Michigan State University. Arizona State University. California State University, Northridge. Jewishness in the United States is considered an ethnic identity as well as a religious one. See Ethnoreligious group. Jewish religious practice in America is quite varied. Among the 4. The survey found that of the 4. Traditionally, Sephardic and Mizrahis do not have different branches Orthodox, Conservative, Reform, etc. The survey discovered that Jews in the Northeast and Midwest are generally more observant than Jews in the South or West.
Reflecting a trend also observed among other religious groups, Jews in the Northwestern United States are typically the least observant. In recent years, there has been a noticeable trend of secular American Jews returning to a more observant, in most cases, Orthodox, lifestyle.
Such Jews are called baalei teshuva "returners", see also Repentance in Judaism. The American Religious Identification Survey found that around 3. Jews are more likely to be secular than Americans in general, the researchers said. About half of all US Jews — including those who consider themselves religiously observant — claim in the survey that they have a secular worldview and see no contradiction between that outlook and their faith, according to the study's authors.
Researchers attribute the trends among American Jews to the high rate of intermarriage and "disaffection from Judaism" in the United States. About one-sixth of American Jews maintain kosher dietary standards. American Jews are more likely to be atheist or agnostic than most Americans, especially so compared with Protestants or Catholics. A Pew Research Center report found that 1. Another , American Christian adults considered themselves "Jews by affinity" or "grafted-in" Jews.
Nicknamed Jubu s, an increasing number of American Jews have begun adopting Buddhist spiritual practice, while at the same time continuing to identify with and practice Judaism. Film makers the Coen Brothers have been influenced by Buddhism as well for a time. Today, American Jews are a distinctive and influential group in the nation's politics. Jeffrey S. Helmreich writes that the ability of American Jews to effect this through political or financial clout is overestimated,  that the primary influence lies in the group's voting patterns. American Jews have displayed a very strong interest in foreign affairs, especially regarding Germany in the s, and Israel since Though some critics charged that Jewish interests were partially responsible for the push to war with Iraq, Jewish Americans were actually more strongly opposed to the Iraq War from its onset than any other religious group, or even most Americans.
The greater opposition to the war was not simply a result of high Democratic identification among U. Jews, as Jews of all political persuasions were more likely to oppose the war than non-Jews who shared the same political leanings. A Pew Research Center survey suggests that American Jews' views on domestic politics are intertwined with the community's self-definition as a persecuted minority who benefited from the liberties and societal shifts in the United States and feel obligated to help other minorities enjoy the same benefits.here
Jewish assimilation - Wikipedia
American Jews across age and gender lines tend to vote for and support politicians and policies supported by the Democratic Party. On the other hand, Orthodox American Jews have domestic political views that are more similar to their religious Christian neighbors. No other ethnic or religious group voted as strongly against it.
In considering the trade-off between the economy and environmental protection, American Jews were significantly more likely than other religious groups excepting Buddhism to favor stronger environmental protection. Jews in America also overwhelmingly oppose current United States marijuana policy. A Pew Research survey titled "How Americans Feel About Religious Groups", found that Jews were viewed the most favorably of all other groups, with a rating of 63 out of Sixty percent of the 3, persons surveyed said they had ever met a Jew.
Since the time of the last major wave of Jewish immigration to America over 2,, Jews from Eastern Europe who arrived between and , Jewish secular culture in the United States has become integrated in almost every important way with the broader American culture. Many aspects of Jewish American culture have, in turn, become part of the wider culture of the United States.
Most American Jews today are native English speakers. A variety of other languages are still spoken within some American Jewish communities, communities that are representative of the various Jewish ethnic divisions from around the world that have come together to make up America's Jewish population. Many of America's Hasidic Jews , being exclusively of Ashkenazi descent, are raised speaking Yiddish.
Yiddish was once spoken as the primary language by most of the several million Ashkenazi Jews who immigrated to the United States. It was, in fact, the original language in which The Forward was published. Yiddish has had an influence on American English , and words borrowed from it include chutzpah "effrontery", "gall" , nosh "snack" , schlep "drag" , schmuck "an obnoxious, contemptible person", euphemism for "penis" , and, depending on ideolect , hundreds of other terms.
