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George ed. Children in the Hellenistic World. Minicia Marcella: taken before her time. Le Serment d'Hippocrate et les femmes grecques, Clio. Prost and J. Wilgaux dir. Mee and J. Renard eds , Cooking up the past. Food and culinary practices in the Neolithic and bronze age Aegean, Oxbow, Bourdin, F. Chauvaud, V. Estellon, B. Geay and J. Passerault eds Michel Foucault. Savoirs, domination et sujet, Rennes: PUR, Bodiou ed. Parcours sensible d'une historienne.
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Thivel and A. Zucker eds , Le Normal et le Pathologique dans la collection hippocratique. Spunti sessuologici negli scritti ippocratici. Acta med. Elementary and secondary education in the Roman Empire, Florilegium 1: The schooling of slaves in first—century Rome, Transactions of the American Philological Association Exposition and Oblatio: The abandonment of children and the ancient and medieval family, The American Historical Review 89 1 : Kindness of strangers.
Concepts, Experience, and Sexuality. Konstan and M. Au bon coeur des inconnus. Children's Bibles. In: Dale C. Brisson, M. Congourdeau and J. Boudon- Millot, V.
Dasen and B. Gourevitch, Paris: De Boccard, Gill, T. Whitmarsh and J. Jufresa and al. Boudon-Millot, V. Cilliers ed. Bourbon and R. Les odeurs pathologiques dans la Collection hippocratique: identification, statut et traitement, Medicina nei secoli, arte et scienza 28 2 : Gherchanoc and S. Wyler eds , Corps en morceaux. Breastfeeding and Weaning Patterns in Byzantine Times. Evidence from Human Remains and Written Sources. Talbot eds , Becoming Byzantine. Children and Childhood in Byzantium, Washington D. Child burials at ancient Messene. Guimier- Sorbets and Y.
Le signalement des tombes d'enfants. Nursing mothers and feeding bottles: reconstructing breastfeeding and weaning patterns in Greek Byzantine populations 6th — 15th centuries AD using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios, Journal of Arcaeological Science Bread, oil, wine and milk: feeding infants and adults in Byzantine Greece. In: Papathanasiou, A. Enfance en peril.
Hippocrate et Aristote: L'origine, chez le philosophe, de la doctrine concernant la nature. Grmek ed. II matrimonio nel diritto dei papiri dell' epoca tolemaica, Aegyptus, Le droit de jouer pour les enfants grecs et romains, Recueils de la societe Jean Bodin The age at time of sale of female slaves, Arethusa Wet-nursing at Rome: A study in social relations. In: K. Bradley ed. The family in ancient Rome: New perspectives. Discovering the Roman Family. Remariage and the Structures of the Upperclass Roman Family.
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Dixon ed. The Roman Child in Sickness and in Health. In: Michele George, ed. In: Keith R. Historical Essays, Toronto: University of Toronto press, Apuleius and Jesus. In: Keith Bradley ed. Images of Childhood in Classical Antiquity. In: Paula S. Fass ed.
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Exeter: University of Exeter Press. Archetypal views of women in classical mythology and modern literature, Echos du Monde Classique Classical Views Der Sadebaum als Abortivum, Sudhoffs Arch. Early Christian Enslaved Families. Mustakallio, and V. The Notion of Virginity in the Early Church. McGinn, J. Meyendorff and J. Leclerq eds , Christian Spirituality, New York, The Body and Society. In: Marcia J. Education in the Roman Empire. Cameron, B. Ward-Perkins and M. Approaches to the Byzantine Family.
Birmingham Byzantine and Ottoman Studies. Birmingham: Ashgate. Bunge, Terence E. Paris: Perrin. Les filles de Pandore. In: Histoire des femmes en Occident. Duby, M. Perrot, Paris: Plon, Children — Greek World. In: Julia M. O'Brien ed. Aporreta: verbal and ritual obscenity in the cults of ancient women. BRUN, P. Greek or Latin? In: Michele Georg ed.
Cypriote boys in the service of the great Goddess. Men and women in Antiquity. Gemellus' Evil Eyes P. Vi — , Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies Pallakai, prostitutes, and prophetesses, CPh Wilson ed. Images of Women and Child from the Bronze Age. The position of women in Greco-Roman Egypt, with a special view to divorce and marriage, MT Paris: Les Belles Lettres. BUIS, E. Birth control in Antiquity, Bratisl Lek Listy 3 : Masturbation: a historical overview.
