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Immensi tremor oceani. The tremor of the huge ocean. The Great Bear plunges with its lower part into the sea of steam like a chariot sunk in quicksand of which one only sees the shaft. Note: See k. Les Bretons disaient:. A mis le Mont en Normandie. Les Normands ripostaient:. Before, it passed on the right. Thus Bretons and Normands have argued who own the rock containing the sanctuary and home of the Angel-Protector of France.

The Bretons said:. Has put the Mont in Normandy. The Normands replied:. Saint Michel would not have gone there. A twisted iron escapes like a serpent from the ravine of a rock face, loses itself on the sand of the beach, crosses the ocean all the way to America. This has killed that. The transatlantic cable has replaced the archangel.

Let us not despise it. Tous les peintres qui viennent ici font mon portrait. Voulez-vous [] que je pose pour vous? All the painters who come here have made my portrait. Do you want me to pose for you? But I am not a painter, unfortunately. Do want to walk around the Mont on the strand? Le Mont-Saint-Michel se profilait en noir sur ce fond blafard. The Mont-Saint-Michel stood out in black against this wan wallpaper.

It lives in our passions, our strife, in our latent aspirations, our incomprehensible melancholies; it enters the very substance of our thought. They have deep recollections and surprising awakenings. The soul of a nation is composed of everything that it has lived through in the course of the ages, and for which the sphinx of the future will supply the synthesis. The druids dedicated it to a solar deity and called it Tom Belen. Note: See n. Les marins qui affrontaient la mer venaient les consulter dans cette caverne.

On these rocks and environs, the druidesses celebrated their rites, their mysteries, their sacrifices. The sailors who ventured out onto the sea came and consulted them in their cavern. It is there that they gave their oracles, that they sold for gold their magic arrows in ash wood and with a copper point, decorated with falcon plumes, which were rumored to turn away thunder storms, and which the Gauls shot at the sky when thunder roared in the skies.

He adds that, for their political writings, they make use of Greek letters; but that they consider it a sacrilege to commit their secrets to writing, which seems to imply a secret doctrine. As to the circle of God, Ceugant , the ocean of infinity, it envelops and contains the three others, it supports it with its breath, penetrates it with its life. Each college had its own rules. The ones on the island of Seine , they were devoted to a perpetual virginity.

At the mouth of the Poire, on the contrary, the priestesses of the Namnetes were married and visited their husbands furtively, when night had come, in light boats they sailed themselves]. Note: See a. At night they indulged in them on the island that is today called Tombelene. Note: See g. One only finds it systematically developed in ancient India , in Egypt , and probably also among the druids; for one can hardly take into account the crude notions of this idea observed among Greenlanders and several peoples of Africa and America. The ideas of Pythagoras on this subject were alien to the Greeks and were no doubt borrowed from Egypt rather than from Gaul , which was then almost unknown to the Hellenes.

With these she made runes and magic letters.

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Note: See VI. The Gaul seated on a rock felt with astonishment and dread that the world of shadows had already claimed this woman whom he had just now held in his warm and powerful arms. Annoufen , the abyss, the dark from which all life comes; Kilk y Abred , where the souls go from body to body; Kilk y Gwynfyd , the radiant heaven where happiness reigns, where the soul recovers its primordial memory, where it finds again its Awen , its primitive genius.

Immediately a deep sleep came over his limbs and thick shadows covered forever the eyes of the seer. But the superstitious respect for that family, exhausted by their crimes and debauchery, remained among the people. Neustria and Austrasia fought with zeal over the semblances of royalty. The usurpating mayor had them lifted onto the shield to the acclamation of the Franks, then locked up in the city and reigned in their place. Almost all of them ended either killed or shamefully tonsured in the bottom of a convent. He turned his face to the holy scriptures open on his knees.

Immediately a hurricane passed over the book and turned all the pages. It remained open on the twelfth chapter of the Apocalypse. Franck finds the origin of this doctrine among the Persian magi. He had become thoughtful at the sight of these pirates of the North, who, on long boats called sea serpents, raided the coasts and entered the river deltas. Note: See reproduction.

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There is a line from Zoroaster to l. Note: See e. In that of Odin, it was the bad that bested the good, and the universe would end in a frightful cataclysm, in which the two are sunk. The pirates landed to see if this rock could serve as a retreat. They entered in conversation with the religious, with the help of an interpreter whom they had with them and who knew almost all the languages of the continent. The descendant of the Vikings, the pirate Rollo, was one of those who helped to erect a basilica on the Mount with rich donations, and the large bell of the abbey, the one that was used in case of emergency, was called the Rollo bell.

She was a jewish convert, famous for her knowledge of medicine and necromancy. But the nun took his hand with compassion, and, after having studied the lines in his hand carefully, she predicted that he would be wise and happy and that nobody, in the kingdom of France , would be more esteemed. Note: See c - f. It is there that tradition has preserved his pensive and chaste face. The wise chroniclers have put so much precision in them, the pious annalists so much faith, that one thinks, in reading them, to be in the presence of historical events. Undoubtedly, from time to time, a anachronism appears; occasionally the ardent piety of the narrator surpassed the limits of permitted naivety; the improbability becomes obvious.

No matter, the great breath of faith that enlivens the work, the deep love one feels for the abbey-fortress, centre of these cycle of legends, revive these scenes imagined with such an intensity that one believes they are real. Note: Knock. A village in Co. And, understanding that the Lord had just performed a miracle for him alone, he was certain that God had allowed this wonder at the praying of the Archangel Saint Michel, whose voices he had, alas, all too often refused to hear! For months, before sunrise, they would meet, each day, on the Mont-Belenus. Note: See c. He had no trouble recognising that this individual belonged to one of the gangs, more or less honest, who came to the monasteries, often collected there lots of alms, telling extraordinary and edifying tales of which they pretended they had been the hero.

They called themselves, generally, miraculised, affirming that they had healed from the most serious and most cruel illnesses, thanks to the intercession of saints that were particularly honoured in the monastery that they were visiting. Favourite country. The monk will lead you to a great stone block.

Then the good prior will declare, without a smile, that this is a trace of the Devil chased away by the Archangel. The latter forced the former to hide in Brittany , his favourite land , claims the chronicler at the time, who was undoubtedly Norman. If you tell the prior that the print is not that of a hoofed foot, he will say that after all it might have been the foot of the Archangel.

It came to pass at the time when abbot Hildebert II was head of the monastery of Mont-Saint-Michel, a pilgrim from Italy took, out of devotion no doubt, but secretly, a little stone of the rock on which Saint Michel wanted men to build him a sanctuary. St Michel. Because Drogon was not always sufficiently careful when taking care of the church. He blew too forcefully on the candles; he moved the candelabras and the sacred vessels with exaggerated zeal on the marble of the altars; he mounted with too great an effort, the hanging lamps on the vault of the Holy Place.

Too quickly he dusts the balustrades, the stalls and the confessionals; and a more grevious fault, the Abbot and the Benedictines have noticed that he hardly bows when he passes before the altar of Saint Michel in the Nave. That is why Drogon has been spoken to severely by the abbot. Then he took it by the arm and brought it before the altar to shame him before the pilgrims who prayed always and who had not turned their heads at the sound of the blow.

