds of fancy stuff on this, like spinning the girl around. She goes around the guy and the secret there is she never takes her hands off of him. They are danced in a line like number ones.
The tunes are not complex, but still it wasn t easy to follow George as he played. He said, The gypsies told me, don t ever play it the same way twice. If you play it differently each time, they don t know whose song you are copying. His fingers danced around the fingerboard, adding layers of ornaments to the bones of the tune though to him the tune didn t really exist apart from the ornaments. People had written out transcriptions of many of his tunes, but the written rhythms didn t seem to have much to do with the way the tunes are actually played.
Some of the tunes are extremely syncopated, with accents in places you might not expect. Like most folk music, you need to hear the tunes to understand them, or even better, you need to dance to them. When George wasn t sure of a tempo, he always got up to dance a few steps to see if the music would fit the dance. George spoke sometimes about how things had changed. The Romanian community is pretty much gone from Harrisburg. Early on, George said, you had to marry a Romanian girl, but later it wasn t so important. As economic situations improved, the children of immigrants moved away from the inner city.
Other Orthodox churches in the area started having services in English the Serbians, the Macedonians, the Greeks and many Romanians just started going to those. The Romanian Orthodox Church in Harrisburg was sold around Socially, things changed as well, and immigrant groups became absorbed into mainstream society. In the last two decades, George was involved in a new kind of community that of musicians and dancers who enjoy traditional Balkan music, no matter what their background. Just like his own teacher, George generously shared his music with anyone who wanted to learn.
He said, If someone s interested in learning we never talk about money.
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I m glad to do it just to get someone to carry on the thing. That s the way Barbu was. At a gathering in Maryland a few years ago, George looked over at a group of teenage girls trying his tunes for the first time, and suggested a different way to handle the rhythm. Then he grinned and said, It always sounds better when it s right.
Leslie Barr lives, fiddles and teaches elementary school music in Maryland. She had the pleasure of playing with George many times. Photos of camps long ago and far away. Fashions, hair color and body shape may change, but so many things stay the same Male bonding at a New Age drum circle in the woods of California. Bill Cope observes from behind. Photo provided by Lauren Brody. This year will be her. Financial Aid Deadline: Friday, January 25 at There are four parts to the test. You will hear each part twice.
For each part of the test there will be time for you to look through the questions. Hour 8: The Thing Explainer! Those of you who are fans of xkcd s Randall Munroe may be aware of his book Thing Explainer: Complicated Stuff in Simple Words, in which he describes a variety of things using. Lauren, you have three little ones and a business to run thank you so much for making time for this! Your husband. A: Asks B where B usually goes on holiday. The year is coming to an end as we are wrapping up to prepare for the holidays as well as the new year ahead of. For each part of the test there will be time for you to look through.
Filling in a Family Tree, p. Listen carefully to the information. Write the names of Anna s family members in the correct spaces in the family tree. Past Simple Questions Find your sentence: Who? Janet Chris Mary Paul Liz John Susan Victor wrote a letter read a book ate an apple drank some milk drew a house made a model plane took some photos. Your guide to extra curricular arts involvement. We all love being entertained. We all love being creative. We love it most when something in the Arts speaks to us deeply; to who we are as individuals.
Under the. If you have any additional questions,. Write the 1 We are always making our homework together because we are in the same class. You can use the words more than once. Oh, 2 s. Student 1: Yes! Horse riding! Vodul, southern slopes, on the lower parts of the stems subshrub among dwarf shrubs are found under rocks form two Ps. Mouth slightly skewed, the place of its attachment moderately close together, but not connected Fig.
And at the second sink small 8 9 mm. As can be seen from the above data konhologicheskyh variability of the species studied are shown in color, shape and size of the shell. Clams live on the southern slopes of the hills, on the stems of shrubs and dwarf shrubs characterized by the alternation on the sink white stripes of varying widths.
Apparently, a striped coloration is associated with periodic changes in temperature and humidity during the shell growth. Regarding the development of stripes or streaks our views converge , during periods of low temperatures and moderate humidity sink is growing rapidly due to intensive work roll mantle, with the share of carbonates in secret in this case is relatively small and the sink in the end formed streaks.