Bockting and E. The Child in Christian Thought. Grand Rapids, Mich. Children, adults, and shared responsibilities: Jewish, Christian and Muslim perspectives. The Child in the Bible. Mother-murder in myth and legend, Psychoanalytic Quarterly Cenerini eds , Donna e lavoro nella documentazione epigrafica, Faenza, Histoire de la famille, I-II, Paris. Review of Greek Virginity by G. Sissa, Journal of the History of Sexuality 2: In: Cornelia B. Horn and Robert R. Pauline Paternity in 1 Thessalonians, Tyndale Bulletin Family matters: a socio—historical study of fictive kinship metaphors in 1 Thessalonians.
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L'enfant chez Galien. Le traitement de la douleur dans le Corpus hippocratique. Gourevitch ed. Le Bohec and Y. Translated in English by D. Collins and J. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield. Sexual love in ancient Greece. Social schemes, in greek , Archaiologia The Poetics of Eros in Ancient Greece trans. Lloyd Princeton. Padilla ed. Thesis, University of Michigan. Roman Girlhood and the Fashioning of Femininity.
The exposure of children and Greek ethics, The Classical Review 46 3 : Threptos and related terms in the inscriptions of Asia Minor. Buckler, Manchester Manchester University Press, Early Christianity and the Discourse of Female Desire. Archer, S. Fischler and M. Campese, P. Manuli and G. Sissa eds , Madre Materia. Sociologia e biologia della donna greca, Turin, Madre Materia.
Sociologia e biologia della donna greca, Turin.
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In: Vita sesso morte nella letteratura latina, Milanoo, Zur Entstehung der christlichen Sexualmoral. Gladigow ed. Hieber and R. Given to a Deity? Etica sessuale e matrimonio nel cristianesimo delle origini, Milanoo. Etica sessuale e matrimonio nel cristianesimo delle origini. Bilancio di una ricerca. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Donne di casa e donne sole in Grecia: sedotte e seduttrici. La sexualidad de la mujer romana. Passato prossimo. Donne romane da Tacita a Sulpicia, Milanoo. Fathers and Sons in Rome, Classical World 96 3 : La condizione femminile alla luce della Grande Iscrizione.
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Paris: Hachette. Vecchi problemi e nuove osservazioni a proposito di un aspetto del costume funerario. CARP, T. CARR, J. The view of women in Juvenal and Apuleius, CB Medical ethics in Antiquity. Reidel Publishing Company. The Roman child clothed in death. Carroll and J. Mother and Infant in Roman Funerary Commemoration. Carroll and E. Putting Her in Her Place.
Woman, Dirt, and Desire. Halperin, J. Winkler and F. Zeitlin eds , Before Sexuality. Dirt and desire: the phenomenology of female pollution in Antiquity. In: James I. Porter ed. Spartan Wifes: Liberation or Licence? Theologia catholica 3: Childhood in Byzantine saints' lives. Resistance and agency in the everyday life of Late Antique children 3rd— 8th century CE. Turnhout: Brepols. Everyday Life in Ancient Rome. In tema di matrimonio e concubinato nel mondo romano, Milanoo. The history of infant nutrition, Jornal de Pediatria Rio J.
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Anatomie et Histoire de l'Art2, Oncus 8: Strix: La strega nella cultura romana. Turin: UTET. Mustakallio and C. He will live and insists upon knowing the name of his rival. By the third act, however, calm has been restored. The youth con- fesses his fault, and Bourgade bids his wife choose be- tween them. The lover's plea in his own behalf proves vain. Irene, no longer restrained by law, offers herself, shamed and weary, to the husband to whom for seventeen years she had been true. His dishonor is no greater than her own. Unfortunately, Bernstein had made his hero so unlovable that the wife's devotion stirs little admiration.
The play was written, not to prove that marriage is a tie indissoluble, but merely to show three figures in a series of telling situations. The tumult that drove Apres Moil from the boards was incited by a patriotic society, the Camelots du Roi, because of the chance discovery and publication of a letter written by Bernstein eleven years before, boasting that he was a deserter from the army and a man about town. Yet the demonstration against him proceeded also, no doubt, from the distaste of the audience for his pessimism, brutality, and violence.
In the latest pieces of Bernstein may be seen a new sobriety, delicacy, and moderation. Their spirit is more indulgent and generous, their characters acquire greater depth, although Bernstein's predilection for conveying the movement of life rather than its profundities remains. In L'Assaut , a political leader of middle age finds himself admired by the girl friend of his daughter, to whom he had thought to marry his son. At first, to save her, he would feign indifference, but her faith in him as he faces a political attack wins his heart. Doubted by his three children, but perceiving that he must fight fire with fire, he turns upon his hypocritical informant proofs of the latter's connection with a shady affair, and secures by this means his own acquittal.