Drogon passed before the statue without bowing. He immediately received, from an invisible hand, a formidable blow that resounded in the church and that threw him on the floor, where he stayed, for a few minutes, unconscious; in the meantime Nicolas prayed to the Archangel with all his soul, because the child had understood that something extraordinary was going to happen. When Drogon got up, still stunned, the three pilgrims had gone, while all the doors were firmly closed! The unhappy sexton, half dead with fear, immediately went to the abbot and told him all that had happened.

Pourquoi cette clameur? He lifts an armed hand. Why this clamour? Proverbes et dictons Avel, holl avel! We must die. Note: Bards, vates and eubages were the three classes of druids. Dictionnaire II. The Druids, also known under the names of Bards, Eubages, Vacies, Saronides, Samothees or Simnothees, were distinguished by means of three major orders. At the end of the course on had to take an exam, which consisted in reciting several thousands of verses, in the form of either principles, or answers to questions].

Dictionnaire IV. It was considered as a way of honoring their memory to preserve their skulls, trim them with gold or silver and to use it as a cup to drink. Dictionnaire Il [M. A serpent, no doubt vomited from the earth, laid waste to the entire island. It was a horrible beast, more than a hundred feet long; its body was thicker than the mightiest oak in the forest of Limerick, its scales had a sinister reflection, from a purplish green to a clear red, giving the monster an invulnerable cuirass.

On its head, bristling with a double pointed horn, its bloodfilled eyes appeared above a maw the jaws of which were fortified with triple rows of fangs and teeth; the tongue, pointed as a javelin, gave off a poisonous fluid. Sometimes the monster lay in tortuous rings, it lay on the ground and slithered forward in abrupt jumps; sometimes it moved straight as an arrow and rapid as lightening. Neither the basalt rocks, the flanks of which are steep as walls, nor the wildest rivers, nor the branches of the sea where the waves toss with fury can stop its frightful advance. The serpent only left ruins in its wake; the fields over which its body had passed, as he devoured horses and cows, instantly became waste and the grasses of the fields were burned.

The water of the rivers where it drank began to stink and fetid ooze spreading unknown diseases came out of the forests where it had rested at night. For a while it had eaten animals, but after a few weeks it began to make a meal of people; at night it would roam near the villages, catching in its maw the benighted; the women who were washing, children coming back from school, all of them had been eaten in the hundreds. Nobody dared to leave the house, and in rich as well as poor cities, the Irish were stunned and they commanded their souls to God.

What crime had the island committed for God to send them such a scourge? He ordered him, without delay, to bring the weapons that that had served him to kill the serpent to the sanctuary that he had chosen on earth. But, before the bishop had the time to ask the chief of the celestial armies for the name of the sanctuary that pleased above all others, Saint Michael disappeared. Note: See h and b. The heart was really the most popular ex-voto. There was generally a little cross on the top or a flame, surrounded by a crown of thorns, inlaid with flowers or initials; often, they were hollow; they opened then like a watch and inside you could place a piece of vellum on which one could write the object of a wish asked or fulfilled.

Note: Ex voto. An offering made in pursuance of a vow. This expression or better this comparison has intrigued the folklore specialists for a long time; finally one of them, slightly more intelligent, told his colleagues that the protestants did not render to the saints the veneration that was their due. And that explained the surname! I remember, in any case, being told that in Mont-Saint-Michel and the neighbouring coast, the roosters laid the eggs.

All the roosters of the land were terrified: they were all chicken. It is true: folklore specialists have an answer for everything. For the profane among us, the cockle is no more than a humble mollusk, formed by two symmetrical valves. They are everywhere in the estuaries of the little Breton and Normand rivers, in the delta of the Vilaine, in the cove of Fresnaye, under cape Frehel and, especially, in the bay of Mont-Saint-Michel. Ferre noctuam Athenas.

Note: Cardium edule. Latin name of the common cockle. Carry an owl to Athens. Toussenel, alone, in his The Soul of the Animals , could have told us the reason for their change of address; they choose banks of sand of a different nature; there is the slate bank, when the sand is light blue; the cockles that one catches there taste like mud; they are much better in the white or reddish grouet , which means in bed of pure sand. Pisciferos amnes, multo salmone feraces. One has even said that the salmon were so common that the farm servants of the river shores stipulated in their contracts that they could only eat salmon twice a week.

This is a legend that one can also hear in England. Streams well-stocked with fish, abundant in salmon. Why was the name Omar changed into that of Homar and even of Homard? Were the good religious scribes thinking of the excellent crustaceans, with their sharp and long pincers, that live so abundantly in the bay of Saint-Malo?

Il fallait les faire casquer comme on dit de nos jours. Mais comment? It had come to the due attention of the intendant of the Generality of Caen that the barracks of the guards of the Grande Porte and their cisterns were dirty. Everybody agreed on the need for repairs, but nobody wanted to start them; the builders, after having been made aware of the plans and the funds, refused to cooperate and then … nobody wanted to pay.

No more water; it had to be brought in by barrel or cask, from Rive, more than a half a league away. The people of the Mont did not have a red cent in their municipal coffers; the Royal Treasury was just as dry as the cisterns. Only the monks were rich, or at least, the unlucky ones were thought to be rich: a terrible and dangerous reputation! They had to cough up, as we would say now. But how? Consolez-vous, madame.

Le Régiment de Sambre et Meuse

Cela se reproduit encore maintenant. Thief, someone has taken my purse! They were under surveillance of the police: this is why the bohemians were supposed to declare a change of address or of residence, when they went from one place to another. A recent law now obliges the nomads, even when they are French citizens, to have their identity cards checked by the mayor and the gendarmes. Naturally, scum and thieves sneaked among the Egyptians, scum and thieves; the complaints of their victims were frequent enough; one sometimes caught these robbers, but it was difficult to find the purses that had been stolen and when they were found on the pavement of the street, they were empty.

That still happens today. The pilgrims also complained of the goglus. These were not other than pisteurs , the unbearable pisteurs of today. Our current etymologists find, in the word goglu , the Celtic root gog which implies a sense of fraud or deception. However that may be, already in , Thomas Le Roy writes about the crimes of these bad people. He shows how the archdeacon of the Mont blamed several burhers of the town for giving shelter to these gogglues, who brought them pilgrims, and thus also the freedom to stay wherever they wanted.

See n. In pre-revolutionary France , a police force under the command of the Marshals of France. This deliberation was never emptied , as they say in the palace. Since there was no escaping being eaten, they preferred to be eaten with a Benedictine sauce rather with a royal one; and who will say they were wrong? Was Hugo looking for his hat or did he do like the beautiful girls who half-complain when they have thrown their hats above the mills [i. Cette roche superbe. Et sentant sur sa croupe!

Elle vous caressa par un muet accueil,. Elle ne le dit pas: je vous le dis pour elle. Strange case! You will find it in manuscript of the Library at the Arsenal in Paris , volume IX, folios Conrart ends his long epistle with this awful tirade:. This superb rock. Your beautiful feet have touched it like one touches the grass,. It bends before its invincible pride,. And feeling on its croup! She caresses you with a dumb welcome,. Then, when she sees of your departure the cruel hour,.