It should be noted that the shellfish that live under rocks embryonic shell turns light brown, the other horn or light horn. This is due to the fact that shellfish inhabits shaded habitats, where climate con- 9. Biology ditions there is no need in the reflection of the bright rays of the sun. It should be noted that transitions linked differences in the color of the shell, the species studied, perhaps, above all, reflect the geochemical and climatic features of habitats.
But at the same time, they are adaptive. The emergence of adaptation to the environment the main result of evolution. It should be noted that the nature of the variability of the Central Asian Buliminidae refer to the [4; 9]. Matekin , setting an extremely wide range of variation konhologicheskih signs, brought all Buliminidae in 4 types Jaminia potaniniana, J.
The remaining kind of united into one, an extremely volatile and widespread within the Central Asian appearance J. Shileyko study of Central Asia Buliminidae found 9 species, of which the genus Psendonapaeus represented by 13 species, one of which Ps. In the first, with the help of molecular genetic methods we investigated intraspecific variation Central Buliminidae the example of the widespread species Psendonapaeus.
The size of the amplificate were analyzed by gel electrophoresis in 1. The results showed that the nucleotide sequence of 18S rdna partial areas of the two clam populations were identical Fig. Comparison of the nucleotide sequences Ps P. When comparing the nucleotide sequences of these regions 18S DNA region of these forms have found differences in the two nucleotide positions. The percentage differences between the studied areas of shellfish accounted for. When comparing the differences between sequencers Ps P. It may be noted that the detection of signs of these types are clearly distinguished.
These data show that these types of both morphologically and genetically different levels with each other and are both these types Ps P. We phylogenetic analysis was also conducted using the method of nearest neighbors Neighbor-joining, NJ obtained on the basis of sequences 18S two species of mollusks and their intraspecific forms Fig. The phylogenetic tree indicated two well-isolated species Ps. The phylogenetic tree depicting obtained on the basis of sequences 18S region Psendonapeus two types based on their own research and GenBank database AY Referring seen from the materials that within these types there are several konhologicheskih forms, in the simplest cases associated with smooth transitions.
However, while collecting the material we found in one biotope two forms without transitions between them. These data allow us to consider one of the possible options for speciation in terrestrial mollusk species Psendonapaeus. It should be noted that if in the Crimea, the Caucasus and in Central Europe for a long time the main ecological niches are filled, where each species is clearly separated from the next species, and we can say that the speciation process has been completed.
In Central Asia, the speciation process is currently being intense. As we know, any population of these species is characterized by the wide dimensional variability. In foothill areas on scree inhabits shallow molluscs from horn color, indicating that life mikroubezhischah under stones. In mountain areas in the open areas among dwarf shrubs mainly inhabit large mollusks developed with varying degrees of light radial pestrennoy.
If between the foothill and mountain populations there are enough strong bond, the foothills of the population, merge with the mountain and in this case, a relatively small area the Alai Range, not far from the. Vodul or biotope is possible to meet all possible transitions from small horn to large light shells. However, if the shellfish semi-population for a long time were in isolation, then, going to the rocky slopes, they do not immediately merge with the mountain, and then on the same slope you can find a very small and very large clams, with virtually no transitions between them, considering only this case, we can formally speak of two real types .
If the molluscs are long time in isolation, therefore, there is a weakening of contacts between individuals of the population, which stabilizes the direction of variation, together with the process variation adaptive shells, lead to the formation of a new species. For example, near the village.
Sherabad Surhandarinskaya region on the right bank of the river. Maidan in coarse scree, among thickets of bushes inhabits real Ps.
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During the collection of material on the northern slopes of the hill in a melkooblomochnyh debris talus we found the view, which is very similar to Ps. In the study konhologicheskih characteristics and structure of the sexual apparatus, it was found that this particular kind of new to science. As follows from the data obtained, the formation of new species occurs by targeting the source of the form of environmental conditions certain forms of adaptive variability of the environment, dwelling which requires a radical restructuring of the biology of reproduction and strong changes in the forms of protection against evaporation.