When the girl who would be his wife affirms that she has never doubted him, he confesses his guilt. Renee, listening to the story of his youthful hardships, agrees to forget and forgive. In Le Secret , the central figure is a woman happily married but unable to look without envy upon the peace of others. She has incited her husband against his sister; she has driven off the lover of her confidante when he was just on the point of marriage, and she has called him back to destroy her friend's new match, reveal- ing to the latter's husband the secret she should have kept.
Gabrielle seems a cross between Hedda Gabler and Hilda Wangel, less evil than the first, more malicious than the second. She finds satanic satisfaction in meddling with the careers of others, but she does not hate, like Hedda, and her husband, after a dozen years of marriage, has no inkling of her true character. Sud- denly Gabrielle feels qualms of conscience, begs her injured friend to conceal her infamy, and threatens suicide if she speaks. When Henriette, who has suffered until all power of resentment is exhausted, agrees, it is Gabrielle who admits her wanton envy to her husband, thus taking the first step toward regeneration.
The wife of a medical professor has fallen in love with an officer. When he goes to Verdun to oppose the invader, Suzanne's conduct stirs her hus- band's suspicions, and he extorts her confession. Accord- ing to the formula of the new Bernstein, he forgives, and they toil side by side in the hospitals as comparative strangers. Then the lover, wounded in battle, sends for Suzanne, and the husband would prevent her going by showing her proofs of the officer's former wild life.
Yet, perceiving that Suzanne's devotion is noble, he accepts her defense of de Genois, and restrains his desire for revenge. He cannot be outdone in self-sacrifice by his rival. Suzanne, in the final act, hears her lover's story of his former unworthiness and of his rebirth through love and war. As she vows that she cannot survive him, he bids her live. Won't you take my place in the ranks and go on? It has raised them to spiritual heights, and we, who have found our love in this world calamity, we must be worthy of it. His art has become less artificial, his temper more mellow.
The rise of dramatic naturaHsm was favored in France by the example of the novehsts. Balzac, with his all-embracing comedie humaine; Flaubert, with his finely wrought fictions, minutely faithful in observation and expression; the de Goncourt brothers, with their meticulous striving to represent the pathological; Daudet, with his polished and ironical mingling of the romantic and the realistic ; de Maupassant, the pupil of Flaubert, with his tales beautiful in workmanship yet fearless in their reflection of the actual ; and finally Zola — big, coarse, brutal, gorging himself on human documents, and pouring out floods of turgid epic eloquence — : all these prepared the way for naturalism on the stage.
Atmosphere, local color, detail become more important with them than story-interest. Ostensibly, they care little for the enun- ciation of ideas; practically, they are controlled by the obsession that man is a beast only partially tamed, the creature of instinct, the victim of circumstance, the bauble of Fate. But the Fate of the naturalists is no arbitrary destiny; it is rather the inevitable reaction upon the individual of his race, his heredity, his environ- ment.
These influences are so powerful that he lacks the will to struggle against them. His will, indeed, is but a resultant of such forces. Unlike the romantic hero, he is passive. If he acts, it is but to obey some impulsion of lust, avarice, hatred, yice and crime are the themes of the naturalists, morbid longings, distraught minds, sordid evils of the social system. Life, they argue, must be faced in its grimmest and most horrible aspects ; only so can it ever be improved. From the new science the naturalists imbibed their materialism.
Their critical theories were drawn in part from Taine. Like him, they appHed to moral matters the methods of the physiologist. I treat sentiments and ideas as I would functions and organs. Moreover, I believe that the two orders of facts are of the same char- acter. Flaubert, born into a family of physicians, declared that, "The farther art goes, the more scientific it becomes. Although later he objected to Zola's complete identification of science and literature, and denied the excellence of his own Madame Bovary, he continued to recognize the possibility of induc- ing from observed human nature certain laws.
The de Goncourts, impressionable and half sick, were driven by nervous curiosity to explore in their novels morbid states of soul. After acquiring the habit of relying upon a careful study of documents in their endeavor to rehabilitate the eighteenth century, they proceeded to apply this method to contemporary subject matter, reasoning that, "History is a novel that has happened; the novel is history that might happen.
They looked forward to a novel of pure analysis emanci- pated from plot. They boasted of becoming, in Madame GervaisaiSf the first historians of the nerves. Especially informing is their Journal designed to record every least thought or sensation that might later be used in fic- tion or drama, — an ample sketch-book of gestures, at- titudes, incidents, and scenes, rather than a collection of suggestive ideas like the notebooks of Hawthorne. They emphasized the importance of the milieu, not for its own sake, but as affecting the characters so environed.