In her concavities!! She does not tell you: I tell you for her. In the course of the centuries, she was given sisters and, thanks to the generosity of the kings of France, the princes of the Church and devout pilgrims, the Mont-Saint-Michel carillon was one of the best in the world; unfortunately the fire from the skies would destroy the tower and the bells were melted down.

Among the bells there is one still today with a special mission, to give guidance to poor people lost in the fog? It is called for that reason the bell of the mists. At the beginning of the eighteenth century, she cracked. It was a sort of penitence. One day the lord of that place, who had lots of sins of infidelity weighing on him, clang to the cord that he feverishly rang for such a long time that the bell cracked. The religious thought it was a pity; their laments reached to the other side of the Rhine to the abbot who owned the living; he was a German.

Tombelaine was, it seems, in prehistory the seat of a college of druidesses, of small virtue, if we are to believe the prudish chroniclers of Mont-Saint-Michel. His corpse was found, a few days later, in Colombel, in Saint-Broladre. Note: Unit ends with what appear to be three ditto signs. Kinane Saint Patrick If the Prophet Jeremias was sanctified, as he was, in his mother's womb, because his heavenly mission was to announce to the world the mysteries and revelations of the [2] Almighty; if St.

Kinane St. Patrick Pious Reflection. My soul! Patrick Nations were converted, and at the touch of persecution have lost the faith; to-day, after centuries of unparalleled suffering and trials, Erin professes the same holy faith which St. Patrick, nigh fifteen hundred years ago, preached to the Kings at Tara; she professes the same faith as pure and holy as it fell from the divine lips of Jesus Christ Himself.

Under God, thanks to the prayers of our glorious Apostle, St. Patrick St. Joseph , pray for me, and obtain for me the grace of a happy death. Note: Although cancelled with d above, this unit was not transferred to the draft. Patrick, who was called Socket, was a Briton by birth [ Note: Succoth. The Jewish feast of tents or tabernacles. Martin of Tours, was born in Pannonia , Modern Hungary. Patrick the mother of St.

Francis of Assisium [ Patrick [describes journey through desert]. Patrick Palladius, entering the land of the Scots [ We agree with those writers, who hold that St. Patrick was born in the year ; taken captive in , in his sixteenth years of his age; returned to his native country in ; and after 38 years spent in study, prayer, penance, and the science of the Saints, under the greatest masters in Christendom, was Consecrated bishop in in the sixtieth year of his age. Langan and many learned writers assign for the date of our Saint's birth, and his consecration in , in the 45th year of his age.

Patrick [Patrick] was Consecrated bishop in in the sixtieth year of his age. Not found in Kinane St. As a five year old saw it, through the distant fog of the great bay, through the trees of the Garden of Plants in Avranches, where the college boys would frolic; Tiphaine Raguenel, the astrologer of the Mont-Saint-Michel, could have told me, if I had asked for horoscope of her divination arts, that the name of the archangel would often come out of my pen, because I was born on 29 September, the feastday of the Prince of the Heavenly Host; but I am neither so presumptuous nor so superstitious, so I had better explain why I so much like the historical works on the Mont-Saint-Michel.

For three hundred years, Avranches, where I was born, has been the most active and fecund michelian workshop of all of Normandy. On the presses of its first printer was printed a little manual for the Pilgrim to the Mont, work of Father Feu-Ardent, a Franciscan all aflame with love for mount Tumbe; it was also in the attics of the Central School in this city, just a few steps from the famous school where tradition claims that Anselm and Lanfranc taught, that were hidden, after the pillage of the abbey by the revolutionaries, those famous manuscripts, pride and glory of the City of Books.

It was their penultimate rest; they lost a few of their leaves that were torn out to have beautiful pictures; or they were sold as vellum. In the end, they were deposited in the library of the city and more or less methodically ordered on shelves close to a gutter, the most humid place in the room. For the last fifteen years they have been occupying a less dangerous and more dignified place. Qui contre la grand mer est rive,. Some of the privileged could descend by way of the posterns of the Merveille, but, if one wanted to go up from the shore, it was necessary to scale a steep and wild slope,.

That is a shore against the great sea,. You had to climb over the ruins of the stairs that used to go from the fountain of Saint-Aubert, with the conic trunnion, all the way to the low gate of the Montgommeries; you were obliged to push aside the thick brush at the same spot where the 98 Huguenots were buried, killed on the night of 28 and 29 September Our Saint turning towards the four points of the heavens blessed the plains, and the snow disappeared […] The Druid now brought darkness over the plains; but was unable to remove it.

Patrick prayed to the Lord, and immediately a bright sun dispelled the darkness—second victory over the enemy. Patrick They wondered at the appearance of the clerics, and imagined they were fir-sidhe, or phantoms. They questioned Patrick, 'Whence are you, and whither sic have you come? Is it from the sidhe? Are you gods? Is it under the earth, or on the earth, or in the seas, or in the streams, or in hills, or in valleys?

Has He sons or daughters? Has He gold and silver? Is there a profusion of every good in His kingdom. Tell us plainly how we shall see Him, and how He is to be loved, and how He is to be found. Is He young or old, or is He ever-living? Is He beautiful, or have many fostered His son, or is His daughter handsome, and dear to men of the world? Patrick, full of the Holy Spirit, responded: 'Our God is the God of all, the God of heaven and earth, the God of the seas and the rivers, the God of the sun and the moon, and of all the other planets; [] the God of the high hills and the low valleys; God over heaven, in heaven, and under heaven ; and He has a mansion— i.

He inspireth all things, He quickeneth all things, He enkindleth all things; He giveth light to the sun and to the moon. He created fountains in the dry land, and placed dry islands in the sea, and stars to minister to the greater lights. He hath a Son co-eternal and co-equal with Himself; and the Son is not younger than the Father, nor is the Father older than the Son.

And the Holy Ghost are not divided. I desire moreover to unite you to the Son of the heavenly King, for ye are daughters of an earthly king. Teach us duly that we may see the Lord face to face —teach us, and we will do as you will say to us. Patrick said, 'Do you believe that through baptism the sin of your mother and your father shall be put away from you? And [] Patrick said to them,' You cannot see Christ except that you first taste death, and unless you receive the body of Christ, and His blood. This beautiful passage delineates the faith and zeal of our Saint, as well as the grace and unction attached to his preaching, while on the other hand, it unfolds the beautiful simplicity of the youthful princesses, and the wondrous effect of God's efficacious grace upon their hearts and souls.

Patrick Whilst our Saint preached and baptized at Cashel, the prince Aengus stood by his side; and the sharp point of the crozier […] pierced his foot from which the blood flowed most copiously; the fervent convert bore the pain in silence; and when St. His saying is so good that with those Gratzachams his cauldron shall be brought back to him. Note: See 21 9 a. Patrick God sometimes gives to his great Servants while on earth, a foretaste of the joys of heaven. Hence, we are not surprised that extraordinary, heavenly signs and prodigies are recorded to have taken place at the death of our Saint.

On the 17th of March, in the year , at the age of , amid the sweet songs of the Angels, and a supernatural light from heaven, St. Patrick, the Apostle of Ireland, breathed forth his pure soul into the hands of his Creator. Note: FW Patrick [St Patrick at Lerins] the night he usually divided into three parts. During the first part he recited a hundred Psalms, making at the same time two hundred genuflections. This entry was later used at FW Note: Not found in Kinane St. Compare the citations at c and g for example. See also 36 a.

