TESS is designed to build on the work of its predecessor, the Kepler space telescope, which discovered the bulk of some exoplanets documented during the past 20 years and is running out of fuel. Those are believed the most likely to feature rocky surfaces or oceans and are thus considered the best candidates for life to evolve. The two newest planets, which still need to be reviewed by other researchers, offer the chance for follow-up study, officials said.
With four special cameras, TESS uses a detection method called transit photometry, which looks for periodic dips in the visible light of stars caused by planets passing, or transiting, in front of them. Perth Now Click to open navigation. NASA telescope discovers two new exoplanets beyond solar system. Joey Roulette Reuters. The real allure of Io, however, is in the hundreds of active volcanoes, sky-high plumes and yellow-red hydrothermal areas that litter the surface.
Our studies of the temperatures and changes over time of lava lakes on Earth reveal that eruption temperatures, related to compositions, are visible from remote sensing and show that cooling is rapid for Earth conditions. Galaxies are not lonely islands floating in the Universe. They host large gaseous envelopes of baryons, a. Finally, I will briefly highlight the connections between low- and high-redshift CGM studies, including new applications that rely on fast radio bursts FRBs. Supermassive black holes are ubiquitous in massive galaxies, but it remains unclear how many sub-Milky Way mass galaxies have central black holes.
If low mass galaxies commonly host central black holes, these will make up the majority of massive black holes in the local universe. From the demographics of these black holes we can place constraints on how supermassive black holes form in the early universe. These include the first discovery of massive black holes in stripped galaxy nuclei, and the first dynamical measurements of central BHs with masses below one million solar masses.
Now, it has evolved into an International Organization with members and observers from both the professional and non-professional astronomical community, contributing photometry to a public photometric database of about 25, variable objects, and using it for research projects. I will present the main aspects of the association and how it has evolved with time to become a premium resource for variable star researchers. I will also discuss the various means that the AAVSO is using to support cutting-edge variable star science, and how it engages its members in projects building a stronger international astronomical community.
It is well-established that fast-spinning millisecond pulsars are neutron stars recycled through accretion from binary companions. For most millisecond pulsars the accretion process has permanently ceased, and they are in binary systems with low-mass white dwarf companions. I will discuss the properties of neutron stars in these binaries and and the implications for the formation and evolution of millisecond pulsars. My colleague, Carl Bergstrom, and I created a class that teaches students when to Call BS on numbers, statistics and algorithms. The course, or parts of the course, are being adopted at more than 70 universities around the country.
In this talk, I will survey some of these lessons, common pitfalls, and habits of mind that we have found useful in our research, in the classroom, and in our personal lives where misinformation, disinformation and deep fakes are becoming a daily occurrence. These very energetic regions lie at the center of massive galaxies and are powered by a supermassive black hole.
While it has been found that there is a correlation between the mass of these supermassive black holes and the mass of the surrounding galaxies, the co-evolution of galaxies and quasars is barely understood. Outflows launched from the vicinity of supermassive black holes are a key piece in this puzzle, potentially linking the small and the large-scale phenomena.
We have discovered that some of this gas is outflowing at very high speeds speeds between 0. I will present a survey of these extremely high velocity outflows observed as broad absorption lines in Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data. Moreover, the kinetic luminosity of outflows at 0. Studying extremely high velocity outflows can help us understand the interaction between the central supermassive black hole and the host galaxy, so I will discuss the characteristics and properties of the found sample.
While the Kepler and TESS missions were designed to search for exoplanets, their impact has reached far beyond the statistics of planet occurrence. With these data we are discovering new astrophysics of stars, and in turn revealing clues about the formation history of our own Galaxy. Here I will show how high precision time domain data from Kepler and TESS, combined with astrometric data from Gaia, have revealed new mysteries about stars and the stellar populations within our Galaxy.
Pulsar timing arrays use distributed networks of pulsars to sense these waves as they pass through our galaxy; in effect, they are an observatory on a Galactic scale. If black holes in-spiral in an isolated environment, we should by now have already detected nanohertz-frequency gravitational waves with pulsar timing arrays… or so we thought. This talk will discuss pulsar timing arrays and what our latest, most stringent limits on gravitational waves mean for galaxy evolution and supermassive binary black holes.
I will also briefly discuss efforts to discover both gravitational and electromagnetic waves from binary supermassive black holes. In this case, the secular approximation i. Thus, the orbits may change shape and orientation, on timescales longer than the orbital periods, but the semi-major axes are constant. This approximation has been proven to be very useful in many astrophysical contexts, from planetary to triple-star systems and even black holes. I will discuss recent developments in that field and will show that hierarchical triple systems are richer and far more exciting than considered of before.