Thus, for long-term isolation of populations as a result of the constant elimination of medium-sized mollusks, can lead to the formation of new species, both on the basis of large forms in the interior of the original species, its population, standing at the threshold of habitats, which is now home to new species References: 1.
Komarova E. Kiev, Terrestrial mollusks Kopetdag fauna, ecology, zoogeography, systematics : Abstract. Dis kand. Biology 7. Pazilov A. XI, Vol.. The comparison of our results showed that 1 O BK inhibited the aortic rings contraction induced by these two procedures almost to the same extent and with nearly equal IC 50 values. Introduction Diterpenoid alkaloids produced by the plants of the genera Aconitum and Delphinium comprise a large group of natural compounds, still continue to deliver a great variety of structural templates for drug discovery and development [1, 60 64;, 09 1].
Recently, we found that 1 O BK exhibited marked vasorelaxant activity and significantly inhibited the contraction of rat aortic rings induced by KCl and phenylephrine PE [5, 8 11]. The relaxant effect of 1 O BK was not significantly different in either the presence or absence of functional endothelium and was not influenced by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase by L NAME or cyclooxygenase by indomethacin.
After brief anesthesia with sodium pentobarbital, rat was decapitated and the thoracic aorta was isolated. The connective tissue was removed and rings 3 mm long were mounted vertically under isometric conditions in a 5 ml organ bath perfused with Krebs solution containing in mm : NaCl An initial load of 1 g. During equilibration the bathing solution was changed every 15 min. In these experiments after equilibration period in normal Krebs solution the viability of aortic rings was tested by KCl 50 mm.
To test the effect of 1 O BK on ouabaine-induced contraction, the aortic rings after incubation for 30 min. The concentrationresponse curves for 1 O BK were obtained by incubation of aortic rings for 30 min. KB-R was dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide; the final concentration of vehicle was no more than 0. We used acetylcholine, phenylephrine, ouabaine, verapamil, and KB-R Student s t test was used for unpaired variants. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration IC 50 for KB-R calculated from concentration-response curves was 9.
As shown in Fig. The results summarized in Fig. These results again support the suggestion that In our study in aortic rings ouabaine induced the concentration-dependent contraction with peak amplitude of The contraction induced by ouabaine was significantly attenuated by KB-R which maximally reduced it to In these experimental conditions 1 O BK maximally reduced ouabaine-induced contraction to.
This suggestion was further confirmed when the inhibitory effect of 1 O BK was compared to those produced by alkaloid alone and in combination with KB-R As illustrated in Fig. These results indicated that the effects of 1 O BK and KB- R on ouabaine-induced contraction were not additive, suggesting that these agents probably were acting at a common site, i. Taken together, these data suggest that 1 O BK is a promising compound for further development of novel approaches in the treatment of conditions associated with vascular smooth muscle disorders, such as hypertension or ischemia.
Yunusov M. Seriya Khimicheskaya No. Sci 3 : Boronova Z. Diterpenoid alkaloids as a new class of antiarrhythmic agents. Compd : Mirzayeva Yu. Rev : Bolton T. D et al. Physiol Lond : Nabel E. Res : Horiguchi S. A novel antagonist, No. Physiol 33 : Tursinbaeva Gulbakhor Sultanovna, Pedagogical State University name Nizami, Uzbekistan, Tashkent Butnik Antonina Anatolievna, Institute of Gene Pool of Plants and Animals, Academy of Sciences E mail: Particular structure of fruits and seeds ephemers in the arid zone of Central Asia Abstract: We describe the morphology and structure of the integuments of fruits and seeds 3 species from 18 genera, 5 families of ephemers from the most common dominant in the Kyzylkum desert.
The next adaptive features were allocated: sclerification, slimy structure, water-carring tissue which promote the conservation of species in arid conditions. That was a negative correlation between the complexity of the pericarp and seed-coat structure. Keywords: morphology, anatomy, adaptive sign, diaspore, Kyzylkum. Biology Introduction Ephemere plants are an important component of the vegetation in Central Asia deserts.