One of the first pages of this history was written on the gross canvas of the Bayeux Tapestry. This is the fragment in which we see Harold and William, both of them passing the sanctuary of the Archangel, before warring against Conan, duke of Brittany. The Mont appears, on the canvas of queen Mathilda, massive and already colossal with Romanesque arcades. It is no longer the culmen contemplationis of the ancient chronicles, we can imagine the fortress.

We feel that, caught between hammer and anvil, between Brittany and a Normandy where a duchy will grow into a kingdom, it will undergo countless attacks, receive but also give hard blows. Ce registre a disparu. One of the great monastic builders of the Mont , he shares with Robert the glory of being also its great librarian. He bought numerous volumes and in order to classify the hundred of property titles of the monastery in orderly and methodical fashion, he created himself a register that was called Quanandrier or Rented Paper, with another book that was called the White book because of the colour of its cover and in which he had transcribed all the originals of the donations to the abbey.

The latter register has disappeared. He is the architect of the Cartulary. The Cartulary is situated in the North-West conrner of the Merveille: it consists of the three small rooms on top of each other: the first alone is vaulted; the cloister, in its western part, leads unto the second floor of this rather small room. At the moment the cartulary that tourists do not have access to, forms a museum at the top floor where some objects are assembled that were discovered during the repair works.

Note: Muniment room is one of the senses of the French word chartrier cartulary. It can also designate the contents of this room, i. The first I opened turned out to be ancient manuscripts on vellum, of a careful writing and more or less well conserved; some of them had gold and illuminated initials; in a few others this gold had aroused the greed of the idle or of children: it had been cut out by means of a pair of scissors.

The ordinary writing had tempted nobody and it had suffered no other wounds than those of time. We passed several hours in repairing them and to make an inventory and we found the precious Cartulary which we had feared lost. Note: Cog. To falsify or feign; to flatter; to wheedle. Fiat in Domino! Let it be in the Lord. Perhaps short for Fiat in nomine Domini. Let it be, in the name of the Lord. Fiat, Fiat in Domino. Note: See 53 o. New gods of another origin, social gods, we could say, have taken the most important role.

The reason may be that, no more than those of ancient Latium , the gods of Gaul had a clearly defined personality. They were conceived as vague spirits, abstract powers of physical phenomena, more or less conventional geniuses of social groups. They had neither face nor body. The brenn who pillaged Delphi laughed a lot, it seems, at the idea that men of marble or bronze could represent the gods of the Greeks. Neither did he understand that one could imagine being able to lock up divinity in the cella of a temple.

In its very vagueness, the conception that the Gauls had of their gods was vaster vaster and more grandiose than the imagination of the Greeks. Le feu consume le tout. It is there that they decided the common business of the land. After these meetings, general or local, the judge became priest again. For the health of the city or the nation he made solemn sacrifices.

Immense wicker mannequins were filled with live men, preferably criminals, but when they did not have any, innocent people. The fire killed them all. It was in the oak woods that they had their sanctuaries and they did not do their sacred rites without oak leaves. They believed that the appearance of the mistletoe reveals the presence of the god of the tree on which it grows. When they found it on an oak, they cut it with great ceremonies.

They chose the sixth day of the moon because they believed that on that day the star possesses all its vigour and it has not completed half of its journey. Under the sacred tree they prepare a banquet and a sacrifice; they bring two white steers whose horns have not yet carried a yoke.

A priest in a white robe climbs the tree: with a golden sickle he cuts it and the mistletoe is caught in a white sheet. The druids then kill the victims while asking the god that the mistletoe may bring happiness to all to whom he has given it. Also they confided the education of their children to the druids, even of those not destined to become priests. In each city and maybe also in centers away from the cities, the druids led real scholastic establishments. They are the masters who shape the youth of Gaul. The education they give consists of the learning by heart by the pupils of a great number of verses.

Aengus divides the Irish Saints into three classes. The first class, extending from the year to , begins with St. Patrick, and numbers Saints, all bishops and founders of Churches. Patrick; one Mass; one mode of celebration; one tonsure from ear to ear. The second class, extending from the year to , counts Saints. The third class, extending from the year to , numbers Saints, comprising bishops, priests, and laymen. Patrick [St Aengus] wrote five books on the Saints of Ireland [ In the whole island, sometimes there were only a few bishops, and they concealed in their hiding-places ; the priests, who succeeded to land in Ireland from the Continent, travelled through the country in disguise, preparing the dying, encouraging the living, and not unfrequently sealing their faith in their blood; our Cathedrals were converted into Protestant conventicles, and no church or chapel left through the land.

Patrick 4: Approbations Owing to continuous absence from home for a lengthened period, I could not acknowledge your kind letter and thank you for your gift earlier. In danger from the sea. Many of them were sick or crippled; that is why, in a quite large circle around Mont-Saint-Michel , hospitals, leproseries and poor houses had been erected. These hospitals, usually administered by clerics, could not shelter all who asked for help. The deplorable hygienic conditions in which the pilgrims live, contaminated the land. Leprosy especially ravaged the land and the leper houses where the unfortunates were treated, for better or worse, were always full.

Note: It. Note: See j. Les bords de celle ouverture sont un peu amincis, lisses au dehors comme au-dedans. Footnote [1] The head of saint Aubert is preserved still at the basilica of Saint-Gervais in Avranches. Tradition has it that the archangel saint Michael, while appearing to saint Aubert, put his finger in the skull of the the bishop who did listen to his commands. This curious relic shows us that the bone of the skull and of the face are still attached. The rims of the opening are a bit thinner, smooth outside as inside. In Mr. Not to mention the many impor tant diets of the empire held here.

They are a com pound of the Suabian and Bavarian features. Their productions, like the toys of Nuremberg, go every where. The more modern part of this town is truly beau tiful; we are led to believe. The aqueducts conveying it, are much to be admired. In the war of , the citizens were divided into equal parties for the two courts. In the fifteenth century, the Imperial cities of Sua bia, acted a very different part. They were then united in league, not only with each other, but with the cities of Franconia and the Rhine.

This country is generally level. The city is large, rich, and populous. It is a very large, and a very popu lous city, of a triangular form. Lambert, in which there are many reliques. The duke of Marlborough took this city in the year Great pains are taken with their education.

The inn where the baths are, is not much frequented. It is called the Vauxhall. The in tervening nights, there are only card-parties, a pro menade, and the pharo-bank. The actors, in general, are toler able. No Jews are tolerated in this country. There are not above four towns in the whole country, and about 20, fire-places or hearths. The inhabitants are diligent and laborious. It derives its name from a bridge over the river Haze. The town is not po pulous, not above five hundred children being bap tized in a year. In this duchy are twenty-four towns, and three im munities, or municipia.

The inhabitants are chiefly catholics, but all religions are tolerated in this duchy. The country, in many parts, is mountainous and woody. This claim was confirmed by the emperor Leopold, in The ancient counts were created princes of the em pire in So early as the year , Aurich received the Lutheran doc trine.

Emden, the chief city of the principality lies near the river Ems. All around is environed by lofty green mountains. Is a free Imperial city, and has its name probably from its warm-baths, which have been celebrated from times of old. In this city, ought properly to be, the co ronation of a Roman king or emperor. The cloth girt about our Saviour, when he was crucified; 3. A piece of the cord, with which he was bound when he was delivered to Pilate; 4.

