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View more search results. My Account. Home Business Food services Animal feeding stuffs. Animal feeding stuffs. What are animal feeding stuffs? How is animal feed controlled? What are the feed hygiene regulations? How do I register an animal feed business? Where can I get further information on animal feed? What are the feed hygiene regulations and who is affected? They contain various conditions which feed businesses must comply with, as appropriate.

These are split into three parts, as follows: Part I This covers provisions applicable to businesses involved in primary production for example, farms. It includes general hygiene and record-keeping requirements. Part II This applies to businesses operating other than at the level of primary production. Part III This section relates to good animal feeding practices for food-producing animals.

Who is affected by the legislation? The Food Standards Agency FSA website has guidance on the legislation for farming and feed businesses: Food Standards Agency - Farming and Animal Feed external website The aim of the legislation is to complete the 'farm to fork' approach of food law so that the whole of the food chain is covered by hygiene legislation. Business Business Licences and registration Trading standards Starting, growing and locating your business Business rates Food services Business opportunities with the council.

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View Living. Learning Learning Schools, colleges and academies Employment education and skills School term dates School holidays and absences School places and admissions. View Learning. Researchers found this increase is largely the result of an increased reliance on genetically modified mice in animal studies. In , researchers at Tufts University Center for Animals and Public Policy estimated that 14—21 million animals were used in American laboratories in , a reduction from a high of 50 million used in Congress Office of Technology Assessment reported that estimates of the animals used in the U.

The use of dogs and cats in research in the U. In GB, Home Office figures show that 3. A "procedure" refers here to an experiment that might last minutes, several months, or years. Most animals are used in only one procedure: animals are frequently euthanized after the experiment; however death is the endpoint of some procedures. The Three R's 3R's are guiding principles for more ethical use of animals in testing. These were first described by W. Russell and R. Burch in The 3R's have a broader scope than simply encouraging alternatives to animal testing, but aim to improve animal welfare and scientific quality where the use of animals can not be avoided.

These 3R's are now implemented in many testing establishments worldwide and have been adopted by various pieces of legislation and regulations.

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Despite the widespread acceptance of the 3R's, many countries—including Canada, Australia, Israel, South Korea, and Germany—have reported rising experimental use of animals in recent years with increased use of mice and, in some cases, fish while reporting declines in the use of cats, dogs, primates, rabbits, guinea pigs, and hamsters. Along with other countries, China has also escalated its use of GM animals, resulting in an increase in overall animal use. Although many more invertebrates than vertebrates are used in animal testing, these studies are largely unregulated by law.

The most frequently used invertebrate species are Drosophila melanogaster , a fruit fly, and Caenorhabditis elegans , a nematode worm. In the case of C. However, the lack of an adaptive immune system and their simple organs prevent worms from being used in several aspects of medical research such as vaccine development.

Several invertebrate systems are considered acceptable alternatives to vertebrates in early-stage discovery screens. Drosophila melanogaster and the Galleria mellonella waxworm have been particularly important for analysis of virulence traits of mammalian pathogens. Mice are the most commonly used vertebrate species because of their size, low cost, ease of handling, and fast reproduction rate. Over 20, rabbits were used for animal testing in the UK in The numbers of rabbits used for this purpose has fallen substantially over the past two decades. In , there were 3, procedures on rabbits for eye irritation in the UK, [96] and in this number was just Cats are most commonly used in neurological research.

In the UK, just procedures were carried out on cats in The number has been around for most of the last decade.

Dogs are widely used in biomedical research, testing, and education—particularly beagles , because they are gentle and easy to handle, and to allow for comparisons with historical data from beagles a Reduction technique. They are used as models for human and veterinary diseases in cardiology, endocrinology , and bone and joint studies, research that tends to be highly invasive, according to the Humane Society of the United States.

EU and national regulations for animal experimentation

One of the most significant advancements in medical science involves the use of dogs in developing the answers to insulin production in the body for diabetics and the role of the pancreas in this process. They found that the pancreas was responsible for producing insulin in the body and that removal of the pancreas, resulted in the development of diabetes in the dog. After re-injecting the pancreatic extract, insulin , the blood glucose levels were significantly lowered.

