However, a hypothesis ventured in the 17th c. One species of wild iris, the Iris pseudacorus, yellow flag in English, is yellow and grows in marshes cf. It is easy to imagine that, in Northern France, the Lieschblume would have been called "fleur-de-lis. There is a fanciful legend about Clovis which links the yellow flag explicitly with the French coat of arms.
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Sauvages' hypothesis seems to be supported by the archaic English spelling fleur-de-luce  and by the Luts 's variant name Lits. It has consistently been used as a royal emblem, though different cultures have interpreted its meaning in varying ways. Gaulish coins show the first Western designs which look similar to modern fleurs-de-lis. There is also a statue of Kanishka the Great , the emperor of the Kushan dynasty in — AD, in the Mathura Museum in India, with four modern Fleurs-de-lis symbols in a square emblem repeated twice on the bottom end of his smaller sword.
Another debated hypothesis is that the symbol derives from the Frankish Angon. The angon, or sting , was a typical Frankish throwing spear.
A possibly derived symbol of Frankish royalty was the bee, of similar shape, as found in the burial of Childric I , whose royal see of power over the Salian Franks was based over the valley of the Lys. Another heraldic tradition, going back to at least the 17th century, identifies the emblem of the Childric as a frog or toad crapaud rather than a bee. The graphic evolution of crita to fleur-de-lis was accompanied by textual allegory. By the late 13th century, an allegorical poem by Guillaume de Nangis d. Through this propagandist connection to Clovis, the fleur-de-lis has been taken in retrospect to symbolize all the Christian Frankish kings, most notably Charlemagne.
The fleur-de-lis' symbolic origins with French monarchs may stem from the baptismal lily used in the crowning of King Clovis I. So, the fleur-de-lis stood as a symbol of the king's divinely approved right to rule. The thus "anointed" Kings of France later maintained that their authority was directly from God. A legend enhances the mystique of royalty by informing us that a vial of oil—the Holy Ampulla—descended from Heaven to anoint and sanctify Clovis as King,  descending directly on Clovis or perhaps brought by a dove to Saint Remigius.
One version explains that an angel descended with the Fleur-de-lis ampulla to anoint the king. In the 14th-century French writers asserted that the monarchy of France, which developed from the Kingdom of the West Franks, could trace its heritage back to the divine gift of royal arms received by Clovis. This story has remained popular, even though modern scholarship has established that the fleur-de-lis was a religious symbol before it was a true heraldic symbol.
Louis VII ordered the use of fleur-de-lis clothing in his son Philip's coronation in ,  while the first visual evidence of clearly heraldic use dates from a seal showing the future Louis VIII and his shield strewn with the "flowers". Louis the three petals of the flower were said to represent faith, wisdom and chivalry, and to be a sign of divine favour bestowed on France. The Chamber of Accounts in France registered the family's designation to nobility on 20 January The grant permitted the family to change their surname to du Lys.
France Modern remained the French royal standard, and with a white background was the French national flag until the French Revolution , when it was replaced by the tricolor of modern-day France. The fleur-de-lis was restored to the French flag in , but replaced once again after the revolution against Charles X of France in Fleurs-de-lis feature prominently in the Crown Jewels of England and Scotland. In English heraldry, they are used in many different ways, and can be the cadency mark of the sixth son.
Additionally, it features in a large amount of royal arms of the House of Plantagenet , from the 13th century onwards to the early Tudors Elizabeth of York and the de la Pole family. The tressure flory — counterflory flowered border has been a prominent part of the design of the Scottish royal arms and Royal Standard since James I of Scotland. In Italy, fleurs-de-lis have been used for some papal crowns [g] and coats of arms, the Farnese Dukes of Parma ,  and by some doges of Venice.
Other countries include Spain in recognition of rulers from the House of Bourbon. As a dynastic emblem it has also been very widely used: not only by noble families but also, for example, by the Fuggers , a medieval banking family. Three fleurs-de-lis appeared in the personal coat of arms of Grandmaster Alof de Wignacourt who ruled the Malta between and His nephew Adrien de Wignacourt , who was Grandmaster himself from to , also had a similar coat of arms with three fleurs-de-lis.
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Fleurs-de-lis crossed the Atlantic along with Europeans going to the New World , especially with French settlers. Their presence on North American flags and coats of arms usually recalls the involvement of French settlers in the history of the town or region concerned, and in some cases the persisting presence there of a population descended from such settlers. It is also featured on the personal flag used by the Queen of Canada.
Franco-Ontarians , for example, feature the fleur-de-lis prominently on their flag. In Saskatchewan the Western Red Lily appears on the provincial flag and is sometimes used as a symbol of the province.
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Some representations resemble a fleur de lis but the traditional version itself is rarely used. In the US, the fleur-de-lis symbols tend to be along or near the Mississippi and Missouri rivers. These are areas of strong French colonial empire settlement. Some of the places that have it in their flag or seal are the cities of St. On 9 July , Louisiana governor Bobby Jindal signed a bill into law making the fleur-de-lis an official symbol of the state.
On the coat of arms of Saint Lucia it represents the French heritage of the country. Flag of the Kingdom of Hungary from to Flag of Spain. Coat of arms of Spain. Arms of Peter Paul Rubens and his family.
Flag of Montgomery County, Maryland. The augmented coat of arms of the Medici , Or, five balls in orle gules, in chief a larger one of the arms of France viz. Azure, three fleurs-de-lis or was granted by Louis XI in In reality, there is no objective proof for the statement. Arms of the Thouars Family.
The reverse of the arms of France. Fleur-de-lis on the coat of arms of Lincoln. Flag of Franco-Albertans. Flag of Franco-Ontarians. Former Flag of Louisville, Kentucky. Louis, Missouri. Flag of Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Flag of Fleur-de-Lys , Malta. Flag of Santa Venera , Malta. In the Middle Ages , the symbols of lily and fleur-de-lis overlapped considerably in Christian religious art. Michel Pastoureau , a historian, says that until about they were found in depictions of Jesus, but gradually they took on Marian symbolism and were associated with the Song of Solomon 's "lily among thorns" lilium inter spinas , understood as a reference to Mary.
Other scripture and religious literature in which the lily symbolizes purity and chastity also helped establish the flower as an iconographic attribute of the Virgin. It was also believed that the fleur-de-lis represented the Holy Trinity. Azucena is another lily name. Lillemor is lovely — thanks for the addition! If I had a Lily, her nickname would be Lilou. So cute.
Lilevi is Swedish. Jane Liliosa is gorgeous! I like Katherine Liliosa, too. One I would add to the list would be Lilas. Lelane is fascinating — a smoosh of Lisa and Elaine?
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But this dream would never be realized. The book, Man Into Woman , was first published in in Danish and German and English editions quickly followed including reissues of the English version in and We strive for accuracy and fairness. If you see something that doesn't look right, contact us! Sign up for the Biography newsletter to receive stories about the people who shaped our world and the stories that shaped their lives.
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