Some of the blood of St. Luke; 6. The territory of the city is called the kingdom of Aix-la Chapella, and lies quite round it. Their commerce extends all over the Netherlands, part of Franconia, and the whole empire. France has gradually brought under her domi nion the duchy of Lorrain, which was reckoned in the circle of Burgundy, and a part of the duchy of Lux emburg, with a part of the counties of Flanders, Ar tois, Burgundy, Hennegau and Namur. Ap proaching the cave's mouth, he cried out, "What is that voice?

Is it a human voice? Afterwards it became part of the Lotharingian kingdom, and a fief of the German empire. The emperor Charles VI. It lies on the Senna, partly in the plain, and partly on an eminence, being large, well built, populous and for tified. But this we apprehend is rather exaggerated. I will come to a matter of fact. The floors are all inlaid with mahogany and box. A company of French comedians exhibit here three times a week in winter.

It is five hundred feet long, and two hundred and forty feet broad. It was erected in the 13th century. The abbey of St. The apartments of the abbot are well worthy of a prince. In the church of the friars of St. Upon painting the above men tioned fine picture of St. In the church of St. George, and St. This picture was engraved after his death by P. There is no want of gold in Brabant and Flanders. Mechlin is famous for the ma nufacture of the lace that goes by its name. This town was taken by the duke of Marlborough, in , and retaken by the French in See Demogeots beautiful as any made since.

Some maintain the East to be the birthplace of F. Among the most famous fabulists are the Greeks. Esop himself to the study of its antiquities. His employments as papal q. He is of the 4th c. Esopian fables with the style of the Spanish romances. Rome, I; 2d ed. He died in Rome, 7th January Fables were very popular in Germany in the i8th c.

His valuable collections are preserved in the palace of known writers of them being Gellert q. Lichtwer, and Pfeffel. The greatest recent fabulist is the Russian Fabria'no, a city in the province of Macerata, Italy, 23 miles Kriloff q. Among his first works were the fresco of the'art of love,' and the lais or miniature romances, were facetious Madonna, preserved in the cathedral of Orvieto, which earned and satirical, and mostly founded on proverbs and comic incidents. While the chan- dated , and one of the finest works of the school of Giotto. Venice, where the senate gave him the pension of one ducat Although stained with indecency, they evince fancy, pathos, and per diem and the privilege of wearing the toga of the patricians, humour, bold satire, and greater narrative skill than the long in recognition of the merit of his great fresco-a sea-fight rhyming romances.

They belong principally to the I3th c. Their -painted for the council hall of the Doge's palace. The sly banter and arch gaiety make them pleasanter reading than work was destroyed by fire in He died in o. His works are bright their anti-clerical influence, made them a medium for orthodox and cheerful. Michael Angelo said of him,' His genius is like doctrine. This brought them into popular disrepute; they died his name —gentile. From the F. He studied under Fallopius at Padua, of the F. The subjects became celebrated as a teacher, and his class-room was thronged of the F.

After New Testament, the Acta Sanctarum, the s cest- romthanarm, a lecturing for fifty years he retired with a large fortune, and New Testament, the A'cla Sanctorum, the Gesta? I Apuleius, Ovid, and especially from the East. Many were died at his country-seat on the Brenta, May 2, It adapted from the Romance of the Seven Sages. But notwith. Harvey, standing their frequent Eastern colouring, their character is who attended F. This peculiarly French quality, which and vigorous in style. His complete works were published, with we first find in the F. See Thuilius' eo Hi. From them La Fontaine drew Fabricius, Johann Christian, a Danish entomologist, many of his raciest stories, and Boccaccio most of the plots for his born at Tondern, Slesvig, 7th January ; studied medicine Decamerone.

Chaucer was indebted to them for his tales of the at Copenhagen, Edinburgh, and at Upsala under Liinne us; was 2. FAC chosen professor of natural history at Kiel in ; devoted him- muscles, as expressive of the emotions, see Sir Charles Bell's self to entomology; travelled over much of Europe, visiting Anatomy and Philosofphy of Exjiression. His and atrophy of muscle the F. His most temples hollow, ears cold and retracted, the skin of the forehead important works are Systema Entomologiar Copen. I; revised tense and dry, the complexion livid, the lips pendant, relaxed, and enlarged, I; Suj5plementum Enttonmologi I ; and cold.

See TIc. When consul in B. Steel jewellery and other feated the Samnites. When Pyrrhus came over from Greece metal ornaments are often facetted. This is an angle formed by two lines, one defeat at Heraclea , about a ransom of captives. The Greek of them descending from the most prominent part of the foremonarch offered him gold if he would try to induce the senate to head to the incisor margin of the upper jaw, the other passing make peace, but F.

It threats. Pyrrhus was so much impressed with his patriotic was intended by Camper, the distinguished ethnologist, to indifidelity that he restored the prisoners without ransom. During cate by the size of this angle the degree of projection of the face F. The following are several facial angles for a reward. While Pyrrhus was absent in Sicily, F. See but the state charged itself with the upbringing of his only child. Fabro'ni, An'gelo, an Italian biographer, born at Marradi Facil'ity, a term of Scotch law denoting the mental condiin Tuscany, 25th September , completed his studies at tion of a person unable in an ordinary degree to protect himself Rome.

He wrote first in Latin, and afterwards in Italian; from imposition. On sufficient evidence of F. Any one conscious tember I Among his works are YVita Italorumr Doctrina of the infirmity may place himself under interdiction. I, 20 vols. Fac'tor, in mathematics, is one of the numbers or symbols Fa'byan, Robert, an English chronicler, born of a good which go to make up a given product. Thus in the expression Essex family in London, in the second half of the I5th c.

This process of breaking up an algebraic expression wards assessor of the london wards to Henry VII. He died into its elementary factors is of great importance in analysis. February 28, 5I He wrote a Cloncordance of HFlistories first The termfactorial is given to those continued products of consecuprinted in I5I6 , compiled from monkish annalists, and marked tive numbers, beginning with unity, which constantly occur in by a strong ecclesiastical bias. It gives the history of Britain series and expansons.

Thus 1,2. Factor Lat. In English law, a F. See ing, but is now applied to any front or face of an edifice. If he buy goods on account of his principal when he is accustomed to do so, the' contract binds the principal. But Facciola'ti, Padacomo, an Italian scholar, was born at Tor- if the goods have been bought or exchanged without order, the reglia, near Padua, January 4, He studied at the ecclesi, merchant may refuse to take them from the F.

Formerly, the astical seminary of Padua, of which he finally became the head. If an advance of money was made to one on the physics, and theology, and wrote Ciceronian prose, but is remem-erchandise belonging to his principal, the principal bered chiefly as a Latin lexicographer, He revised the lexicon was legally entitled to withdraw the security; and in the event of Schrevelius, and along with his pupil Forcellini produced a of merchandise being bought from a F. Finally, the same literary partners set to work to produce full value to the owner To remove these hardships the Acts a new Latin dictionary, the basis of all subsequent dictionaries 4 d 6 Ge.