The U. Non-human primates NHPs are used in toxicology tests, studies of AIDS and hepatitis, studies of neurology , behavior and cognition, reproduction, genetics , and xenotransplantation. They are caught in the wild or purpose-bred. In the United States and China, most primates are domestically purpose-bred, whereas in Europe the majority are imported purpose-bred.

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Department of Agriculture , there were 71, monkeys in U. As of [update] , there are approximately chimpanzees in U. The first transgenic primate was produced in , with the development of a method that could introduce new genes into a rhesus macaque. Animals used by laboratories are largely supplied by specialist dealers. Sources differ for vertebrate and invertebrate animals. Most laboratories breed and raise flies and worms themselves, using strains and mutants supplied from a few main stock centers.

Animal shelters also supply the laboratories directly. Department of Agriculture USDA to sell animals for research purposes, while Class B dealers are licensed to buy animals from "random sources" such as auctions, pound seizure, and newspaper ads. Some Class B dealers have been accused of kidnapping pets and illegally trapping strays, a practice known as bunching. Four states in the U. Fourteen states explicitly prohibit the practice, while the remainder either allow it or have no relevant legislation.

The latter requirement may also be exempted by special arrangement. Over half the primates imported between and were handled by Charles River Laboratories , or by Covance , which is the single largest importer of primates into the U. The extent to which animal testing causes pain and suffering , and the capacity of animals to experience and comprehend them, is the subject of much debate.

Since , in the UK, every research procedure was retrospectively assessed for severity. The five categories are "sub-threshold", "mild", "moderate", "severe" and "non-recovery", the latter being procedures in which an animal is anesthetized and subsequently killed without recovering consciousness. Academic reviews of the topic are more equivocal, noting that although the argument that animals have at least simple conscious thoughts and feelings has strong support, [] some critics continue to question how reliably animal mental states can be determined. This does support the idea that dogs, at the very least, have some form of consciousness.

It states "The ability to experience and respond to pain is widespread in the animal kingdom Pain is a stressor and, if not relieved, can lead to unacceptable levels of stress and distress in animals. On the subject of analgesics used to relieve pain, the Guide states "The selection of the most appropriate analgesic or anesthetic should reflect professional judgment as to which best meets clinical and humane requirements without compromising the scientific aspects of the research protocol".

Accordingly, all issues of animal pain and distress, and their potential treatment with analgesia and anesthesia, are required regulatory issues in receiving animal protocol approval. Regulations require that scientists use as few animals as possible, especially for terminal experiments. Methods of euthanizing laboratory animals are chosen to induce rapid unconsciousness and death without pain or distress. The animal can be made to inhale a gas, such as carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide , by being placed in a chamber, or by use of a face mask, with or without prior sedation or anesthesia.

Sedatives or anesthetics such as barbiturates can be given intravenously , or inhalant anesthetics may be used. Amphibians and fish may be immersed in water containing an anesthetic such as tricaine. Physical methods are also used, with or without sedation or anesthesia depending on the method.

Recommended methods include decapitation beheading for small rodents or rabbits. Cervical dislocation breaking the neck or spine may be used for birds, mice, and immature rats and rabbits. Maceration grinding into small pieces is used on 1 day old chicks. Captive bolts may be used, typically on dogs, ruminants, horses, pigs and rabbits. It causes death by a concussion to the brain. Gunshot may be used, but only in cases where a penetrating captive bolt may not be used. Some physical methods are only acceptable after the animal is unconscious.

Electrocution may be used for cattle, sheep, swine, foxes, and mink after the animals are unconscious, often by a prior electrical stun. Pithing inserting a tool into the base of the brain is usable on animals already unconscious. Slow or rapid freezing, or inducing air embolism are acceptable only with prior anesthesia to induce unconsciousness.

Basic or pure research investigates how organisms behave, develop, and function. Those opposed to animal testing object that pure research may have little or no practical purpose, but researchers argue that it forms the necessary basis for the development of applied research, rendering the distinction between pure and applied research—research that has a specific practical aim—unclear. Fruit flies, nematode worms, mice and rats together account for the vast majority, though small numbers of other species are used, ranging from sea slugs through to armadillos.

Applied research aims to solve specific and practical problems. These may involve the use of animal models of diseases or conditions, which are often discovered or generated by pure research programmes. In turn, such applied studies may be an early stage in the drug discovery process. Examples include:. Xenotransplantation research involves transplanting tissues or organs from one species to another, as a way to overcome the shortage of human organs for use in organ transplants.