In Kyzylkum 50 species from 0 families can be attributed to the ephemeral plants. The species of the families Asteraceae Dumort. Ephemere plants are forming of ecological and biological diversity and occupied at the different ecological niches. Biomorphic of ephemere has several unique biological features. Ephemere plants have a short-lived vegetation 1. They concentrated a considerable variety of adaptive traits [, ; 3, 35 38; 4, 36; 5, 9 30].
Diaspore fruits and seeds are carriers of the plant genome. They focused adaptive strategy taxon [6, ]. The study of the fruit and seeds of a necessary part in the knowledge of the ontogeny and adaptive strategy of plants.
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Material and methods Material collected in the natural habitat types in the southwestern Kyzylkum. The morphology, methods of dissemination and the anatomical structure of species of ephemere plants from the families Asteraceae Juss, Brassicaceae Burrneft, Boraginaceae Juss, Fabaceae Lindl.
The type of diasporas, their morphological parameters, the anatomical structure of the integument pericarp, seed-coat was described and reflected in the figures and micro photos. The stiff fruit was in mixture Strasburger: alcohol glycerol water The structure of the fruit sketched drawing apparatus RA 6 and 16 Table 1. The size of the diaspora ephemera mm.
Description of the structure carried out by the usual method carpological studies on sections prepared manually [, ]. Results and discussion Ephemer fruits are of different types in accordance with belonging to a particular family. For the family. Asteraceae is characterized achene with a tuft pappus , with a rostellum and without fig. Fruits of ephemeral Fabaceae Astragalus, Onobrichis fig. Polyspermos pod at the different forms round like, pear like charactered for family Caryophyllaceae Arenaria serpyllifolia, Spergularia microsperma fig. The cenobium of the species family Lamiaceae are schizocarp fractional pod consisting of 3 4 fruts Lallemantia royleana, Ziziphora tenuior fig.
Acheneshaped fruts with various appendages: small pricle, trichomes, eilaiosome, tulf pappus are the most widespread. The dry fruits indeniscent oligospermous streamlined with alar and other appendages prevailed in desert conditions. Reduction of the size and weight of fruits and seeds was promoted dominance in the desert of different forms of anemohorous dissemination. The fruit size of 1 0 mm. The following forms dissemination is extended: anemochorous evonemohorous and geohorous , ballisto-anemohorous, barohorous, antitelahorous [7, ; 8, ].
The combination of or more methods of dissemination often is observing Table 1. CAM 3. Morphological types of fruit ephemera: achene a Heteracia szovitsii outdoor and indoor ; b Microcephala lamellate; c Senecio subdentatus; silicle: dry-seeded indehiscent box d Isatis violascens; e bispermous Lachnoloma lehmanii; f Goldbachia laevigata, 4 seeded dehiscent g Alyssum dasycarpium; polyspermous box: h Spergularia microsperma; i Arenaria serpyllifolia, monospermous seed bean: J Onobrychis tavernifolia; k Astragalus ammophilus; cenobia: skhizokarpnaya fractional box.
L Ziziphora tenuior; m Lallemantia royleana Biology 18 Fig.. Abbreviation: Pr pericarp, Sc seed-coat, Wc water-carring cell. Fruit Amberboa turatica is ribbed achenes without rostellum, but multiserial pappus and elaiosome in the root part. Pericarp consists of a thick-walled parenchyma cells.
Seed-coat thicker of pericarp at times: 1 layer from 1 3 row sclerenchyma, layer 5 7 row parenchyma. Water-carring cells with spiral pore are located in the radical part. Fruit Epilasia hemilasia is strongly pubescent ribbed achene without roustellum, but with pappus and collous ring in trichomes bases. Pericarp is sclerophyllous between the ribs and with watercarring cells in the ribs.
A seed-coat is thin, with 3 rows of parenchyma. Fruit Yarphadiolus papossum is achene in a head. Two morphotypes of fruits are allocated, i. Next signs characterize the pericarp outer achenes: small prickle on the epidermis, 5 order water-carring cell with spiral-netted, liber-cells layer of 4 5 and 10 1 rows of cells. Seed-coat is thin with any parenchymal layers. Fruit Heteracia szovitsii is heteromorphic achene with pappus and without it. In pericarp developed water-carring tissue, in mesocarp sclerenchyma.