They alleged the rights of the lowly to be included as the subjects of tragedy. That question they answered by writing Germinie Lacerteux, a very clinic upon the hysteria of a servant once in their employ, who sank through debauchery to death. For the stage, Edmond de Goncourt com- posed what, in spite of its conventional plot, has been proclaimed the first naturalistic drama, — Henriette Mare- chal , displaying the emotions of a youth who falls enamored of a married woman of twice his age. Wounded while dueling in her defense, he is carried to her house, where he remains unrecognized until convalescent, in order that the dramatist may achieve a striking scene of recognition.
Presently Madame Marechal finds herself the rival in Paul's affections of her daughter, a situation to be more powerfully developed by Donnay in Uautre Danger. He also composed origi- nal pieces. La Patrie en danger , with Jules, and A has le Progres alone. In the last, disparage- ment of what is artificial grows into the affectation of satirical paradox, forecasting the spirit of Shaw. A burglar, who has threatened a girl, is disarmed by her humor and forgiven by her father, who, discovering that the intruder's politics coincide with his own, would oifer him her hand and assist his escape.
At first, the de Goncourts exerted little influence except upon Zola It was he, however, who was destined to become the high priest of naturalism. From Taine he derived the notion that art is a secretion, that vice and virtue are products like vitriol and sugar, and that psychology is dependent upon physiology. In he sent to the Congres scientifique a definition of the novel framed in accordance with these views; and he found his ideas reinforced when he studied Claude Bernard's experimental physiology, Letourneau's Physiologie des passions, and Lucas' Traite philosophique et physiologique de VherediU naturelle.
Therese incites her simple- minded lover to aid her in slaying her husband ; but when they have drowned their victim, they are tortured in conscience. Although the dumb and paralyzed mother who accuses them only with her eyes proved an effective figure, the tension was too unrelieved, and in vain the manager asked that it be relaxed by a final act in the open.
Later, with William Busnach, Zola dramatized his Pot-Bouille , the study of a dis- agreeable family. The mother is a matchmaker, the father is poor an4, sickly. The daughters look for hus- bands to save them from misery. One, having captured a shop-keeper by a. In Renee , Zola produced an absurd farrago of melodramatic nonsense, involving the deception of the heroine by one man, her platonic union with another who, for money, consents to cloak her fault, her falling in love with the son of this titular husband, the son's falling in love with a fair Swede, though still visiting his stepmother, the husband's unexpected intrusion, pistol in hand, and discovery of his son as his rival, with the heroine's inter- position between son and father, and her shooting of herself.
Perverse in motive and unreal in situation as any of the plays which the author had condemned, this drama could add nothing to his fame. In , however, the Th6dtre-Libre put on Zola's Madeleine, a youthful work, written twenty-three years earlier, and serving as the basis for his novel Madeleine Ferat. Madeleine, married to a physician, finds in his friend a former lover.
Among the dramatizations of Zola's novels by others should be mentioned L' Assommoir , by Busnach and Gastineau, depicting the decline through drink of a weakling. Coupeau dies, leaving his widow to starve; and the husband of his temptress, the insidious Virginie, sends her out of the world after her victim. Two years later, Busnach dramatized Zola's Nana, which like its predecessor proved to be only a glorified melodrama, provoking the critics to remark that he who condemned all tricks of the stage employed them more awkwardly than his rivals.
Indeed Zola, who "had raged at Alfred de Vigny's Chatterton because in it a mere property — a staircase — was made the hero, did not disdain in Pot- Bouille to figure a shop interior, which, by its realism, distracted attention from the action. In the same way, in Le Ventre de Paris , drawn by Busnach from Zola's novel, a butcher shop delighted the lovers of local color, and elicited Sarcey's protest that it served no purpose and that its superior might be found by walking a block. But Zola retorted in Busnach's defense that the shop with its strings of sausages and its hams in heaps provided a symbolic contrast to the hunger of the hero, an escaped convict, protected from the police by the butcher, his brother.
Zola's claim to be remembered rests, not upon his contributions to the theatre, but upon his epics of crime and his theories. As we have seen, however, his own meagre work and that of his disciple, William Busnach, was too often marred by what he deplored in the work of others. He thought himself a naturalist ; as a matter of fact he idealized the low, the brutal, the sensational. His style was ponderous and blunt rather than graceful and keen; he professed to be scientific but was often guilty of strain- ing for effect.
Above all, he was perverse in ascribing the ill success of his drama to the prejudice of enemies. His plays fell, not because they were overwhelmed from without, but because of their own dead weight. Among the other writers of realistic fiction, Daudet and de Maupassant cast side glances at the stage. Guy de Maupassant might have excelled there in the naturalistic way, but he produced only a trifle in verse — Histoire du vieux temps — and two longer dramas in prose. La Paix du menage satirizes a wedded pair engaged in mutual deceptions. When the wife has retaliated in kind upon her faithless lord, he finds her again fascinating.