Documents released to the news media by the animal rights organization Uncaged Campaigns showed that, between and , wild baboons imported to the UK from Africa by Imutran Ltd, a subsidiary of Novartis Pharma AG, in conjunction with Cambridge University and Huntingdon Life Sciences , to be used in experiments that involved grafting pig tissues, suffered serious and sometimes fatal injuries.

A scandal occurred when it was revealed that the company had communicated with the British government in an attempt to avoid regulation. Toxicology testing, also known as safety testing, is conducted by pharmaceutical companies testing drugs, or by contract animal testing facilities, such as Huntingdon Life Sciences , on behalf of a wide variety of customers. Toxicology tests are used to examine finished products such as pesticides , medications , food additives , packing materials, and air freshener , or their chemical ingredients.

Most tests involve testing ingredients rather than finished products, but according to BUAV , manufacturers believe these tests overestimate the toxic effects of substances; they therefore repeat the tests using their finished products to obtain a less toxic label.

The substances are applied to the skin or dripped into the eyes; injected intravenously , intramuscularly , or subcutaneously ; inhaled either by placing a mask over the animals and restraining them, or by placing them in an inhalation chamber; or administered orally, through a tube into the stomach, or simply in the animal's food. Doses may be given once, repeated regularly for many months, or for the lifespan of the animal. There are several different types of acute toxicity tests. This test was removed from OECD international guidelines in , replaced by methods such as the fixed dose procedure , which use fewer animals and cause less suffering.

Irritancy can be measured using the Draize test , where a test substance is applied to an animal's eyes or skin, usually an albino rabbit. For Draize eye testing, the test involves observing the effects of the substance at intervals and grading any damage or irritation, but the test should be halted and the animal killed if it shows "continuing signs of severe pain or distress".

The most stringent tests are reserved for drugs and foodstuffs. For these, a number of tests are performed, lasting less than a month acute , one to three months subchronic , and more than three months chronic to test general toxicity damage to organs , eye and skin irritancy, mutagenicity , carcinogenicity , teratogenicity , and reproductive problems. The cost of the full complement of tests is several million dollars per substance and it may take three or four years to complete.

These toxicity tests provide, in the words of a United States National Academy of Sciences report, "critical information for assessing hazard and risk potential". Scientists face growing pressure to move away from using traditional animal toxicity tests to determine whether manufactured chemicals are safe. Cosmetics testing on animals is particularly controversial. Such tests, which are still conducted in the U. Cosmetics testing on animals is banned in India, the European Union, [] Israel and Norway [] [] while legislation in the U. France, which is home to the world's largest cosmetics company, L'Oreal , has protested the proposed ban by lodging a case at the European Court of Justice in Luxembourg , asking that the ban be quashed.

Before the early 20th century, laws regulating drugs were lax. Currently, all new pharmaceuticals undergo rigorous animal testing before being licensed for human use. Tests on pharmaceutical products involve:. It is estimated that 20 million animals are used annually for educational purposes in the United States including, classroom observational exercises, dissections and live-animal surgeries.

States and school districts mandating students be offered the choice to not dissect. The Sonoran Arthropod Institute hosts an annual Invertebrates in Education and Conservation Conference to discuss the use of invertebrates in education. In November , the U. The operator is required to amputate a cockroach's antennae , use sandpaper to wear down the shell, insert a wire into the thorax , and then glue the electrodes and circuit board onto the insect's back. A mobile phone app can then be used to control it via Bluetooth. The makers of the "Roboroach" have been funded by the National Institute of Mental Health and state that the device is intended to encourage children to become interested in neuroscience.

Animals are used by the military to develop weapons, vaccines, battlefield surgical techniques, and defensive clothing. In the US military, goats are commonly used to train combat medics. Goats have become the main animal species used for this purpose after the Pentagon phased out using dogs for medical training in the s. Coast Guard announced that it would reduce the number of animals it uses in its training exercises by half after PETA released video showing Guard members cutting off the limbs of unconscious goats with tree trimmers and inflicting other injuries with a shotgun, pistol, ax and a scalpel.