See also Yinglish. They also support their own Persian language newspapers. Many recent Jewish immigrants from the Soviet Union speak primarily Russian at home, and there are several notable communities where public life and business are carried out mainly in Russian, such as in Brighton Beach in New York City and Sunny Isles Beach in Florida. They publish their own newspapers such as the Bukharian Times and a large portion live in Queens , New York.
Forest Hills in the New York City borough of Queens is home to th Street, which is called by some "Bukharian Broadway",  a reference to the many stores and restaurants found on and around the street that have Bukharian influences. Classical Hebrew is the language of most Jewish religious literature, such as the Tanakh Bible and Siddur prayerbook.
Modern Hebrew is also the primary official language of the modern State of Israel , which further encourages many to learn it as a second language. Some recent Israeli immigrants to America speak Hebrew as their primary language. There are a diversity of Hispanic Jews living in America. The oldest community is that of the Sephardic Jews of New Netherland. Their ancestors had fled Spain or Portugal during the Inquisition for the Netherlands, and then came to New Netherland. Though there is dispute over whether they should be considered Hispanic. The largest groups are those that fled Cuba after the communist revolution known as Jewbans , Argentine Jews, and more recently, Venezuelan Jews.
Argentina is the Latin American country with the largest Jewish population. There are a large number of synagogues in the Miami area that give services in Spanish. The last Hispanic Jewish community would be those that recently came from Portugal or Spain, after Spain and Portugal granted citizenship to the descendants of Jews who fled during the Inquisition. All of the above listed Hispanic Jewish groups speak either Spanish or Ladino. Although American Jews have contributed greatly to American arts overall, there remains a distinctly Jewish American literature.
Jewish American literature often explores the experience of being a Jew in America, and the conflicting pulls of secular society and history.
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Yiddish theater was very well attended, and provided a training ground for performers and producers who moved to Hollywood in the s. Many of the early Hollywood moguls and pioneers were Jewish. Paley who ran CBS. Many individual Jews have made significant contributions to American popular culture. The field of American comedy includes many Jews. Many Jews have been at the forefront of women's issues. There were Jewish players in Major League Baseball between and Most were focused on making sure they and their children took advantage of education and employment opportunities. Despite the efforts of parents, Jewish children became interested in baseball quickly since it was already embedded in the broader American culture.
The second generation of immigrants saw baseball as a means to celebrate American culture without abandoning their broader religious community. After , many Yiddish newspapers began covering baseball, which they had not done previously. Since , a total of 34 Jews have served in the Senate, including the 14 present-day senators noted above. Judah P. The number of Jews elected to the House rose to an all-time high of Had Merrick Garland 's nomination been accepted, that number would have risen to four out of nine.
The Civil War marked a transition for American Jews. It killed off the antisemitic canard, widespread in Europe, to the effect that Jews are cowardly, preferring to run from war rather than serve alongside their fellow citizens in battle. At least twenty eight American Jews have been awarded the Medal of Honor.
The Soul of Judaism
More than , Jews served in the U. About 50, other decorations and awards were given to Jewish military personnel, for a total of 52, decorations. During this period, Jews were approximately 3. About 60 percent of all Jewish physicians in the United States under 45 years of age were in service as military physicians and medics.
Many Jewish physicists , including project lead J. Many of these were refugees from Nazi Germany or from antisemitic persecution elsewhere in Europe. Jews have been involved in the American folk music scene since the late 19th century;  these tended to be refugees from Central and Eastern Europe, and significantly more economically disadvantaged than their established Western European and Sephardic coreligionists. By the s Jews had become established in the American folk music scene.
Guthrie married a Jew and their son Arlo became influential in his own right. Asch's one-man corporation Folkways Records also released much of the music of Leadbelly and Pete Seeger from the '40s and '50s. Asch's large music catalog was voluntarily donated to the Smithsonian.
The influential folk music magazine Sing Out! Dave Van Ronk observed that the behind the scenes s folk scene "was at the very least 50 percent Jewish, and they adopted the music as part of their assimilation into the Anglo-American tradition which itself was largely an artificial construct but none the less provided us with some common ground".