But she will go abroad with his rival. He may seek consolation where he will. In Musotte , drawn by Jacques Normand and de Maupassant from the latter's story, L'Enfantj pathos replaces satire. He comforts her last hour, brings home her babe, and is forgiven by his bride, — a delicate situation handled with sobriety and skill.
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The last is a tragedy involving the outrage and murder of a girl by a village mayor, who withstands a judicial examination but breaks down beneath the tor- tures of conscience. As for AlphonseDaudet , he is no objective realist, but rather a French Dickens with the temperament of the South. His labors for the stage consist chiefly in running fiction into the mold of drama.
He also approved the dramatiza- tion by others of such novels as Tartarin sur les Alpes and Les Rois en exil, the first adapted by de Courcy and Bocage, the last by Paul Delair. Daudet is at his best in satire or in revealing the fascina- tion and ruin wrought by wicked women. In Tartarin and Numa Roumestan he laughs at the boastful sons of Provence. Of Daudet's plays in more serious vein, L'Arlesienne, Sapho, and La Menteuse are concerned with the baneful influence of sirens upon weak youths, the anti-heroine of the first wreaking destruction, though never seen ; that of the second leaving her quarry nonplussed when she turns to his rival now released from prison, where for her sake he has suffered ; and that of the third, an adventuress caught in the web of her lies and finding escape only through death self-inflicted.
In Petite Paroisse Daudet unfolds the story of a sinful wife forgiven by her lord after she has slain her princely lover. In La Lutte pour la me, by exception, the sinner is the husband, a mean wretch who persecutes his noble duchess into consenting to a divorce that he may marry a little Jewess. Having seduced and caused the death of another woman, he is slain by her vengeful father. Dau- det, like Zola, was not averse to dark and cruel themes, and to the resources of the melodramatist.
He was too inclined to the conventional and theatric, accordingly, to prove a reformer of the stage, and too prone to regard the theatre as but an accessory of fiction to rank high as a dramatist. Among those who wrote plays rather than dramatized novels, Henry Becque stands foremost as a herald of naturalism. He came into his own very slowly. Yet he contemplated no cam- paign of reform, and nursed no illusions concerning his destiny as an apostle of the new. Becque's beginnings were not auspicious.
At the age of thirty, he furnished the libretto for an opera by Victorin Joncieres drawn from Byron. Becque's gift of ironic characterizati on became more apparent in Michel Pauper , despite its retention of the traditional in plot and style. Helene, betrayed, and inducing the suicide of her husband, proved a vital figure. But it was not until the appearance of UEnlevement that Becque broke completely with the old and went his own gait.
In this play, a wife, to escape her rascally husband, retires to the country, where she is drawn to a neighbor, whose experience of marriage has been as unhappy as her own. When de la Rouvre begs her to secure a divorce and marry him, she refuses. But her husband reappears, insolently asserting his rights, and followed by a mistress, who proves to be de la Rouvre's wife. Thereupon Emma resigns herself to her lover. She is not a creature of passion nor a new woman asserting her freedom; she is merely the victim of her husband's brutality. Another acrid comedy, Les honnetes Femmes , containing Becque's philos- ophy of marriage, preceded his best-known drama, Les Corbeaux The "vultures" here referred to are those who, during Vigneron's days of prosperity, have clung to his skirts fawning, yet, at his death, turn to prey upon his widow and children.
At the rise of the curtain the parasites arrive to celebrate the betrothal of Blanche Vigneron, but the forced gaiety is checked by the news that Vigneron has expired from apoplexy. His affairs are in confusion. Blanche, though she will bear Georges a child, is deserted, and loses her mind; the music teacher, who had cajoled anotherX daughter into trusting her talent, now laughs at her hope of giving lessons; the architect, who had thriven on his orders from Vigneron, threatens suit; the solicitor, regretting the fees he must forfeit, hopes to recoup by plotting against Madame.
She, poor woman, is the victim, also, of her husband's old partner, Teissier, a rogue ready to profit by the family distress in urging dishonorable proposals upon the third daughter. When Marie spurns him, Teissier is outspoken in admiration of her shrewdness, and offers her marriage. So she consents to her shame, in order to save from disaster those who are dear to her. Without such ironic scenes, the last act of Les trois Filles de M. Dupont would have been impossible. The last is devoted to displaying the situation of a shop girl, who rebuffs her master's son when he offers her marriage, only to be thrown out of employment and forced to the streets.