In particular, the tight orbit can reach extremely high eccentricities and undergo chaotic flips of its orientation. This behavior has important implications for the evolution of many systems, and I will present some seminal examples, such as retrograde hot Jupiters, blue stragglers, and black-hole binaries. Within one billion years of the Big Bang the first galaxies emitted enough ultraviolet photons to ionize the gas in deep space, permanently transforming the Universe. Determining exactly when and how reionization occurred is therefore central to our efforts to understand these early sources, as well as the physics that governs the interaction between galaxies and their environments.
By combining observations of high-redshift quasars with wide-field galaxy surveys we are beginning to better appreciate the complexity of the IGM at this epoch, and recognize how it may help us to construct a more complete model of reionization. These transformations are due to a combination of internal processes, like the presence of a bar or active galactic nucleus, as well as environmental processes. I will review the ways in which host environment can affect the properties of galaxies and then present some of our recent work on group and cluster galaxies in the local universe.
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Previous work has found that the properties of satellite galaxies depend on the mass of their host halo. We explore how galaxy star formation rates and morphologies depend on the evolutionary state of their host environment as traced by both dynamics and X-ray richness. It is only with large samples of well-studied galaxies in the local universe that these subtle environmental effects can be measured. I will discuss how these trends can be used to constrain the mechanisms at play in environmentally-driven galaxy evolution. However, there is a more metal-poor population of stars present in the bulge, a scarcer, lesser explored population of stars.
Thanks to progress in observations, strong gravitational lensing has provided a promising avenue to address this fundamental question. I will discuss several important aspects about this remarkable phenomenon. First, these highly magnified stars have dramatically enhanced observability because they are inevitably subject to intermittent microlensing due to intracluster stars, and they are sensitive to stellar-mass compact DM objects inside the cluster halo.
Second, their image positions in the critical curve vicinity can be perturbed by intervening low-mass DM subhalos inside the cluster halo, making them powerful targets for testing a key prediction of the CDM model. It likely contains most of the metals lost in galaxy winds and enough material to sustain star-formation for billions of years. I will highlight the exciting new results from my group that constrain the cosmic baryon cycle on different physical scales, from black holes to the intergalactic medium.
I will introduce several exciting new techniques for resolving the gaseous structures in the CGM, and will conclude by posing unanswered questions about the CGM that will be addressed with future survey data and hydrodynamic simulations in a cosmological context. I will give a brief review of the historical context of oppression in the US and some statistics which demonstrates the current situation in science and astronomy.
I will spend the majority of the talk discussing ways in which individuals at all seniority levels can take actions to increase the inclusion of marginalized groups in our profession. Family fragments disperse in their orbital elements, semi-major axis, a, eccentricity,e, and inclination, i, due to secular resonances and the non gravitational Yarkovsky force. We have developed a new technique that is insensitive to the spreading of fragments in e and i by searching for V-shaped correlations of family members in an asteroid diameter, D. A group of asteroids is identified as a collisional family if its boundary in the a vs.
The ability to send missions to Mars, to study star formation in a galaxy, and to model the early universe primarily depends on both government — i. Scientists can and do engage in work to determine the direction of our field and how society prioritizes science.
As we approach the midterms, two years in to a new administration, how is science faring on a national stage? I will discuss the role of the American Astronomical Society AAS in such discussions and in advocating for the astronomical sciences in Washington and what individual scientists can do to effectively engage in the political process.
Unfortunately, most known transiting exoplanet hosts are too faint to permit atmospheric characterization. We are using data from the TESS, K2, and ground-based transit surveys like the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope KELT project to find planets around bright stars while addressing specific questions about planet formation and evolution. These systems provide insight into the conditions required for planet formation. I will describe our results and discuss how we will search for these kinds of objects in future surveys such as LSST. Sources in crowded fields are extremely covariant with their neighbors and blending makes even the number of sources ambiguous.
Probabilistic cataloging returns an ensemble of catalogs inferred from the image and can address these difficulties. We present the first optical probabilistic catalog, cataloging a crowded Sloan Digital Sky Survey r band image cutout from Messier 2. We also present an algorithm for reducing this catalog ensemble to a condensed catalog that is similar to a traditional catalog, except it explicitly marginalizes over source-source covariances and nuisance parameters.
We also detail efforts to make probabilistic cataloging more computationally efficient and extend it beyond point sources to extended objects. Probabilistic cataloging takes significant computational resources, but its performance compared to existing software in crowded fields make it a enticing method to pursue further. An overview of the flying observatory, the instruments and new science results will be presented. Future observing opportunities and participation in future instrument developments, over the 20 year lifetime of the observatory will be discussed. These laboratories engage in many research areas, including bio-engineering, alternative energy, inertial confinement fusion.