Jews have been involved in financial services since the colonial era. They received rights to trade fur, from the Dutch and Swedish colonies. British governors honored these rights after taking over. During the Revolutionary War, Haym Solomon helped create America's first semi-central bank, and advised Alexander Hamilton on the building of America's financial system.
American Jews in the 19th, 20th and 21st centuries played a major role in developing America's financial services industry, both at investment banks and investment funds. The families and the firms which they controlled were bound together by religious and social factors, and by the prevalence of intermarriage. These personal ties fulfilled real business functions before the advent of institutional organization in the 20th century. Since the late 20th century, Jews have played a major role in the hedge fund industry, according to Zuckerman The WASP dominance in law ended when a number of major Jewish law firms attained elite status in dealing with top -ranked corporations.
As late as there was not a single large Jewish law firm in New York City. However, by six of the 20 largest firms were Jewish; by four of the ten largest were Jewish. Paul Warburg , one of the leading advocates of the establishment of a central bank in the United States and one of the first governors of the newly established Federal Reserve System , came from a prominent Jewish family in Germany. With the Jewish penchant to be drawn to white collar professional jobs and having excelled at intellectual pursuits, many Jews have also become been remarkably successful as an entrepreneurial and professional minority in the United States.
Many Jewish family businesses that are passed down from one generation to the next serve as an asset , source of income and layer a strong financial groundwork for the family's overall socioeconomic prosperity. In the business world, while Jewish Americans only constitute less than 2. Of the 30 teams in the NBA, there are 14 Jewish principal owners. Since many careers in science, business, and academia generally pay well, Jewish Americans also tend to have a higher average income than most Americans.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Ethnic group. American English Yiddish Hebrew. Main article: History of the Jews in the United States. Main article: Jewish views and involvement in U. Louis County, Missouri 49, 5. See also: African American—Jewish relations. Main article: African-American Jews. Main article: Model minority. Main article: Jewish Buddhist. Jews earn like Episcopalians , and vote like Puerto Ricans. See also: Secular Jewish culture. Main article: Jewish American literature. See also: Military history of Jewish Americans.
For a more comprehensive list, see Lists of American Jews. Sheskin February 3, Pew Research Center. October 1, Retrieved October 7, Combining 5. Berman Jewish DataBank. Retrieved May 23, Retrieved January 2, The Economist. July 7, Retrieved July 9, In McKee, Jesse O. Lanham, Md. The Oncologist. Retrieved November 8, The Gazette. Retrieved September 10, Retrieved February 15, Retrieved January 20, The National Humanities Center. Retrieved April 27, Robert Moses Shapiro Why Didn't the Press Shout?
Retrieved October 27, Jews comprise 2. The American. Retrieved October 18, American Jewish History. Western States Jewish History. The Holocaust in American Life. The Americanization of the Holocaust. American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise. Retrieved October 28, Retrieved January 13, American Presidency Project.
Retrieved May 24, Archived from the original on September 20, Retrieved October 2, The New York Times. Weisberg, Herbert Volume 32, Issue 3, Pp. Retrieved January 4, The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved September 19, Jewish Telegraphic Agency. August 12, Archived from the original on August 12, Civil Rights Movement Veterans. Reviews in American History. Urofsky, Louis D. Brandeis: A Life p. Times Books, Israel, the Diaspora, and Jewish Identity. Sussex Academic Press. The Oslo Agreement made this split in the Jewish community official. To the liberal universalists the accord was highly welcome news.
As one commentator put it, after a year of tension between Israel and the United States, "there was an audible sigh of relief from American and Jewish liberals. Once again, they could support Israel as good Jews, committed liberals, and loyal Americans. Hidden deeper in this collective sense of relief was the hope that, following the peace with the Palestinians, Israel would transform itself into a Western-style liberal democracy, featuring a full separation between the state and religion.
Not accidentally, many of the leading advocates of Oslo, including the Yossi Beilin, the then Deputy Foreign Minister, cherish the belief that a "normalized" Israel would become less Jewish and more democratic. However, to some right wing Jews, the peace treaty was worrisome. From their perspective, Oslo was not just an affront to the sanctity of how they interpreted their culture, but also a personal threat to the lives and livelihood settlers, in the West Bank and Gaza AKA "Judea and Samaria".