The moral and ethical questions raised by performing experiments on animals are subject to debate, and viewpoints have shifted significantly over the 20th century. Still, a wide range of viewpoints exist. The view that animals have moral rights animal rights is a philosophical position proposed by Tom Regan , among others, who argues that animals are beings with beliefs and desires, and as such are the "subjects of a life" with moral value and therefore moral rights. Likewise, a "moral dilemma" view suggests that avoiding potential benefit to humans is unacceptable on similar grounds, and holds the issue to be a dilemma in balancing such harm to humans to the harm done to animals in research.

Another prominent position is that of philosopher Peter Singer , who argues that there are no grounds to include a being's species in considerations of whether their suffering is important in utilitarian moral considerations. Governments such as the Netherlands and New Zealand have responded to the public's concerns by outlawing invasive experiments on certain classes of non-human primates, particularly the great apes.

NIH announced in that it would dramatically reduce and eventually phase out experiments on chimpanzees. The British government has required that the cost to animals in an experiment be weighed against the gain in knowledge. Various specific cases of animal testing have drawn attention, including both instances of beneficial scientific research, and instances of alleged ethical violations by those performing the tests.

The fundamental properties of muscle physiology were determined with work done using frog muscles including the force generating mechanism of all muscle, [] the length-tension relationship, [] and the force-velocity curve [] , and frogs are still the preferred model organism due to the long survival of muscles in vitro and the possibility of isolating intact single-fiber preparations not possible in other organisms.

Concerns have been raised over the mistreatment of primates undergoing testing. In the case of Britches , a macaque monkey at the University of California, Riverside , gained public attention. He had his eyelids sewn shut and a sonar sensor on his head as part of an experiment to test sensory substitution devices for blind people.

The laboratory was raided by Animal Liberation Front in , removing Britches and other animals. Following release of the footage, the U. Threats of violence to animal researchers are not uncommon. In , a primate researcher at the University of California, Los Angeles UCLA shut down the experiments in his lab after threats from animal rights activists.

The researcher had received a grant to use 30 macaque monkeys for vision experiments; each monkey was anesthetized for a single physiological experiment lasting up to hours, and then euthanized. Demonstrations were held in front of his home. A Molotov cocktail was placed on the porch of what was believed to be the home of another UCLA primate researcher; instead, it was accidentally left on the porch of an elderly woman unrelated to the university. The Animal Liberation Front claimed responsibility for the attack.

These attacks—as well as similar incidents that caused the Southern Poverty Law Center to declare in that the animal rights movement had "clearly taken a turn toward the more extreme"—prompted the US government to pass the Animal Enterprise Terrorism Act and the UK government to add the offense of "Intimidation of persons connected with animal research organisation" to the Serious Organised Crime and Police Act Such legislation and the arrest and imprisonment of activists may have decreased the incidence of attacks.

Most scientists and governments state that animal testing should cause as little suffering to animals as possible, and that animal tests should only be performed where necessary. The "Three Rs" [72] [] are guiding principles for the use of animals in research in most countries. Whilst replacement of animals, i. Species Specific Protections. Several laws in existence protect specific species of wild animals that are not even native to the U.

Although the goals of these Acts are noble, it seems they are less effective than they intend. Most importantly, the statutes establish specific species conservation funds, from which the Secretary of the Interior may provide financial assistance for approved projects for research, conservation, management, or species protection. These fund are only designated for a specific period of years, but presumably may be renewed upon expiration.

The African Elephant Conservation Act imposes civil and criminal penalties on any person who among another things, imports raw ivory from any country other than an ivory producing country, or from a country for which a moratorium is in effect, or who exports raw ivory from the U. The Act also provides a reward for anyone who furnishes information that leads to a civil penalty or conviction under the Act.

Beyond providing funding for conservation efforts and some limits on the ivory trade in the U. As with other acts, there seems to be a lack of enforcement mechanisms written into the act and a lack of resources to carry out the mandates of the act. The future of zoo animal protection may then rest outside U. States are subject to the Animal Welfare Act , but because the AWA only sets forth minimum standards governing the care and welfare of animals, states are also free to create their own laws to protect animals.

The only requirement is that states create stricter standards than the federal law. Today every state has enacted its own unique law prohibiting cruel treatment of animals. Forty-one states and the District of Columbia provide felony-level penalties for certain types of cruelty violations. However, some states exempt classes of animals or whole kingdoms. Only three states, Minnesota, Mississippi, and Oklahoma provide no exemptions.