Les Polichinelles, left unfinished by Becque, was com- pleted by Henri de Noussanne, and published in Its irony is directed against the unscrupulous promoter Tavernier, tool of a capitalist and center of a scheming group that has intrigued for government patronage. Since there is small honor among thieves, Tavernier, fearing to be tricked, takes time by the forelock, tricking his accomplices first. He retires from business with pockets well lined, and will pose henceforth as a pattern of virtue.
As for La Parisienne , it is Becque at his artistic best. The play avoids all surplusage, its rigorous form comporting with its anti-ro manti c spirit. The grim humor of the situation proceeds from the heroine's char- acter. Pious and methodical, Clotilde nevertheless en- gages in an intrigue, but she insists that "it would be terrible for a man to have a mistress lacking in religion. From the succeeding action, we infer that a husband's des- potism is less to be feared than a lover's, and that a wife will tend to order her free love as she would her regular household.
Clotilde, having turned for the moment from her Lafont to a stupid sportsman, wearies of him, and yearns for her former menage a trois. Dispassionate in attitude , even indifferent, Becque regards in the dry light of reason situations that others had portrayed in rosy tints. He renders small souls to perfection. His realm is the world of the commonplace, the drab, the sombre. Although he may use a plot that the conventional dramatist might not have disdained, he subordinates it to the painting of manners and char acter. He conceals the art with which he develops his expositions and denouements, concentrating yet softening his transi- tions, and reducing mechanics to their lowest terms.
MoHere is his master, though he knows none of that master's gaiety. If in comedy he is neither hilarious nor sentimental, in serious drama he is neither pathetic nor tragic. He keeps an even middle course. Setting life before you, he withdraws, refraining from didacticism as well as from heroics, compelling attention by his veracity, but fatiguing it, too, by his lack of esprit and charm.
It was Becque who in practijce pointed the way to stage naturalism, achieving far more for that cause than did Zola. But lesser men exaggerated the "rosserie" until it came to imply a deliberate display of the vicious, a nonchalant delight in corruption. Artistic bohemians of Montmartre threw respect for the old to the winds, rejoicing in the ugly, criminal, or bizarre, and poking fun at all things grave, with a view to enraging the bourgeoisie by daring irreverence.
Antoine and His Theatre When Andre Antoine founded the Theatre-Libre he sought to satisfy the demand, not only of the bohemians, but also of thoughtful lovers of the drama who desired scope for its untrammeled development. A revolutionary voice from Sweden, that of August Strindberg, had been demanding a free theatre "where we can be shocked by what is horrible, where we can laugh at what is grotesque, where we can see life without shrinking back in terror if what has hitherto lain veiled behind theological and esthetic conceptions is revealed to us.
The freedom of the theatres, accorded by the National Assembly in , but withdrawn by Napoleon in , had been reestablished by a decree issued in January, As a result, the number of playhouses greatly increased, and actors, instead of being bound to any particular troupe, might pass from one to another easily. Before this, each playhouse had tended to specialize in a single kind of drama and to maintain a permanent com- pany trained after its own traditions. The subsidized theatres — the Comedie-Fran- 9aise and the Odeon — continued as before, the one giving the well-tried classics in a conventional manner; the other giving, together with the classics, certain novelties of distinction.
But the Gymnase, once the home of the comedy of manners, extended hospitality to the drame; the Porte-Sain t-Martin, once the home of the drame, opened its doors to mere spectacles ; and the Palais Royal, once the home of the broadest sort of vaudeville, welcomed Sardou. The cost of production having greatly increased, managers became more intent upon profits than art. They relied upon appealing to the curiosity of foreigners or natives from the provinces, and sought to compete with the new vogue of the cafe chantant, advertising their wares by the prestige of one or two star performers, rather than the uniform excellence of a whole company.
More and more, the first-night audience degenerated, the cultivated public of an earlier day being replaced by fashionable idlers avid of sensation. Even the press contributed to the decline, since the dramatic feuilleton was written more hastily than before and exerted less influence. It was to counteract such theatrical conditions — described in detail by Gustave Larroumet, in his Etudes d'histoire et de critique dramatiques , that Andre Antoine launched the Theatre-Libre. Antoine, who had early come from Limoges to Paris, had spent the better part of sixteen yeasrs in various humdrum employments, chiefly with the Gas Company.
But he had long been interested in the theatre, and as a member of dramatic clubs had evinced his talent for acting. He would offer, to season subscribers, at occasional performances, in a place free from the censorship, pieces of special interest, — the foreign, the unusual, the new.
This plan was put into operation on a stormy night, March 30, , in a little hall, Number 37 Passage de I'Elysee des Beaux Arts, on the heights of Montmartre. Antoine had been seconded in his efforts by Arthur Byl, who had offered for the per- formance his own piece, Le Prefet, already refused by Krauss, director of the "Cercle Gaulois.