Under 6 Geo. The F. It contains the cavities manager for the proprietor of real heritable estates, for which of the orbits, of the nose, and of the mouth. These bones are the English equivalent is'land-agent. The forehead, eyelids, nose, mouth, lips, and powers. It has lately become to some extent customary to use cheeks have sets of muscles by the movements of which the the word chamberlain in Scotland as synonymous with F.

On the action of the facial the above sense. One -Thomas F. Allan, and in was Fac'tories and Mills, Law Regarding. In IS52 have been passed for the appointment of inspectors for the pre- he settled in London, and began to exhibit annually in the servation of the health, and for regulating the education and Royal Academy. His popularity continued to increase; he hours of work, of children employed in M.

By 3 and 4 was made an A. Among chosen by parents or inspectors, to pay the expense of which his works are'Scott and his Friends at Abbotsford,''The one penny in each shilling is to be deducted from the child's Mitherless Bairn,''The First Break in the Family,''From earnings. His paintthey produce weekly to the factory master the schoolmaster's ings, which are rich in tint and free in execution, are mostly ticket of attendance.

Interior walls of mills and ceilings of rooms faithful transcripts of the pathetic and humorous aspects tf must be limewashed yearly. Scottish rustic life. Act 7 and 8 Vict. Italy, on the railand other documents kept in pursuance of the Act. Penalties the Lamone, in the province of Ravenna, N. Penalties are imposed on persons endeavouring to prevent the examination road from Bologna to Ancona, and 20 miles S.

Inspectors are empowered cipal square, which is adorned with arcades and a fountain. The Act makes stringent regulations for preventing buildings. By I6 and 17 Vict. Io4, no'child'-that is, one under thirteen years old-shall be employed Fagg'ing, the name given to a system peculiar to the great in any factory before six o'clock in the morning nor after six public schools of England, by which the upper boys are authoo'clock in the evening of any day, nor after two o'clock on rised to exact certain services from the lower boys.

The system Saturday. But between 30th Septeymber and st April children is explicitly recognised by the masters, and the services demanded may be employed for one month on any day but Saturday from are regulated only by the traditions of each particular school; 7 A. There are various other Acts extend- some of them are of a menial character, while others are coning the operation of the Factory Acts, and making further re-nected with the common school games.

Any manufactory in which fifty that all the boys were permanent boarders, and that the staff of or more persons are employed is under the Acts a factory. The first of these circumstances naturally engendered a private organisation among the boys, which the force of tradition Fac'ulty Lat.

There is a court for the have been instituted, and under ushers it would not have been purpose under the Archbishop of Canterbury called the Court allowed to take deep root. The advantages asserted of the system of Faculties and Dispensations, which has power to grant dispensa- are that the fags are rendered handy, independent, and obedient, tions for marriages without publication of banns see BANNS , that an equality of condition is enforced upon all, and that unfor a deacon under age to be ordained, and for exceptional pro- licensed bullying is indirectly suppressed.

The evils are that cedure in other matters connected with the Church. The bishop the smaller boys are harassed by perpetual forced employment, of the diocese may grant a F. See PEW. Freeman, in his Growth of the English Constitution, asserts that F. A somewhat Faculty, Dean of Scotland. The undigested ma- Heriot's Hospital, Edinburgh, in the middle of the last century. Micro- at Danzig, May 14, i, spent most of his life as a glassscopical examination shows usually disintegrated muscular blower in England, and later in Holland, where he died, I6th fibre, cartilage cells, elastic fibres, free fatty matter, crystals September About I he improved the thermometer of cholesterine, the chlorophyll of cells from plants, por- by substituting mercury for spirits of wine.

Usually F. The ash of F. He joined Gambetta's party, iron, sulphate of lime and silica. About of F. Assembly in , but retired into private life on the success of the Thiers Government. Besides proving himself an able Faed, John, a Scottish artist, son of a millwright, was born soldier, F. Edinburgh, where in I85o he exhibited several pictures, which Faience' or Fayence, an old French term formerly applied soon made him widely known. In I he removed to London. Among his works, which are mostly of humble Scottish life, to all kinds of glazed earthenware, now restricted to fine kinds Among his works, which are mostly of humble Scottish life, are'The Cottar's Saturday Night','The Wappenschaw,'' Tam of pottery, with a soft, opaque paste, and glazed.

FAI miles S. After receiving an elementary education at the parish Fai'ndants Rois Fr. In the battle of Testry in to the accession of the Karoling dyn- I F. During this period the regal authority was wielded a machine-maker, and speedily won success and reputation. He by the mayors of the palace. There are no spasms, as in hysteria, epilepsy, and lo , and ion SPbuiding. Those of very delicate constitution, and orrespding of the ins tite or heldvthe or who may have suffered from exhausting diseases or disease of office of president of the British Association for the Advancethe heart, are liable to attacks of F.

He died August 18, I Treatment:-The patient shire, was born in the reign of Elizabeth. He spent a studious should be laid on the back, with the head and shoulders very tranquil life at Fuyistone, near Denton, aqid died about i Cold water in i6oo, under the title of Godfr-ey of Bulloigne, preserves the dashed on the face, and ammonia or aromatic vinegar applied to octave rhyme and much of the music and voluptuous splendour the nostrils are highly useful in exciting the nervous system.

The of the original; and notwithstanding occasional obscurity and first symptoms of returning consciousness are twitchings of the undue licence of fancy, remains an English classic and one of muscles of the face, followed by a deep-drawn sigh. Artificial the best translations in our language. The 7th edition, pubrespiration, induced by compressing the ribs and allowing them lished by Charles Knight in I, has a brief memoir of the to expand, as in natural breathing, rouses the respiratory move- translator.

Friction over the region of the heart is also useful, and on Demonologry. See Leigh Hunt's Essay olz F. He served under Lord Vere in Holland, and when the Fair, a privileged market regularly convened at a parti- civil war began in , was made a general of cavalry in the cular place on certain periods of the year. The word is pro- army of the Parliament. In he defeated the Royalists bably derived from the Lat. He succeeded Essex as leader of the Parliaincluded days set apart for religious festivals in honour of the mentary forces, having Cromwell as his lieutenant-general, and saints.

On such occasions large numbers of people assembled commanded at the victory of Naseby in I Henceforth, as round the monasteries. These gatherings became the origin of Cromwell rose in power, F. The Ger- nominally commander-in-chief until , when he resigned on man word messe signifies F. Numerous fairs the king. He then spent several years in retirement in Yorkare held at stated periods in various towns of the United King- shire, took part with Monk against Lambert in , was elected dom, chiefly for the sale of horses, cattle, and agricultural pro- member for Yorkshire in i66o, was one of the committee for duce.

Railways, and improved means of inland communication promoting the Rcstoration, and died at Nun Appleton, Yorkgenerally, have rendered many unnecessary, and diverted most shire, November 12, Lord F. I , and several works in prose and verse. Some had, indeed, become such great public nuisances, scenes of riot and dissipation, that their abolition was secured by the Fair Head Scand.

