Black Lives Matter founder Patrisse Cullors and recording artist Tariq Trotter of The Roots talk about how this chapter of American history continues to shape the story of race in America today. Eryn Wyse, an activist of the Dakota Access Pipeline movement describes the importance of this demonstration while Tariq Trotter, from The Roots details how the Red Power movement was inspired by much of the Black Power movement.
Akua Njeri from The Black Panther Party describes what the Black Power fist symbolizes while Otis Williams, one of the founding members of The Temptations details the political aspect of music during Powerful firsthand accounts and contemporary voices highlight the cataclysmic youth rebellion that shook the country in the summer of through music, protest and political activism and how its spirit lives on in the current youth movements of Bounce music star Big Freedia reflects on the meaning of the Stonewall Uprising and pays homage to its participants on the 50th anniversary.
The question of what America owed the world and its own people was hotly debated as the gap between the generations grew. But it was there, in , that he found himself at the center of a different kind of movement, one not played out in the classroom, but on the streets. When the FBI attempted to use his sexual orientation as a weapon against his involvement in the anti-war movement, David Mixner was not deterred.
In , Mixner was a gay man in his 20s and one of four activists who organized and inspired one of the largest marches in US history. Though their stories differ, each learned to come to terms with his experience in his own way. Listen below, as they discuss what they went through then and how Veterans are treated today.
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Watch their story below:. The incident inspires the first Earth Day in The Beatles give their final live performance on the roof of Apple Studios in London. Opening statements begin in Sirhan Sirhan's trial. Bobby Kennedy on June 6, Twenty-one Black Panther Party members are arrested on terrorism-related charges. The U. The Battle of Hamburger Hill, one of the costliest battles for the U. The X-rated film later won an Oscar for Best Picture.
Violent splinter group The Weathermen seize control of the Students for a Democratic Society's national office. The accident kills Mary Jo Kopechne, a former aide to Sen. Bobby Kennedy. John Fairfax becomes the first person to successfully row solo across an ocean. Apollo 11 splashes down in the Pacific Ocean. The three astronauts begin their day quarantine. Boxing champion Muhammad Ali is convicted of draft evasion after refusing induction into the army.
Ted Kennedy pleads guilty to leaving the scene of an accident at Chappaquiddick and addresses the incident in a nationally televised address. A ticker-tape parade is held in New York City for the Apollo 11 astronauts. The Woodstock music festival opens, attracting more than , concertgoers.
The first automated teller machine is installed in Rockville Center, New York. The Chicago Eight trial begins. Defendants are charged with conspiring to riot at the Democratic National Convention. The Weathermen lead small, violent protests of the Chicago Eight trial in what become known as the "Days of Rage. Bobby Seale is bound and gagged in the courtroom of the Chicago Eight trial. Protests erupt outside the courthouse and the judge declares a mistrial, ordering Seale to be tried alone.
The Chicago Eight becomes the Chicago Seven. Nixon addresses the nation on the war in Vietnam in what becomes known as his "Silent Majority" speech. William Calley is charged with multiple counts of premeditated murder in the My Lai massacre. Four people die at the Altamont music festival, one of whom is stabbed during a Rolling Stones performance. All rights reserved. Watch exclusive video extras from 'Fortunate Sons'. Oregon Republican senators end walkout over carbon bill.
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Here are the moments the internet buzzed about in 2nd night of debate. The protests were part of a movement in opposition to the Vietnam War and took place mainly in the United States. The growing anti-war movement alarmed many in the U. Anti-war demonstrators disrupted the meeting and 50 were arrested.
In the essay Chomsky argued that much responsibility for the war lay with liberal intellectuals and technical experts who were providing what he saw as pseudoscientific justification for the policies of the U. The execution provided an iconic image that helped sway public opinion in the United States against the war. The events of Tet in early as a whole were also remarkable in shifting public opinion regarding the war.
While the Tet Offensive provided the U. On October 15, , hundreds of thousands of people took part in National Moratorium anti-war demonstrations across the United States; the demonstrations prompted many workers to call in sick from their jobs and adolescents nationwide engaged in truancy from school. However, the proportion of individuals doing either who actually participated in the demonstrations is uncertain.
A second round of "Moratorium" demonstrations was held on November 15, but was less well-attended. Civil Affairs units, while remaining armed and under direct military control, engaged in what came to be known as " nation-building ": constructing or reconstructing schools, public buildings, roads and other infrastructure ; conducting medical programs for civilians who had no access to medical facilities; facilitating cooperation among local civilian leaders; conducting hygiene and other training for civilians; and similar activities. This policy of attempting to win the hearts and minds of the Vietnamese people, however, often was at odds with other aspects of the war which sometimes served to antagonize many Vietnamese civilians and provided ammunition to the anti-war movement.