Thus equipped with four plays, each of one act, Antoine tempted fortune. But fortune as yet was coy. Nothing daunted, Antoine returned to his muttons two months later with La Nuit Bergamasque, a comedy in three acts by Emile Bergerat, and En Famille, a slice of life in one act by Oscar Metenier. On this occasion, Sarcey, Daudet, and Zola attended and approved the venture. Then came his reign of glory, — five seasons of eight bills each at the Theatre des Menus- Plaisirs, Number 14 Boulevard de Strasbourg.
By , however, the novelty had worn off, the effect of Antoine's reform had been felt in the regular houses, and the Theatre- Libre declined through two seasons more with reduced performances, and closed its doors in April, , under the direction of Larochelle. In all, it had given, in its sixty- two bills, one hundred and twenty-four pieces by one hundred and fourteen authors, sixty-nine of whom were novices. It had presented dramatizations of several novels of the de Goncourts and several tales of Zola, as well as adaptations like Le Coeur revelateur , drawn by Ernest Laumann from Baudelaire's version of Poe's "Telltale Heart,'' and of PereGgriqt , drawn by Adolphe Tabarant from Balzac.
As a reformer, Antoine did the French drama good service. He objected to the stress- ing of a thesis, and equally to the inclusion of the stock personage meant to awaken tenderness in the spectators. In his stage settings, he strove for greater naturalness, relying upon the assistance of Henri Riviere, who had invented the Theatre d'Ombres Chatnoiresques. Thus, he allowed his players to turn their backs upon the audience, and made less of their oratorical enunciation of phrases than of their rendering dominant traits of character through the mastery of histrionic detail.
He was himself a character-actor of marked ability, presenting each part with a firmness and subtlety rarely rivaled. First of the French managers, he per- ceived the possibility of making mobs on the stage really lifelike. Having, in , witnessed a performance of Shakespeare's Julius Caesar, given by the Saxe-Meiningen players at Brussels, he wrote to Sarcey that never before had he felt so fully the sensation of the multitude, not even in Sardou's La Haine and Theodora. In short, Antoine broke with entrenched custom in the com- baercialized and subsidized theatre and set the drama new tasks.
Tragic Naturalists The most distinguished contributors to the Free Theatre will receive separate mention elsewhere, as they eventually outgrew the cradle in which they were rocked; but the lesser men associated with Antoine may be considered at this point, since their work best reveals the character- istics of the school. Let us glance first at the minor makers of tragedy. The fashion for plays brief, intense, shocking, was set by Oscar Metenier.
The Grand Guignol had offered Parisians thirsting for sensation poignant pieces, given one after another of an evening. To these would come late revelers, folk who kept no certain hours, but who craved the sting of novelty, a few keen moments of excitement to be as promptly forgotten. In their mood, the spectators of such little dramas resembled idlers in the street suddenly excited by an accident, crowding round to survey the victims, more curious than sympa- thetic.
Oscar Metenier , in a variety of dramas, exemplifies this procedure. Thus, in Lui , when a girl of the streets has brought home a chance acquaintance, she is horrified to note that the jewels he turns from his pockets are those of a demi-mondaine just murdered. She contrives to send word to the police that the quarry they seek is with her, and then awaits their coming, con- fronting the criminal with a smile. In La Casserole , a girl in league with the police has caused her lover's arrest after he has bidden her to go with other men. But his friend, in revenge, slays the girl, and then confesses the crime, merely that he may be sent to prison and there meet once more his dear comrade.
The mingling of violence and tenderness, of immorality and a crude devotion, is noteworthy here. Technically, too, they resemble the sensational short story. It is no mere coincidence, there- fore, that Metenier should have dramatized de Maupas- sant's tales, — Mademoiselle Fifi and Boule de Suif , or that he should have collaborated with Paul Alexis in turning the de Goncourts' Charles Bemailly into a play , and with Dubut de Laforest in adapting for the boards the latter's novel.
La Bonne a tout faire. Here the maid of all work resembles Hauptmann's Hanne Schal, though far more corrupt. She becomes the mistress, not only of her employer, but also of his son and his friend, and even of the lover of his wife, finally destroying the whole family. Fabrice, and Tres Russe , with J. Lorrain, — to say nothing of original pieces early and late, from En Famille , already mentioned, and Le Gorille , to La Confrontation and La Revanche de Dupont d'Anguille The latter shows an escaped convict preparing to slay and rob a bridal pair, after having killed an old servant and hidden her body beneath their bed.
As a cannon shot announces that the authorities have discovered the criminaFs flight, the soft-hearted couple remark that they would never hand over to pursuers a fugitive from justice. Thereupon the better nature of this Jean Valjean asserts itself, and he spares them, and surrenders to gendarmes.