For these Jews, such as Morton Klein, the president of the Zionist organization of America, and Norman Podhoretz, the editor of Commentary , the peace treaty amounted to an appeasement of Palestinian terrorism. They and others repeatedly warned that the newly established Palestinian Authority PA would pose a serious security threat to Israel. Barry Rubin ed. Foreign Policy and the Limits of Economic Inducements". Middle East Review of International Affairs.
Archived from the original on May 10, The Palestinian aid effort was certainly not helped by the heated debate that quickly developed inside the Beltway. Not only was the Israeli electorate divided on the Oslo accords, but so, too, was the American Jewish community, particularly at the leadership level and among the major New York and Washington-based public interest groups. Jews opposed to Oslo teamed up with Israelis "who brought their domestic issues to Washington" and together they pursued a campaign that focused most of its attention on Congress and the aid program.
The dynamic was new to Washington. The Administration, the Rabin-Peres government, and some American Jewish groups teamed on one side while Israeli opposition groups and anti-Oslo American Jewish organizations pulled Congress in the other direction. Haaretz Daily Newspaper Israel. Archived from the original on October 11, Retrieved November 30, Rutgers University Press. October Retrieved June 23, Archived from the original on October 16, Page The Association of Religion Data Archives.
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Religious Jews regarded those who assimilated with horror, and Zionists campaigned against assimilation as an act of treason. American Jewish Archives. Retrieved October 17, Archived from the original on November 28, Jews: soaring intermarriage, assimilation rates".
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February 27, ". February 27, Archived from the original on November 10, Retrieved May 6, Archived from the original on July 23, Retrieved August 23, The Dudespaper. Archived PDF from the original on March 9, Retrieved March 10, Yedioth Internet. Jewish Journal. Archived from the original PDF on June 15, Retrieved January 19, When did Jews become white? What are we today? For most of their existence in America, Jews held a middle ground in the standard racial categorizations. Being workers, poor, and city-dwellers, they epitomized a marginalized group, and wound up neither black nor white.
He treats me as badly as if I was a common Irishman. This was an era when people believed that what we now refer to as ethnic groups were instead separate races. Yet by , within this country the clear dividing line was black and white, especially after the rise of Jim Crow segregation. So what were Jews? For some, Jews had not fully crossed over the color line. In many circles, Goldstein reports, Jews were associated with the black population. In Pine Bluff, Arkansas, in , a recently arrived Jewish immigrant was almost hung because locals thought he was a black man walking with a white woman.
The negatives were clear, led by the fact that Jews were non-Christians, but there were also widely accepted positives as well. Jews, it was thought, were ambitious and worked hard, exemplifying the Horatio-Alger model that Americans prized. Thus, for many citizens of the country, Jews eventually rose above the standard black-white lineup and bypassed it. In America, Jews largely clustered in their own neighborhoods and worked in a garment industry where, as late as , African-American workers appeared rarely, if ever. Jews then proclaimed their American identity by enlisting in large numbers in World War II, serving fully and courageously.
When I visited Omaha Beach earlier in this century, I met a veteran who had landed with the 29 th Infantry Division that terrible day. With some temerity, I finally asked if he had encountered any antisemitism in the army. Words flew, fisticuffs were about to start when others separated the two. Afterward, my conversant went into a nearby farmhouse and got a sheet to cover the body, then found a cross inside and put it on top of the corpse. Jews became the epitome of the positive transformations America was enjoying in those years.
In the past, they had been associated with degrading industrial work, poverty, and urban slums, all of which branded them as non-white and non-American. Combining GI Bill benefits with their emphasis on education benefits that were denied to black veterans , they flocked to the new managerial and professional slots, as American workers moved from the shop floor to white-collar jobs in glass boxes.
With better employment came higher wages, a leaving behind of the Jew huddled in a Lower East Side cellar, as depicted in a famous Jacob Riis photograph. Still, there were limits. In the largest sense, however, Jews had arrived. My childhood doctor told me that his mother, who had fled Russian pogroms led by Cossacks and Orthodox priests, always spat when she passed a church.
My own mother never totally embraced her status as an equal, but always felt prejudice lurked around the corner. Although she came here in , those who stayed, all her other relatives, perished in the Holocaust.