The Z-facility is ideal for studying atomic physics in the same conditions as those observed in astrophysical objects; this is the foundation for the Z-Astrophysical-Plasma-Properties ZAPP collaboration. The iron-opacity experiment has revealed that there may be an unknown source of opacity for Fe at the base of the solar convection zone; experiment and data analysis methods are currently under scrutiny.
The white-dwarf-photosphere experiment found consistency between models for the broadening of H-beta. However, there is an unexplained discrepancy between emission and absorption line shapes, and significant discrepancies on the modeling the high-n lines of hydrogen. It has inspired a new generation of ambitious surveys to determine the fundamental nature of this acceleration. This analysis constrains the composition and evolution of the Universe through a combination of galaxy clustering, galaxy-galaxy lensing, and cosmic shear. These three measurements yield consistent cosmological results, and in combination they provide some of the most stringent constraints on cosmological parameters.
I will describe the validation of measurements and modeling from pixels to cosmology and I will give an outlook on cosmology analysis plans and challenges for future, much larger experiments such as LSST and WFIRST. Joint EM and GW observations enable measurements of masses, radii, and orbital dynamics far beyond what can be achieved by independent EM or GW studies. I will highlight advances in theory and mention some key observations that have provided fundamental new insights about neutron star properties and their central role in nuclear astrophysics.
I will discuss how neutron stars, and extreme phenomena involving them, can serve as laboratories to study dense matter, neutrinos, axions and dark matter. Following the Big Bang the Universe was homogeneous in matter, energy and barren of chemistry. It is the stars which built up the periodic table. Astronomers have now identified several classes of cosmic explosions of which supernovae constitute the largest group. The Palomar Transient Factory PTF consisting of the inch Oschin Schmidt-optics telescope hosting a large field-of-view mosaic detector and the Palomar inch robotic telescope initially equipped with an imaging CCD photometer was designed to explicitly undertake a systematic survey of the optical night sky.
The speaker will talk about the returns and surprises from this project: super-luminous supernovae, new classes of transients, new light on progenitors of supernovae, detection of gamma-ray bursts by purely optical techniques and troves of pulsating stars and binary stars. Wisconsin View recording. A significant fraction of heavy elements in the universe spend some time in the interstellar medium as dust grains. But how much do we really know about the origin and evolution of dust in the Universe?
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I will review the current state of astromineralogy and describe how observations of X-ray bright compact objects can yield key insights into the evolution of Milky Way dust. With high resolution X-ray spectroscopy, we directly measure the abundance of gas-state metals and mineral composition of dust in the interstellar medium ISM. With imaging, we timing and imaging, we obtain dust grain size and spatial distributions from X-ray scattering halos around bright point sources.
Understanding the scattering component of X-ray extinction is also important for interpreting accretion by compact objects, including the supermassive black hole at the center of our galaxy. I will review the most recent exciting dust scattering discoveries, many of which draw on multi-wavelength observations. Finally, I will explain how future X-ray observatories can tackle current open questions about the dusty Universe. Estimating the mass of complex dynamical systems such as star clusters, galaxies, and galaxy clusters is important for testing astrophysical theories at a variety of scales, but is difficult in practice.
Popular techniques use position and velocity measurements of tracer objects, such as globular clusters and halo stars, to constrain the total gravitational potential of the Galaxy. This approach presents many challenges, including: different degrees of measurement uncertainties, incomplete data, and how best to use or not use multiple tracer populations in the analysis.
I will discuss a hierarchical Bayesian method that estimates the mass of the Milky Way while attempting to overcome these challenges. I will describe the results as it applies to the Milky Way, as well as results from a series of blind tests on simulated data from galaxies made in cosmological simulations. Several promising channels have be proposed for their formation, but forming supermassive black holes in the requisite time-frame remains a theoretical puzzle. One promising channel is that of direct collapse, in which a cloud of gas collapses to a massive seed black hole that then grows to supermassive size via accretion.
In this talk I will give an overview of potential supermassive black hole formation channels and outline a suite of 3D hydrodynamical simulations probing conditions conducive to formation of a massive seed black hole via direct collapse. Does the star and planet forming environment matter for protoplanetary disks and stellar properties? What are the observational signatures and theoretical implications?
UV radiation from massive stars and stellar density may affect the protoplanetary disk properties including disk mass, disk size, accretion rate, and disk lifetime. The final mass of young stellar objects YSOs in high UV radiation and rich cluster environment may also be influenced due to early loss of circumstellar materials.
In this talk I will present our on-going multi-wavelength studies of the Orion A region to probe these questions. I will focus on protoplanetary disks in three star forming regions within the Orion A cloud to probe the role of UV radiation and stellar density.