Seed-coat is thin, parenchymal, pigmented fig. Fruit Microcephala lamellate is heteromorphic achene in a head, pubescent, slightly ribbed on the dorsal side. The epidermis of the pericarp pigmented, wall cells is thicken with slimy fingerlike excrescence. The water-carring cells with spiral thickening walls disposed in mesocarp. Seed-coat is thicker pericarp, pigmented, parenchymal fig. Fruit Pulicaria gnaphalodes is achene with pappus, downy. Pericarp in the top is parenchymal, at the lower part mesocarp sclerenchymatous with 4 6 row layers.
Seed-coat is parenchymal rows. Fruit Senecio subdentatus is densely planted ribbed achene with a round disk on top, tufted and rostellum. Epicarp is parenchymal, mesocarp consists of parenchyma between the ribs and the sclerenchyma in ribs. Seed-coat is thin and parenchymal Fig. Thus, achenes of Asteraceae species have such adaptive signs as pubescens, water-carring cells, sclerenchyma and parenchyma in the pericarp, simplified parenchymal seed-coat except Amberboa turanica.
Remains of the endosperm provides additional protection. Family Boraginaceae. Fruit of the species p. Heliotropium H. The ereme is tetramospermous located in recesses of carpobasis. Pericarp of ereme is composed: exocarp with pubescences of simple trichomes; mesocarp with 3 row parenchyma; pigmented and sclerotized endocarp. Seed-coat is thin, parenhymatous. Family Brassicaceae. Fruit of species Alyssum A. Silicle is 4 locular, dehiscent. The pericarp is sclerotized, but the seed-coat fulfils function of the protection and consisting of mucous parenchyma, epidermal layer, pigmental layer and the adjacent layer endosperm starchy and protein Fig.
Multiple-row seed-coat, including thicked sclerenchyma cells, protects the embryo Euclidium syriacum. This is complicating the germination of seeds Fig. Fruit Goldbachia laevigata is dry, indehiscent, bilocular, hearless silicle. Pericarp is composed of different arangement sclerenchyma fibers.
The walls sclerenchyma cells are very thick and alternating with multilayer parenchyma. Seed-coat is 5 6 cell rows and from it 3 rows of tangential elongated parenchymal cells, pigment and aleurone layers. Fruit Hymenolobus procumbens is angustiseptate dehiscent, multi-seeded silicle. Seed-coat is thin and consists of mucous and pigmentary layers.
Fruit Lachnoloma lehmanii is indehiscent dilocular tomentose pubescent silicle. Pericarp is composed of epidermal cells with thickened walls, 4 5 parenchymal layers, sclerenchyma layers and inner too sclerotized epidermis. Seed-coat is 5 layers: wavilike epidermal cells, 3 rows of compressed parenchymal cells, pigment and aleuronue layers. The fruit of the species Isatis I. Pericarp includes pigmental layer under the epidermis, water-carring cells with netted and round-chinked pores and sclerenchyma. Seed-coat is thin, consisting of 3 rows of parenchymal cells Fig.
Fruit Tausheria lasiocarpa is nutlike indehiscent bilocular downy silicle. Pericarp is composed of the pigment epidermal layer with a thick outer wall; 3 4 rows of small cell pigmented parenchyma, mechanical sclerenchyma strands surrounded water-carring cells. Vascular bandes are surrounded by sclerotized fibres.
Seed-coat consists 5 layers: the epidermis, parenchymal cells, sclerenchymal and aleuronic layers. Family Caryophyllaceae. The fruit of Spergularia sperguloides is a dry dehiscent pod in caryx, pubescenced of grandular trichomes. Pericarp is thin and chaff-like. Seed-coat is formed from external integument. Exotesta is thickened, the cavity of cells filled up at tannin. Inneral integument is reduction. Reserved tissue is perisperm, as other species of family [9, 59 74].
Family Fabaceae. Fruit is polyspermous A. The structure of the pericarp of studied species Astragalus A. It consists of a single-row exocarp downy various trichomes; 3 4 orders parenchymal cells of mesocarp with the vascular bundles, which surrounded water-carring cells.