These included the emphasis on " body count " as a way of measuring military success on the battlefield, civilian casualties during the bombing of villages symbolized by journalist Peter Arnett 's famous quote, "it was necessary to destroy the village to save it" , and the killing of civilians in such incidents as the My Lai massacre. In the documentary Hearts and Minds sought to portray the devastation the war was causing to the South Vietnamese people, and won an Academy Award for best documentary amid considerable controversy.
The South Vietnamese government also antagonized many of its citizens with its suppression of political opposition, through such measures as holding large numbers of political prisoners, torturing political opponents, and holding a one-man election for President in Covert counter-terror programs and semi-covert ones such as the Phoenix Program attempted, with the help of anthropologists, to isolate rural South Vietnamese villages and affect the loyalty of the residents.
Despite the increasingly depressing news of the war, many Americans continued to support President Johnson's endeavors. Aside from the domino theory mentioned above, there was a feeling that the goal of preventing a communist takeover of a pro-Western government in South Vietnam was a noble objective.
Many Americans were also concerned about saving face in the event of disengaging from the war or, as President Richard M.
Nixon later put it, "achieving Peace with Honor. However, anti-war feelings also began to rise. Many Americans opposed the war on moral grounds, appalled by the devastation and violence of the war. Others claimed the conflict was a war against Vietnamese independence, or an intervention in a foreign civil war ; others opposed it because they felt it lacked clear objectives and appeared to be unwinnable.
Many anti-war activists were themselves Vietnam veterans , as evidenced by the organization Vietnam Veterans Against the War. By this time, it had also become commonplace for the most radical anti-war demonstrators to prominently display the flag of the Viet Cong "enemy", an act which alienated many who were otherwise morally opposed to the war. In , President Lyndon B.
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Johnson began his re-election campaign. Eugene McCarthy ran against him for the nomination on an anti-war platform. McCarthy did not win the first primary election in New Hampshire , but he did surprisingly well against an incumbent. The resulting blow to the Johnson campaign, taken together with other factors, led the President to make a surprise announcement in a March 31 televised speech that he was pulling out of the race.
He also announced the initiation of the Paris Peace Negotiations with Vietnam in that speech. Then, on August 4, , U. After breaking with Johnson's pro-war stance, Robert F. Kennedy entered the race on March 16 and ran for the nomination on an anti-war platform. Johnson's vice president, Hubert Humphrey , also ran for the nomination, promising to continue to support the South Vietnamese government.
Nixon, Watergate, and the Attempt to Sway Public Opinion
Protests bringing attention to " the draft " began on May 5, Student activists at the University of California, Berkeley marched on the Berkeley Draft board and forty students staged the first public burning of a draft card in the United States. Another nineteen cards were burnt on May 22 at a demonstration following the Berkeley teach-in. At that time, only a fraction of all men of draft age were actually conscripted , but the Selective Service System office "Draft Board" in each locality had broad discretion on whom to draft and whom to exempt where there was no clear guideline for exemption.
In late July , Johnson doubled the number of young men to be drafted per month from 17, to 35,, and on August 31, signed a law making it a crime to burn a draft card. On October 15, the student-run National Coordinating Committee to End the War in Vietnam in New York staged the first draft card burning to result in an arrest under the new law. In , the continued operation of a seemingly unfair draft system then calling as many as 40, men for induction each month fueled a burgeoning draft resistance movement.
The draft favored white, middle-class men, which allowed an economically and racially discriminating draft to force young African American men to serve in rates that were disproportionately higher than the general population. Although in there was a smaller field of draft eligible black men—29 percent versus 63 percent of draft eligible white men—64 percent of black men were chosen to serve in the war through conscription, compared to only 31 percent of eligible white men. On October 16, , draft card turn-ins were held across the country, yielding more than 1, draft cards, later returned to the Justice Department as an act of civil disobedience.
Resisters expected to be prosecuted immediately, but Attorney General Ramsey Clark instead prosecuted a group of ringleaders including Dr. By the late s, one quarter of all court cases dealt with the draft, including men accused of draft-dodging and men petitioning for the status of conscientious objector. The charges of unfairness led to the institution of a draft lottery for the year in which a young man's birthday determined his relative risk of being drafted September 14 was the birthday at the top of the draft list for ; the following year July 9 held this distinction.