I will discuss our findings from our current surveys of these three regions in Orion A, and compare our findings to some low density, weak radiation environments, such as Taurus star forming region. I will also briefly talk about the EOS program.
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Cosmological simulations can now make specific and detailed predictions for the shapes, masses, and substructure fractions in galactic dark matter halos that depend on the dark matter model assumed. Comparing these predictions to the observed mass distributions of galaxies should in principle lead to constraints on the nature of dark matter, but observable dynamical tracers can be scarce in regions where the dark matter distribution is best able to discriminate between models.
One such region is the distant outskirts of galaxies, where the influence of baryonic matter on the dark matter halo is limited and the effect of dark substructures most prominent. New surveys of Milky Way stars like Gaia, alongside next-generation instruments and giant telescopes, are for the first time providing accurate positions, velocities, and chemical abundances for large numbers of stars in faint tidal streams: remnants of tidally-disrupted satellite galaxies that trace out the mass distribution in the distant reaches of galaxy halos.
I will show how state-of-the-art simulations play a crucial role in interpreting and analyzing this wealth of new information about stellar halos, and how stellar halo observations over the next decade will characterize the dark matter distribution in galaxies, test theories of the nature of dark matter, and illuminate the role of dark matter in galaxy formation.
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No other four-band space observing mission is currently planned. So it is imperative that we understand the strengths and weaknesses of this data and have clearly documented, reproducible methods of analyzing them. His investigation has found that despite numerous preliminary papers published by the NEOWISE group, analysis of these data is far from a solved problem.
Much work remains to be done to address systematic errors and inconsistencies in the results, to correct poorly fit properties, and to develop open, transparent analytical methods that can be reproduced for all of the data sets. In the last decade, we have learned that the CGM of Milky Way mass galaxies likely contains enough material to harbor most of the metals lost in galaxy winds and to sustain star-formation for billions of years.
I will describe constraints we have placed on the origin and fate of this material by studying the gas kinematics, metallicity and ionization state.
I will conclude by posing several unanswered questions about the CGM that will be addressed with future survey data and hydrodynamic simulations in a cosmological context. This includes, most notably, the tightest constraints on warm dark matter WDM and fuzzy dark matter FDM models, that I will present in this talk. Galaxies are complicated beasts — many physical processes operate simultaneously, and over a huge range of scales in space and time.
As a result, creating accurate models of the formation and evolution of galaxies over the lifetime of the universe presents tremendous challenges. In this talk I will discuss these challenges and their solutions, and will explain how large-scale computational models can be used to gain insights into the very first galaxies that formed in the universe over 13 billion years ago! Although thermonuclear Type Ia supernovae and neutron star mergers are some of the most important astrophysical events, our understanding of these explosions is vague.
I will present abundance measurements of elements across the periodic table Mg, Fe, Co, Ba, and others that address the nature of both types of explosions. The iron-peak elemental abundances strongly suggest that the majority of Type Ia supernovae in dwarf galaxies exploded below the Chandrasekhar mass, i.
The DEIMOS spectra also reveal that barium comes from the r-process and appears in the dwarf galaxies on a timescale similar to iron at least Myr. Therefore, the mostly likely origin is not supernovae but neutron star mergers. What happened after inflation? Pretty much everything. In this talk, I will give some background on inflation, explain what reheating is, and describe my work on related questions at the non-dark matter intersection of particle physics and astrophysics.
One of the key objectives of modern astrophysics is to understand the formation and evolution galaxies. Recently, we have entered an era of large spectroscopic and astrometric surveys, which has begun to pave the way for the exciting advancements in this field. Combining data from the many multi-object spectroscopic surveys, which are already underway, and the rich dataset from Gaia will undoubtedly be the way forward in order to disentangle the full chemo-dynamical history of our Galaxy.
In this talk, I will discuss my current work in Galactic archaeology and how large spectroscopic surveys have been used to dissect the structure of our Galaxy. I will also explore the future of Galactic archaeology through chemical cartography. It is also the first solar-powered spacecraft to orbit Jupiter. Estimates place its size at about 6. Data from NASA assets were used as a part of this collaborative effort. This feat required numerous ground and space-based observatories to all be focused on the M87 black hole at the same time this took place back in April of NASA is familiar with this particular galaxy as it has used its resources to study the brightness of the jet that erupts from the black hole.
Particles hurled out as part of this jet travel at close to the speed of light, making M87 a good target for scientists. Another tantalizing aspect of M87 was something the Hubble Space Telescope discovered in that is located within the jet. From low-energy radio waves to high-energy gamma rays, researchers went all in. As noted, black holes are collapsed stars, giving them gravitational fields so extreme that not even light can escape. Without light—they cannot be seen. The accretion disk, the matter that has been crushed and orbits the black hole can be seen.
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