Some states including Arkansas, Kentucky, and South Dakota allow for additional licensing or permitting requirements by states or local government. It also allows for forfeiture or seizure of the animal and recovery for cost of care. It exempts farming, hunting, and research from its provisions. The most severe punishment is for the third offense for intentional cruelty, including seriously injuring or poisoning.

Enforcement of state anti-cruelty laws is left up to state and local law enforcement. More and more, there are divisions dedicated solely to enforcing animal anti-cruelty statutes being developed in large cities. It is questionable though, how general enforcement agencies located in high-crime areas would have the staffing and resources to strictly enforce animal anti-cruelty statutes. One important new piece of state legislation was recently passed in Louisiana.

LA HB makes it a Class 4 violation to kill a current or former zoo or circus animal for sport. The law prohibits zoos and circuses from providing, selling or donating any animal for use in a canned hunt, which is where hunters pay a fee to kill captive, tame animals. This mandate also prohibits transferring any animal from a zoo or circus to a canned hunt, and prohibits canned hunting facilities from purchasing, accepting as a donation, or receiving any animal formerly housed in a zoo or circus.

Prior to this protection, retired zoo and circus animals would often end up in canned hunting facilities. For more on the issue of canned hunts, click here. State Anti-Cruelty laws, so long as they are not preempted by the AWA nor exempt zoo animals all together, are a valid source of protection for zoo animals. Like federal statutes however, only the most heinous offenses will be prosecuted as budget and staff constraints are always a hindrance to effective enforcement.

While maltreatment can be addressed at the state level, it is the actual taking of zoo animals from their native habitats in other countries that poses considerable problems. The text of the Convention was agreed to on March 3, and entered into effect on July 1, Annually the international wildlife trade is estimated to be worth billion s of dollars and it includes hundreds of millions of plant and animal specimens. Once a country joins CITES, the Convention is legally binding — that country must then implement the Convention into their own national laws.

The Convention recognizes that countries best manage the wildlife within their own borders and therefore, does not dictate wildlife management for member countries. Rather, it leaves parties of the Convention free to regulate the trade of animals within its borders. This could be beneficial to animals in one country, but a hindrance for species in another, since laws will inevitably vary.

According to the U. Any type of species can potentially be listed, from leeches to lions. While more charismatic creatures such as bears and whales are better known examples of CITES species, the most numerous groups include less popularized animals such as corals, mussels, and frogs. There are three appendices that list species and subspecies to which the Convention applies. According to the Convention, animals listed in Appendix I shall:. Trade in specimens of these species must be subject to particularly strict regulation in order not to endanger further their survival and must only be authorized in exceptional circumstances.

Well-known endangered species, including the Asian elephants and the Panda Bear are listed in Appendix I. Animals that are not presently threatened with extinction, but may become so unless trade and use of such specimens is subject to strict regulations are listed in Appendix II. Importation of an Appendix III specimen still requires a certificate of origin. Each party to the Convention must designate one or more Management Authority in charge of administering the licensing system and one or more Scientific Authority to advise them on the effects of trade on the status of the species.

CITES operates by subjecting international trade to controls that require all import, export, re-export, and introduction for the species covered by CITES be authorized through a licensing system. Any trade of such species listed requires the prior grant and presentation of an export permit which can only be granted when all conditions are met. Animals listed in Appendix I cannot be exported without an export permit, that may only be granted where the Scientific Authority of the state has confirmed it will not be detrimental to the species and the management authority confirms that the species was obtained lawfully, the shipment will minimize the risk of injury and cruel treatment to the animal, and the receiving country has obtained an import permit.

The Management Authority must also find that the specimen is not to be used for primarily commercial purposes. The protections for animals and restrictions in their trade decrease as their listing status decreases. Trade of animals in Appendix I is almost non-existent, unless there is a prior grant of authority, which is only to occur in exceptionally limited circumstances. In contrast, trade of animals listed in Appendix III only requires that the animal was not obtained unlawfully and transport of the animal minimize the risk of injury or cruel treatment.

This illustrates just how important it is to ensure proper listing of animals that are endangered or threatened, so that they may be afforded the most protection available under the Convention. Under this Article, any party to the convention may propose an amendment to Appendix I or II for consideration days before the meeting. A two-thirds majority, who must be present and voting, adopts amendments.