Endocarp consists of divergent arrangement sclerenchymal fibers parchment layer. Seed-coat consists of 5 layers: palisade cells malpigie-cells , hypodermis osteosclereide or lageniform sclereid , parenchyma, aleuronic layer. The fruits species have general similarity and distinctive signs: thick layer of malpigie-cells A.
Family Lamiaceae. Fruit Lallemantia royleana is fractional pod schizocarp in tirse. Calyx is ribbed, downy prickle hairs, parenchymal, with the vascular bundles in the ribs. The pericarp of ereme is composed of slimy cells of the epidermis, 3 rows of pigmented parenchyma Fig. Fruit of Ziziphora tenuior is fractional pod, with densely pubescent calyx, ribbed. Trichomes are simple, pricly and glandular with 8 1 secretory cells. Vascular bundle surrounded by sclerenchyma, is in each rib. Pericarps compose mucous epidermis, rows of sclerenchyma and 1 rows of pigmental parenchyma.
Seed-coat is thin, claying. Conclusion The fruit as part of the body s systems are complex adaptive traits. Kaden [10, ] believed, that the fruit should be regarded as organ which has developed through adaptation to better protects the seed and the different ways of dissemination. No less important are those signs associated with the functions of germination [6, ]. In their view, the analysis of adaptive traits fruits should focus on adaptation to the dissemination methods, the protective features of the adverse factors and structural specialization to germinate.
Those are adequate basic functions of fruit: to survive, to expansion and to give rise to offspring. The one-small dominated seed among the fruit of species Availability Biology specialized hydro-cells in the pericarp and seed-coat in Asteraceae evidence of convergence of this trait. An important feature of the adaptive trait is to water-carring cells, which may be part of the pericarp or seed-coat. Alyavdina [11, ], Alexanderov, Rozhanovskiy [13, 0], Savchenkov [1, ], Korobkov [14, ] noted a correlation between dehiscence fruit and the presence of slimy layer. The dehiscence fruits of the family Brassicaceae are often slimy layer.
We undisclosed slime cells in undeniscne fruits inherent on the plants of dry habitats. When the morning dew is settling, slime-cells quickly covered with a hydrocolloid film, poorly permeable at water. The slimy-cells in fruits are a relatively wide-spread phenomenon among ephemeres [1, ; 15, ; 16, ]. Slimy-cells in the fruit and seeds characterized plants by experiencing water shortages. Each epidermal cell of fruits species Alyssum miksospermiya contains slimy substance.
Sclerotized of covers is one of the important signs of ephemeres. The sclerotized structure correlates with long-continued for several years preservation of seeds germination. The fruits of each family and genus have their complex distinctive and adaptive signs caused by their belonging to a particular taxon. However, the same living conditions contributed to the formation of convergent features. One of the leading adaptive signs in the family Brassicaceae is slimy-cells p. Hymenolobus , and water-carring cells layer, combined with scleriphication. Slimy-cells of A.
Common adaptive features primitving apocarpous fruit species of Astragalus Fabaceae are imperfect type dehiscence. This allows to seeds a long stay in the pericarp. Bilocular, different types of trichomes and epidermal formations; sclerotized of pericarp and seedcoat are protect against environmental influences. The pubescent of exocarp A. Mesocarp is parenchymal cells with scleriphfillous vascular bundles, accompanied water-carring cells with spiral point and pore A. The endocarp is sclerotized with parallel and perpendicular to the direction of the fibers.
Seed-coat consists of 5 layers of differing power as all Fabaceae. The endosperm is the form of unstructured film. Other families in this study presented a large number 3 species. In the family Lamiaceae observed complete slime-cells and sclerotized pericarp, provided deep physiological dormancy of seeds. In the family Boraginaceae presence a thick layer of the endosperm and significant sclerotized pericarp.
All these features provide good protection of the embryo, but embarrassing germination. Increased protection of embryo against adverse conditions, the formation varying complexity coat of is regarded as one of the directions of evolution [17, ]. Granitov I. The vegetation of South-western Kyzylkum. Tashkent: Science, V p.. Levina R. Morphology and ecology of fruits. Leningrad: Science, p.