Bartholomew F. Gooialyt turies it was a gross carnival. Throughout Europe and Asia 9blnst h olmaue,bucomnrgestefrsis tunies it was a gross carnival. Throughout Europe and Asia, rising perpendicularly from the sea feet. Geologically it however, many fairs are still devoted to legitimate trade. Those belongs to the coal-measures, but columnar greenstone forms its of Leipsic and Nijni-Novgorod are the principal. At Leipsic upper portion three annual fairs are now held-commencing on New Year's Fai'ries, or Elves. Several derivations of the word faiby day, Easter, and Michaelmas-each extending over three weeks.

The true root is probably Merchants from all parts of the world attend. The German book- the Lat. The annual F. It begins early in July, and habitant of fairyland. Elf, on the other hand, is of Teutonic lasts over two months. Traders from all parts of Europe, Cen- origin. It is the Old Eng. FAI Norse a, and is perhaps connected with the Lat. Fairy-tales became very popular in the last stature, a belief in whom has been common to almost all coun- half of the I7th c.

They include beings of very different as- Perrault produced numerous imitations. Among recent authors pects and qualities. In particular the F. See Keightley's from the F. The former somewhat re- Fairy yflythology Bohn, Lound. I86o ; Scott's Essay on the F. Haus- und Kindervmt'rchen. The land of faerie was supposed to be sometimes underground, Fair Isle Scand. It the Orkney and Shetland groups, 29 miles S. Fairy loty prmontories one of which,'Sheep Crag, gives name to lofty promontories one of which,' Sheep Craig,' gives name to mythology varies withdifferentnations.

Theperi of the Persians, the sle , and accessile only at one point on the. After the which correspond to the good Sing of the Alabs resemble thethe isle , and accessible only at one point on the N. After the which correspond to the good jinn of the Arabs, resemble the defeat of the Spanish Armada in , its admiral, the Due of defeat of the Spanish Armada in I, its admiral, the Duke of fay's of European romance, being of human stature and exquisite Medina Sidonia, retreating northwards, was wrecked on F. They live mostly in the air, and wage war with the The inhabitants liye mainly by fishing.

The Scandinavian alfar, or elves, were supposed to be partly kind and beautiful, partly malicious, and F'airy Rings, the name popularly given to green spots'blacker than pitch;' while the duergar, or dwarfs, were expert marked out in pasture lands, from the belief that they rein metallurgy and in forging magical weapons.

The English F. According are more playful and innocent than those of Scotland and Ger- to Roget, the occurrence of F. The dark-green grass of the F. As the The English sprite Robin Goodfellow corresponds to the Ger- soil becomes deteriorated, the fungi spread themselves further and man rKnect lRuprecht, the Scotch Brownie, and the French further outwards, in the form of successive and concentric circles..

Esprit Folet, or Gobelin goblin. He assumes various forms, The succeeding grass crop which grows therein becomes necesmisleads travellers, and is constantly playing tricks on mortals. Way states that in return a bowl of cream be not set out for him, ill-luck will fungi which form F. HIe is the same as Shake- olens contain a large quantity of phosphoric acid and potash, speare's Puck Old Eng. Jonson's Puck Hairy. The Cornishpixies-accordingtoKeightley Fair Shrimp hirocephalus diaphanus , a genus of Crusa diminutive from Puck —are supposed to be the souls of un- iacea q. They dwell in the mines, and, as Will-o'- which the true shmps are includedviz.

They are so named from their delicate clear appearance. Scottish F. They were said to be v. Their small and handsome, to wear green dresses, to ride in splendid pro- average length is about inch, yet so clear are their cessions on Hallowe'en, and to indulge in moonlight revelry, mark- they can scarcely be detected as they swim back-downwards. Fairy Rings q. They were fickle and mischievous, kidnap, ping children to offer as yearly tribute to Satan, stealing the soul Faith, in the widest sense of the word, is assent to the from the human body and replacing it by the soul of a fairy, and truth, or the persuasion of the mind that a thing is true.

Thus sometimes carrying away grown-up persons to fairyland. On the primary element of it is trust, as the primary idea of truth this last belief are founded the ballad of Tamzlane see Scott's is that which is trustworthy; and it might be defined as a Alinstrelsy of the Border , and Hogg's fine poem of Kilnmeny.

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  7. It is often defined as if it were a special organ for Scottish tales of F. The Gaelic F. The ordinary day but brilliantly illuminated at night. They enticed mortals definitions of F. In the first class, F. According to tradition the Irish F. Chaucer's F. Under the second class, F. Here, again,'sight' unknown in the vulgar fairy superstitions. Oberon is Le Petit may be taken in three Isenses:- I Literally; we are said to Roy Oberon who figures so conspicuously in mediaeval fiction, know a thing which we have seen with our eyes, and to believe and holds an intermediate place between the fays of romance and in the existence of things of whose existence we are certain the elves of the north.

    He is the German Elberich, which the without having seen them. Titania seems a derivative from are said to believe on testimony what we might afterwards see Titan, since Diana, whom Ovid MAetamorphoses, iii. I73 styles or know by demonstration. The all things not present to the mind; and we are said to know name of the tiny queen is thus derived from a word implying only the actual and the present, while what is mediately known, colossal stature and strength.

    Queen Mab, who in a certain de- e. Under the third gree has usurped the place of Titania, derives her name from class, F.

    19th-century Italian musicians

    FAL research or of argument, but determined by inclination and Fakir, a name derived from the Arabic fazqur,'poor,' and inward necessity. It does not appear that on the testimony of God. Speculative or dead F. They bear a and are perfectly orthodox, while yet they may be leading an close resemblance to the hermits of primitive Christianity, and immoral life. Temporary F. In India they are more or less deep and lasting, produced by the gospel-eg.

    Some are jugglers, of the Spirit of God common to all men. Saving F. In Persia and Turkey truth to the renewed soul. Ebooks and Manuals

    Theii coun Edinb. Faith, Rule of, means a standatd by which Christians Falaise' Fr. The tock' , a town in the department of Calvados, France, built on phrase originated with the early Christian fathers, but had a a natural terrace close by a rocky height, 23 miles S. In Remains of its ancient walls, and of the castle in which William the latter, as, e. Its churches, and many of Novatian, and Jerome, R, of F. The chief industrythe Apostles' Creed, which was so called'because it was the the trade in leather and furs-which employs hands, has known standard of faith, by which orthodoxy and heresy were been carried on for centuries, Pop.

    I In the and sepaerated from the communion of the Church. In the typical genus Falco, the bill is strong and toothed at its tip. Greek Churclh, on the other hand, as, e. The wings have their second and third quills longest tion or principle, by which the true meaning of Scripture was the first and second being notched near the tip. The feathers educed.

    The toes are long as regards its application, but there is a difference of opinion and powerful, and the talons between Protestants and Roman Catholics as to what constitutes strong. These birds ar the standard. They exhibit theb', is the only infallible rule of faith and practice. The best- R others only obscurely intimated, and others not therein con- known falcons are the Jer e tained at all. Jerethe canon certain books which Protestants do not admit to triozus ; the Hobby Hy be inspired, namely, the Apocrypha q.

    Thus, the The Falcon. Cyymindis also holds to constitute a part of the R.

    Italian Levantines

    C'ayalzeusis belong to this submany things were taught by Christ and his apostles which family. The American Red-thloated F. See Davidson's Sacred Hermeneulics Edinb. I ; Paris, and died at Naples in I Salvator Rosa was one of Bingham's Ecclesiast. Antiquities; IHodge's Sysltematic Theo0logy his pupils. IHis fame as a painter of battle-pieces was at one Edinb. Returning to eighteen became second mate of a vessel which was wrecked England in I, he entered upon a thriving business as a print- I off Cape Colonna, F.