The amendment is adopted upon a two-thirds majority vote of the parties. Captive-born animals are subject to different standards under the Convention. The Management Authority must be satisfied that the animals will be transported in a manner that will minimize risk of injury, damage to health, or cruel treatment. Unfortunately, species that are listed in the appendices, but born in captivity, are afforded much less protection under CITES than their free-roaming counterparts.

One benefit of this provision however, is that captive breeding programs at zoos can reintroduce species into the wild without obtaining prior permits. The frequency of this occurring, though, is rare since reintroduction is costly and difficult. In addition to captive animals, the Convention exempts species that were acquired before CITES provisions applied to them. Species may be listed on one or the other or both, but the reasons for listing, the listing process, the legal requirements, and the benefit of listing is entirely different and unrelated.

The Treaty dictates in Article XI that the parties must convene regularly, meeting at least once every two years. During these meetings the convention will update and amend the Treaty. Non-governmental organizations may participate in meeting, but they have no vote. This section of the Treaty also discusses the procedure for meetings and the role of the Secretariat of the Convention.


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According to the provisions of the Treaty, member parties are free to adopt more strict regulations than the international standards for their own country. A member state may withdraw from the Convention at any time, pursuant to the process of denunciation laid out in Article XXIV. This treaty was litigated in the matter of The Humane Society of the U. Bruce Babbitt [93]. The Humane Society of the U. The court found that the interpretation of commercial activity was not unreasonable because it was in accord with the legislative history of the act. The movement and transfer of Lota was determined to be exempt from the provisions of the ESA regulating her trade and movement.

Plaintiffs asserted injury because the challenged conduct threatened to diminish or deplete the overall supply of endangered animals available for observation and study, rather than the specific animal who was being affected by such provisions. The court ultimately found that the plaintiffs lacked standing to sue on behalf of Lota, because they could not establish a concrete injury in fact, causation, or redressability.

It seems, therefore, that the court has left room for someone who visits a specific zoo on a frequent basis and plans to return to bring suit on behalf of the welfare of a specific animal, i. Hopefully this will be a feasible claim in the future to ensure animals, especially highly intelligent ones, are well-protected. The matter of Born Free v. Gale Norton , [97] indicates how difficult, if not impossible, it is to contest a decision by the Secretary of the Interior to import endangered species.

In this matter, the zoo sought to import African elephants from Swaziland, claiming that they would be killed if they were not transported. The court held that the advocates, Born Free, failed to show a likelihood of success to warrant preliminary injunctive relief.

Despite the potential detrimental effects to the remaining foreign herd, no overall detriment to the species was shown since the elephants were to be used for breeding and proceeds from their importation would benefit the foreign elephant habitat. In the matter of Pedersen v. Benson , [99] an importer had a permit to import five giraffes from Kenya, three of which were sold and released to public zoos after the requisite quarantine period.

One of them had a heart attack and died. The permits, issued by APHIS, were issued under the further understanding that all the giraffes would be consigned to an approved zoological park. Africa USA is a privately-owned zoo, and lacks governmental control. The government feared that giraffes, as ruminates, could be infected or exposed to hoof and mouth disease. Here, the importation was specifically permitted for all five animals, and any one animal was just as much a potential carrier of hoof and mouth disease as this particular giraffe.

Therefore, this matter was dismissed for failure to state a cognizable claim. Even then challenges to the decision to import or export, once a permit has been granted, are rarely, if ever, successful. While CITES regulates trade by either allowing or restricting it, voluntary standards regulate the specifics of the transport. International Air Transport Association.

Animals have been transported by air since the early s. Some member counties also enforce the regulations for the transportation of live animals within their country. The IATA represents a large portion of the airline industry and provides the specific standards required for transport for those member airlines. An applicant airline that fulfills all membership entry requirements application form, supporting documents, application and entrance fee, and membership dues , will be admitted to IATA, subject to successful completion of the IATA Operational Quality Standard OQS audit process.

Starting January 1, , all new members must now demonstrate that they operate according to recognized international Operational Quality Standards. These standards include an appropriate live animal transport policy. Department of Agriculture recently announced in the U. Federal Register its intention to apply the U. This requires carriers serving the U. Thereafter, the President may direct the Secretary to prohibit the bringing or importation into the U.