The first draft lottery since World War II in the United States was held on 1 December and was met with large protests and a great deal of controversy; statistical analysis indicated that the methodology of the lotteries unintentionally disadvantaged men with late year birthdays. Over 30, people left the country and went to Canada, Sweden, and Mexico to avoid the draft.
To gain an exemption or deferment, many men attended college, though they had to remain in college until their 26th birthday to be certain of avoiding the draft. Some men were rejected by the military as 4-F unfit for service failing to meet physical, mental, or moral standards.
All of these issues raised concerns about the fairness of who got selected for involuntary service, since it was often the poor or those without connections who were drafted. Ironically, in light of modern political issues, a certain exemption was a convincing claim of homosexuality , but very few men attempted this because of the stigma involved. Also, conviction for certain crimes earned an exclusion, the topic of the anti-war song " Alice's Restaurant " by Arlo Guthrie. Even many of those who never received a deferment or exemption never served, simply because the pool of eligible men was so huge compared to the number required for service, that the draft boards never got around to drafting them when a new crop of men became available until or because they had high lottery numbers and later.
Of those soldiers who served during the war, there was increasing opposition to the conflict amongst GIs,  which resulted in fragging and many other activities which hampered the US's ability to wage war effectively. Most of those subjected to the draft were too young to vote or drink in most states, and the image of young people being forced to risk their lives in the military without the privileges of enfranchisement or the ability to drink alcohol legally also successfully pressured legislators to lower the voting age nationally and the drinking age in many states.
Student opposition groups on many college and university campuses seized campus administration offices, and in several instances forced the expulsion of ROTC programs from the campus. Some Americans who were not subject to the draft protested the conscription of their tax dollars for the war effort. War tax resistance , once mostly isolated to solitary anarchists like Henry David Thoreau and religious pacifists like the Quakers , became a more mainstream protest tactic. As of , an estimated ,—, people were refusing to pay the excise taxes on their telephone bills, and another 20, were resisting part or all of their income tax bills.
Among the tax resisters were Joan Baez and Noam Chomsky. Momentum from the protest organizations and the war's impact on the environment became focal point of issues to an overwhelmingly main force for the growth of an environmental movement in the United States. In October the Senate Foreign Relations Committee held hearings on resolutions urging President Johnson to request an emergency session of the United Nations security council to consider proposals for ending the war.
In January , just weeks into his first term, Congressman Ron Dellums set up a Vietnam war crimes exhibit in an annex to his Congressional office. The exhibit featured four large posters depicting atrocities committed by American soldiers embellished with red paint. This was followed shortly thereafter by four days of hearings on " war crimes " in Vietnam, which began April Dellums, assisted by the Citizens Commission of Inquiry ,  had called for formal investigations into the allegations, but Congress chose not to endorse these proceedings.
As such, the hearings were ad hoc and only informational in nature. As a condition of room use, press and camera presence were not permitted, but the proceedings were transcribed. Mikva Dem-IL. The transcripts describe alleged details of U. Some tactics were described as "gruesome", such as the severing of ears from corpses to verify body count. Others involved the killing of civilians.
Soldiers claimed to have ordered artillery strikes on villages which did not appear to have any military presence. Soldiers were claimed to use racist terms such as "gooks", "dinks" and "slant eyes" when referring to the Vietnamese. Witnesses described that legal, by-the-book instruction was augmented by more questionable training by non-commissioned officers as to how soldiers should conduct themselves. Allegations of exaggeration of body count, torture, murder and general abuse of civilians and the psychology and motivations of soldiers and officers were discussed at length. William Fulbright , held a series of 22 hearings referred to as the Fulbright Hearings on proposals relating to ending the war.
On the third day of the hearings, April 22, , future Senator and presidential candidate John Kerry became the first Vietnam veteran to testify before Congress in opposition to the war.
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Speaking on behalf of Vietnam Veterans Against the War , he argued for the immediate, unilateral withdrawal of U. During nearly two hours of discussions with committee members, Kerry related in some detail the findings of the Winter Soldier Investigation , in which veterans had described personally committing or witnessing atrocities and war crimes. The opposition to the United States' involvement in the Vietnam War had many effects, which arguably led to the eventual end of the involvement of the United States.
Howard Zinn , a controversial historian, states in his book A People's History of the United States that, "in the course of the war, there developed in the United States the greatest antiwar movement the nation had ever experienced, a movement that played a critical role in bringing the war to an end. The first effect the opposition had that led to the end of the war was that fewer soldiers were available for the army.