    Among his best portraits are those of This disastrous voyage is the subject of F. FAL wreck has passages of vigorous and pathetic description, but is hover round the falconer, the lure being made use of to this end. The prey or trast between F. If the first missed its aim, the second hawk gotten; The DemagoR,ue , an attack on Wilkes and stooped in like manner, the heron being soon seized. The falChurchill; and a Universal,ilarine Dictionary The coner drew off the hawks from the prey after all three had once popular song, Cease, rude Boreas, has also been attributed descended, luring them by means of live pigeons and other birds.

    See the Memoir by Stanier Clarke prefixed to his edi- The heron was rarely killed outrighlt, but was frequently libetion of the Shipwreck I , and that by Mitford in the Aldine rated, being first marked with the name of the falcon's owner. It often proved a powerful adversary while on the ground, strikFalcon'idae, a large and well-known family of Raptorial ing at the falcons with its powerful beak, and sometimes transbirds, the members of which are distinguished by the fact that fixing them.

    The Merlin q. The wings are long and be employed to secure pheasants, and even rabbits and hares. The tarsi are varied and of strong A special terminology, of which some examples have been given, make, the claws being curved and sllarp. The head and neck characterised the sport. The most celebrated training-place for are feathered, and the eyes appear sunk and overarched by the falconers was the village of Falconswaerd, near Bois-le-Duc, in brow. This family includes several well-marked sub-families. Several old and a few modern treatises exist on F.

    It first appears in Roman history B. The friendly relations then established with capture them. The practice of F. Rome were broken on several occasions, and finally B. In the middle The falcons used in the sport were the Peregrine q. The female birds, as a rule, were most Faler'nian Wine occupied the second rank among the valued by the falconer. They seemed to possess powers of ancient wines of Italy. It was produced in a district of Camencdurance, agility, and cunning wanting in the males.

    The pania, stretching from the Massican Hills to the river Vulturnus, species which was most in favour was the peregrine falcon,. The course of training under- which held high offices in the state, and one of whom took part gone by these birds was of a very complete and lengthy char- in the election of the first doge in The most notable, howacter. The falconer preferred to take the bird from the nest, ever, was Marino F. He was born about I, and at the but his art was, in lieu of nestlings, also practised on older birds.

    Appointed commander of the fleet, from the nest was carefully tended by the falconer, and was he took Capo d'Istria, and afterwards, while absent as amnbaslodged in some outhouse, being fed on flesh of various kinds. In the following Becoming thus familiarised with man, the eyess grew tamer. The object of who had libelled the dogre's young wife, F. The plot was and to associate it with its food; this association afterwards betrayed, and the chief conspirators were executed.

    Another form of lure was that known doges took the oath after election. He was a personal fiiend of blance of a bird was borne; and a third form of lure was named Petrarch, who mentions him in his letters. Among the pictures the drawer. As the bird's powers of flight became developed, of the doges in the hall of the Grand Council is a space veiled and the lure was used to entice her back to hand after permitting her inscribed' HIic est locus Marini Faletro, decapitati pro criminito fly abroad. The operation which was most important in the bus. This consisted in Sanuto's Vite de' Dluchi de Venezia.

    This Fal'kirk perhaps'the kirk on the Vallumc' or wall of Agriprocedure often repeated had the effect of making the bird tame cola; the Gaelic name is Eglais-bhrac,' the speckled kirk' , a and docile. The bird thus hooded was set on a'block' of wood, town of Stirlingshire, Scotland, 22 miles E. E of Glasgow, and and was secured thereto by an apparatus of bells and jesses; the 25 W.

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    4. British Railformer being two hollow metal globes attached by bewoits or way. It is in the immediate vicinity of extensive ironworks, of leather straps to the legs of the bird; whilst the jesses were which the best known are the Carron, which have given name leather bands 5 or 6 inches in length, and fixed to each leg to a peculiar kind of ironmongery, and to a piece of ordnance below the bells. The jesses, in turn, were attached to another known as a carronade, because both are made at Carron. Sevestrap-the leash-by means of varvels, or two rings of silver, on ral firebrick, tile, and chemical works are in the neighbourhood.

      The apparatus thus F. Two battles have occurred in the neighbourhood, the harness; and in addition to these structures, a long cord, named first in I between the troops of Edward I. It and the second between the royal forces and those of the Chevawas also trained to sit or perch itself steadily on the hand of its lier, Prince Charles Edward Stuart, in I, in which the former master or mistress. The falcon was further taught to circle and were repulsed. Along with rS- — 4. FAL Airdrie, Hamilton, Lanark, and Linlithgow, it sends one member' that as soon as man's mind, through the weakness and treachery to Parliament.

      I had enjoyed in his innocence. Palace, a famous royal the F. It is mentioned Traditions of a F. According to the Hindus, the first man was tempted by the Supreme Being, whose special symbol Falkland Islands, otherwise the Mlalouines' or the was the serpent, by means of a blossom dropped from heaven Malvi'nas, an archipelago in the S. Atlantic belonging to of the sacred Indian fig.

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      Instigated by his wife, who had Britain, and lying miles E. They derived her being from him, the man determined to possess the consist of two large islands, E. I87r of The Persian account, contained though they have been a British possession since Previ- in the Zend-Avesta, is as follows:-' The first couple lived ously they had belonged in succession to France and Spain. Perpetual happiness was These islands are principally valuable from their numerous com- promised to them by Ormuzd, the creator of every good gift, modious harbours.

      The pasturage is good and the surrounding if they persevered in their virtue. But an evil demon was sent seas teem with fish; seals also abound. Stanley, in E. He appeared unexpectedly in the form of a serpent, and gave them the fruit of a wonderful tree, Hom, which imparted Falkland, Lucius Cary, Viscount, was born at Burford, immortality, and had the power of restoring the dead to life.

      Oxfordshire, in I6Io. His father, Sir Henry Cary, filled for a Thus evil inclinations entered their hearts; all their moral time the post of deputy-lieutenant in Ireland, and F. Ahriman himself appeared under cated at Trinity College, Dublin, and St John's College, Cam- the form of the same reptile, and completed the work of bridge.

      Inheriting from his grandfather an estate worth ooo0 seduction. They acknowledged him instead of Ormuzd as the a year, he devoted himself to learned research, and was on creator of everything good, and the consequence was that they terms of friendship with such men as Selden and Chillingworth.

      Ultimately, however, he separated from the which conferred immortality-and the story in Genesis; for popular party. After a vain attempt at mediation between which also some of the designs might stand as illustrations king and Parliament, he espoused, though with sad forebodings, which appear on the ancient Greek gems and Etruscan pottery. The most liberal thinkers of his day, a keen reasoner and able latter view has lately received apparent confirmation from the speaker, whose convictions still went with the Parliament, discoveries of Chaldaean literature made by Mr.

      See Kalisch's Commentary on Genesis; C. Middleton's Works 2d ed. The details of an error which arises not in observation by the senses, but in reasonthat narrative, which are familiar to every one, have always ing, or in the interpretation of what is directly seen.