Japakova U. Morphology, anatomical structure and biology of the germination Ziziphora tenuior L. P Japakova U.
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The adaptation Tausheria lasiocarpa Fisch Cruciferae to arid habitat conditions. Biology, ecology and the problems of the present time. Tashkent, P Japakova U. The ecological value of the structural parameters of the fruits and seeds of ephemers of Kyzylkum. Biological, ecological and agriculture education, problems and future.
Tashkent, P Terekhin E. Seed and seed multiplication. Sanct-Petersburg: Peace and family, p. Wunderlich R. P Roth Y. Fruits of Angiosperms. Berlin-Stuttgart, p. Gvanidzez, Fedorova T. Family Caryophyllaceae in comparative anatomy of seeds. Leningrad: Science, P Kaden N. Leningrad 4. P Alyavdina A. Leningrad-Moscow, P Aleksandrov V. Leningrad: Science,. P Rozhanovsky S. Anatomical features of seeds and some ephemeral and ephemeroids and deserts of Central Asia. Tashkent, p. Korobkov A. Morphological and anatomical features of achenes Artemisia Artemisia sp.
Leningrad: Science, 9. P Yakovleva O. Features of the structure of the cell walls of slimy-cells plant with different levels of organization. Sanct-Petersburg, The typology of secretory cells of vascular plants, based on the localization of the substances produced by them. Sanct-Petersburg: Vol. P Yablokov A. Evolutionary theory. Moscow: Higher School, p. Keywords: purebred Arabian racehorses, haematology and serum biochemistry parameters. Introduction Horse racing of purebred Arabian horses is an important part of international equestrian performance sport.
In most countries Arabian horses start their racing careers one year later than other breeds. Arabians can begin racing at the age of 3 because they develop slower than other breeds. Arabian horses start racing at the age of. It is rather dangerous for a young immature organism . In moderate climate in Russia horse-racing season continues from May to September [1; 11]. It s a very dramatic period in the lives of year-old race horses. Existing training programs imply rigorous exercise, the loading is very heavy.
It can lead to dramatic effects, especially for horses that are not yet physically mature . Good race performances are connected with extreme functioning of all horse organism systems. Adaptative sport changes can give greater chances of high race speed however it can provoke different functional illnesses. It can lead to trauma and diseases. If it happens before a horse achieves physical maturity, serious health problems can appear and be for life. Haematological parameters are a very important part of complex body diagnostic.
It is a sensitive indicator, since in most cases haematological and serum biochemical changes are determined by physiological alteration of organ systems [, ; 3, ; 4, ; 5, 9 30]. It is very important to frame a plan of horse training and performance, if you want to do it in a proper way, it is necessary to know the changes occurring in horse organism during the race season. There are three periods inside horse racing season: the beginning of a period May the first half of June , the middle the second half of June August and the ending September.
The purpose of the present study was to compare haematological and some serum biochemical values in different periods of race season. Materials and Methods Twenty eight blood samples were collected from year-old purebred Arabian racehorses. The horses took part in Central Moscow Hippodrome races in race seasons. Only clinically healthy animals were used.
Blood samples were collected from each horse on the next morning at 6 a. Biochemical analyzer URIT was used to assess serum biochemical values. Statistic analysis was made with the help of statistics package SAS 9. Though red blood cell index MCH fig. Percentage of segmented neutrophil Neut was maximal during the middle period 6. At the same time the percentage of lymphocytes Lym was minimal These changes demonstrate stress leukocytosis which is associated with cortisol release in stressful situations.
This hormone induces neutrophilia and lymphopenia. Neutrophilia derives from the mobilization of the marginal pool, the reduced ability to migrate from the blood to the peripheral tissues and the increased mobilization of the population of bone marrow reserve. Lymphopenia is the result of Lym sequestration from lymphoid tissues Caracostas et al. This response can also be provoked by a great variety of pathological processes Welles, [11, ]. Biology Fig. MCH in different periods of horse racing season Fig..
Neut in different periods of horse racing season Fig. Lym in different periods of horse racing season Fig. LDH in different periods of horse racing season The activity of creatine phosphokinase and aspartate aminotransferase did not vary during of racing season.