The draft was protested and even ROTC programs too. Howard Zinn first provides a note written by a student of Boston University on May 1, , which stated to his draft board, "I have absolutely no intention to report for that exam, or for induction, or to aid in any way the American war effort against the people of Vietnam In the first quarter of the Selective Service System, for the first time, could not meet its quota. The fewer numbers of soldiers as an effect of the opposition to the war also can be traced to the protests against the ROTC programs in colleges.
Zinn argues this by stating, "Student protests against the ROTC resulted in the canceling of those programs in over forty colleges and universities. In , , college students enrolled in ROTC. By , the number was 72, A further effect of the opposition was that many college campuses were completely shut down due to protests.
These protests led to wear on the government who tried to mitigate the tumultuous behavior and return the colleges back to normal. The colleges involved in the anti-war movement included ones such as, Brown University, Kent State University, and the University of Massachusetts. Four students were killed. Another effect the opposition to the war had was that the American soldiers in Vietnam began to side with the opposition and feel remorse for what they were doing. Zinn argues this with an example in which the soldiers in a POW camp formed a peace committee as they wondered who the enemy of the war was, because it certainly was not known among them.
Until we got to the first camp, we didn't see a village intact; they were all destroyed. I sat down and put myself in the middle and asked myself: Is this right or wrong? Is it right to destroy villages?
Is it right to kill people en masse? After a while it just got to me. Howard Zinn provides that piece of evidence to reiterate how all of this destruction and fighting against an enemy that seems to be unknown has been taking a toll on the soldiers and that they began to sense a feeling of opposition as one effect of the opposition occurring in the United States.
The protest on June 23 in Los Angeles is singularly significant. It was one of the first massive war protests in the United States and the first in Los Angeles. Ending in a clash with riot police, it set a pattern for the massive protests which followed  and due to the size and violence of this event, Johnson attempted no further public speeches in venues outside military bases.
The American public's support of the Vietnam War decreased as the war continued on. As public support decreased, opposition grew. The Gallup News Service began asking the American public whether it was a "mistake to send troops to Vietnam" in August A Gallup Poll asked the question, "Have you ever felt the urge to organize or join a public demonstration about something? However, when the American Public was asked in , "Looking back, do you wish that you had made a stronger effort to protest or demonstrate against the Vietnam War, or not", 25 percent said they wished they had.
A major factor in the American public's disapproval of the Vietnam War came from the casualties being inflicted on US forces. As the war continued, the public became much more opposed to the war, seeing that it was not ending. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. See also: Kent State shootings and Jackson State killings.
See also: List of Congressional opponents of the Vietnam War. Main article: Fulbright Hearing. See also: Lists of protests against the Vietnam War. Play media. Social movements portal. No Sir! Archived from the original on Retrieved May 20, The New York Times.
July 7, Protest against the War in Vietnam. Time Inc, New York: Pantheon Books. New York: Oxford University Press. Retrieved 26 Oct Wisconsin State Journal. Madison, WI: John Humenik. David Anderson, John Ernst ed. University of Kentucky. Barbara Tischler ed.
Sights on the Sixties. Rutgers, the State University Press. New York: Penguin Books. University Press of Kentucky. Chaines of Babylon: Rise of Asian America. University of Minnesota Press. Chains of Babylon: Rise of Asian America. Cambridge University Press. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger. New York: Hyperion, New York: Atria, Retrieved 16 June Battle Notes.
Superior: Savage Press, Retrieved The Draft, — Modern war studies. University Press of Kansas. Gainesville: University of Florida Press. Vietnam Awakening. Hell no, we won't go! Frankum Jr. Historical Dictionary of the War in Vietnam. Scarecrow Press. USA Today. November 15, Delaware: Scholarly Resources Inc. Retrieved December 12, The Mobe got permission to march past his hotel without stopping.
Leadership of the march of 20, was wrested from the hands of the Mobe's marshals by the PL-led militants. A 4 hour bloody battle ensued after the police attacked the march, with injuries on both sides and -a partial victory for the anti-war movement because LBJ never dared speak in public again. Melvin Small, William Hoover ed. November 8, In Melvin Small, William Hoover ed.
Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey. The Gallup Poll: Public Opinion Lubbock Avalanche-Journal. Lubbock, Texas. March 6, Retrieved December 18, Toronto Star. Retrieved 24 August Washington, D. Government Printing Office. This book is also known as The Scranton Commission Report.
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