Organizations where membership is voluntary seem to offer more meaningful regulations and protections for zoo animals. They set forth strict, specific standards, and additional enforcement mechanisms are provided to ensure members adhere. The AZA is an organization of zoos and related facilities that meet the accreditation and certification standards respectively.

This is a somewhat heightened standard for the care and welfare of their zoo animals. Each member institution is required to develop a Program Animal Policy. One of the most important aspects of the policy is ensuring animal welfare standards are met, including those for housing, husbandry, handling, and human-animal interactions. This includes, but is not limited to, wildlife ranches, wildlife refuges or rehab centers, research facilities, sanctuaries, survival centers, breeding farms, and educational outreach organizations. Related Facilities must be inspected and certified before becoming an AZA member.

This requires the facilities to achieve and maintain or surpass the same basic standards as Institution members. The inspection and review process falls under the authority of the Accreditation Commission even though Related Facilities are not considered accredited, they are only certified. International facilities apply for certification under the same rules as those that apply to facilities located in the U.

Facilities must successfully complete the full process again before being re-certified. There is no guarantee the credential will be renewed during subsequent inspections. According to the AZA their standards are subject to continuous review and enhancement requiring increased levels of professional commitment to achieve and maintain accreditation or certification. A permanent cultural institution which owns and maintains wildlife under the direction of a professional staff, provides its collection with appropriate care and exhibits them in an aesthetic manner to the public on a regularly scheduled, predictable basis.

The Accreditation Commission consists of a Chairperson and eleven Commissioners who serve three-year terms. It takes approximately six months from the time the application is submitted For the AZA to inspect the facility, hold a hearing, and make a decision. Even after a facility has been accredited or certified, the AZA can inspect the facility at any time.

The program more accurately represents a captive species survival program; its effect is to ensure the survival and proliferation of captive populations only.

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It makes breeding and management recommendations for each animal with consideration given to the logistics and feasibility concerns i. These master plans may even include recommendations not to breed animals, to avoid the problems of surplus animals. For further information on surplus zoo animals see discussion below, in Part III b of this document. Congress and Federal Agencies. This group works with government officials to develop Federal legislation and regulations that are favorable to its members and their interests. Government Affairs also plays an integral role in educating its members and the public about existing rules and regulations and assisting with any state or legislative matters requested by their members.

Finally, this group participates in a number of international treaties and conventions impacting fish and wildlife, including CITES. They would be allowed as an Non-Governmental Organization to participate in their meeting i. While the AZA may promulgate and impose standards to ensure the welfare of zoo animals, its obvious bias must be considered when evaluating their effectiveness.

It is in the business of zoo keeping, so its main goal is to keep zoo animals in zoos.

Toward Reform: Accountability, Uniformity, Balance

It is debatable whether its aim is to truly ensure the welfare of zoo animals. In imposing the AZA rules and policies, these zoo professionals are highly influenced by the bottom line — money. On one hand they would not want to jeopardize their chosen career-path, but it must be remembered that a healthy animals is worth more to them than an abused or dead one. Description of the Elephant. There are two types of elephants found in zoos in North America today, the Asian and the African. Although very similar, there are also differences between these two species. The Asian elephant is smaller than the African elephant and has smaller ears, a domed forehead and rounded back, unlike its African relative.

The African elephant is the largest living land mammal. Today, the populations are mostly confined to small parks and reserves, their habitat being only a fraction of what it once was. Their life span in the wild averages 60 years or longer. Captive elephants respond to 70 to 80 different commands in the human language, and some understand a hundred.

Once an elephant stops moving, at the rate it is used to in the wild, it is highly susceptible to arthritis in the bones of its large column-like legs. In the old days, when zoo elephants were simply thrown into cages for a lifetime of solitary confinement, most became so crippled they could no longer have walked away even if set free. To keep a captive elephant in reasonable health, it should be exercised, socially stimulated by both its handlers and by other elephants, and trained to, at the very least, lift one leg at a time to undergo nail-filing on an almost daily basis.

If the vet has to knock out the animal with drugs every time he needs to treat some affliction, the risk of death becomes considerable. Accidental overdoses and allergic reactions are always threats, but the main problem arises since elephants breathe differently than most mammals do. As a result, an elephant that falls unconscious onto its side is likely to develop serious breathing problems in a short time.