More thrilling was Adam's Elen , a story of sanguinary jealousy, involving a death by poison and a torchlight burial, and Icres' Les Bovjchers with its rendering in verse of a low-life tragedy. One whose sister has been violated by a butcher retaliates in kind, inducing the seduction of the butcher's wife by a rascal, and himself taking the rascal's place at her side one night. Then, when the butcher, learning of his shame, would slay the avenger, the latter murders him, after forcing him to gaze upon his wife in the arms of her paramour.
Another who contributed tragic plays to the Theatre- Libre was Louis de Gramont. Simons expresses his conviction that in marriage physiological rather than mental adaptations are essential. Discarded by this lover after a week of stolen bliss, she takes mor- phine. More powerful was de Gramont's Rolande , setting forth the judgment executed by a daughter upon her evil father. Montmorin is a heartless wretch, who, even as his wife is dying, flirts with her maid, and presently courts another. Rolande, to whom her mother has left as a last charge the honor of the house, drives out the interlopers, and, finding that even worse disgrace threatens from another quarter, forces Montmorin to take his life.
Equally strong fare was provided for jaded appetites by the brothers Boex, dramatizing , under the pseudonym J. Rosny, their first novel, Nell Horn, a play of ragged naturalism which anticipates in some respects Edward Sheldon's Salvation Nell. The Rosny heroine, daughter of a drunken detective, seeks refuge with the Salvation Army, but is driven from its ranks by the captain's conduct.
Abandoned by another lover, she is forced to accept the protection of an ancient reprobate in order to support her consumptive child. As analogues to these cheerful glimpses of low life, the Theatre-Libre afforded spectacles of gloom in higher quarters, terror continuing to be the dramatists' chief instrument. Thus, Maurice Barres, in Une Journee par- lementaire , exhibits the mental agony of a deputy whose hopes of entering the ministry are jeopardized by his having sold his vote. He has married the divorced wife of a friend, and the latter, out of jealousy, exposes and drives him to suicide.
It is significant that Barres should skimp here social satire and character portrayal in order to sound the crescendo of a single emotion. These plays in French, like the author's pieces in Russian, are stories of inordinate passion leading to death. Count Witold forsakes his Russian estate to follow an actress to Paris, but returns after ten years, impoverished.
His wife forgives, yet continues jealous, and not until he has taken his life can she feel that again he is truly hers.
In Le Justicier, a son, resenting his father's rivalry in love, shoots the adventuress who has responded to the atten- tions of both. He escapes, but only to learn that through legal error his father has been exiled for the deed to Siberia. Henceforth, to care for the daughter of the dead adven- turess becomes Andre's task.
But a journalist who loves this daughter, and resents Andre's meddling, slays him in a duel. Although neither this crude and verbose drama nor that most notorious example of tragedie rosse, the Uhu roi of Alfred Jarry, was produced by Antoine, both were recognized as offshoots of the Theatre-Libre. Uhu roi, in particular, was regarded by critics as a monstrous birth of naturalism, conceived in a mental debauch.
Ubu is the human beast unchained. A former ruler of Aragon, reduced to the condition of a mercenary, he is fired by his wife's ambition to slay his master, the King of Poland. With wild mirth, this Rabelaisian Macbeth commits gross atrocities. Like other revolutionary bohemians of Montmartre, he was happy only when lashing the bourgeoisie into angry protest.
Even his scenery was designed to startle, with its trees, houses, and human figures as geometrical as the properties of a Noah's Ark. It is in Jarry's work that the tendency toward muflisme and outrageous extravagance culminated. Hilarity and insanity are the two poles between which the providers of such spectacles oscillate. Consciously to mingle the grotesque and the tragic was the aim of Paul Margueritte, who acted on the boards of the Theatre-Libre a curious piece of his own composition, Pierrot assassin de sa femme , in which Pierrot, incensed at his betrayal by Columbine, slays her by tickling the soles of her feet, and then, returning from her funeral, suffers qualms of conscience so intense that, driven to act out the parts of both victim and assassin, he finally sets fire to his bed and dies.
En il en est le premier violon. A partir de , il rompt tout contact avec sa famille et les Scheibler. En , il est violon solo des Concerts du Conservatoire.
Aïe Aïe Aïe !
Julius Stockausen Ce ne fut pas sans de grands troubles de conscience. Comment faire? Il s'en tira par un permis et un compromis. Le compromis fut une affaire entre sa conscience et lui. Urhan n'en avait cure! Manquait-elle de mesure? Urhan continuait toujours. J'en puis citer une preuve frappante.