Electrodes were adjusted until an optimal contact and signal quality was achieved no large amplitude noise or artifacts present. Two dry Ag-AgCl ear clips placed on the left and right ear lobes served as the reference and ground electrodes. To reduce noise, the EEG board was tethered to the desk with the testing computer. Therefore, the 3-axis accelerometer data recorded by the device, output in the data files in addition to the channel data, does not indicate participant movement for this dataset.
Next, the eye-tracker was positioned under the bottom of the computer monitor, flush and continuous with the plane of the screen. The seated distance of the participant to the tracker was adjusted by examining the camera view of the Gazepoint Control software window. A nine-point calibration protocol was then initialized for the Gazepoint GP3 system and calibration metrics recorded.
Calibration and data acquisition were initialized through a Python GUI developed for this task. Participants were instructed to stay seated in the same position for the remainder of the task. All participants were seated approximately 2 feet from the screen and were instructed to use the keyboard and mouse to submit their responses. Four main question types were presented to users within the lessons.
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All questions were presented within a rectangular region in the center of the screen, with instructions at the top of this rectangle, followed by variable content e. All data was stored on a secure drive using an anonymized participant code. All data was first cropped to exclude signals recorded during setup and before the start of the Duolingo task. First, screen captures corresponding to correct and incorrect responses were determined by processing the AutoHotKey screen capture images.
Each screen capture acquired by the AutoHotKey program is associated with a system timestamp, in millisecond resolution, which allows for parsing of all datasets with respect to the task.
Screen captures containing non-Duolingo content e. As the bottom bar on the Duolingo interface changes from gray to green or red upon a correct or incorrect response, respectively, this feature was used to generate an image mask for correct and incorrect responses. Therefore, the timestamps prior to the correct and incorrect images were interpreted as the timestamps of response submission.
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Second, the EEG data required several stages of processing. As the default OpenBCI EEG software records clock timestamps associated with each line of channel data, the clock timestamps were first converted to system timestamps by utilizing the dates on the data files. Following this pre-processing, EEG data was parsed into two-second windows prior to submission of a correct answer using the AutoHotKey data. Next, the X and Y values of one eye-tracking measure the best-point-of-gaze, or BPOG, metric were selected for demonstration of the recorded gaze data.
Eye-tracking data was first processed by masking with the associated validity metric BPOGV output by the device for each line of data. Invalid eye-tracking data points zeros indicating blinks or missing data, or NaN values were also excluded. The Gazepoint eye-tracker references [0, 0] as the top left corner of the screen and [1, 1] as the bottom right, and records eye-tracking values within this range to indicate gaze position on the screen.
The eye-tracking data was next parsed into two-second windows immediately prior to answer submission, as processed for the EEG data. Similarly, the cursor data was also parsed into two-second windows prior to each correct response. The X and Y cursor position values were recorded using the same coordinate system as the screen captures referencing [0, 0] as the top left of the screen and [, ] as the bottom right ; therefore, these values did not need to be converted prior to data windowing. An example processed data window for a correct Duolingo response is illustrated in Fig.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Data Brief v. Data Brief. Published online Nov Gina M. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Notaro: ude. Associated Data Supplementary Materials Supplementary material. Open in a separate window. Data The presented data was collected from an integrated low-cost bio-signal setup, containing electroencephalography EEG , eye-tracking, behavioral cursor movements and clicks , and screen capture data generated upon a click or keypress event.
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Descriptions for the a raw and b processed data files are as follows: a. Experimental design and methods 2. Participant recruitment and demographics Twenty-two participants were recruited from Dartmouth College and the surrounding community mean age: Boiling point: How the US-Iran relationship got here. Kim's summit with China's Xi sends message to Trump.
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Doctors using new tools to fight ebola outbreak. Millions of people are running out of water in this city. These are just some of the ingenious devices used by the East German State Security Police -- better known as the Stasi -- between and to spy on private citizens , many of which are now on display at the Stasi Museum in Berlin. Yet these devices pale in comparison to the smartphone in your pocket or the virtual assistant in your home that is collecting data on your daily habits. A "Bodil" passive eavesdropping transmitter on display at the Stasi Museum in Berlin.
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Now, Germany's national police -- like many law enforcement services -- wants access, not only to phone data, but also information collected by digital assistants such as Google Home and Amazon Echo. Germany is planning to discuss this issue in a meeting of interior ministers next week. On Tuesday, a spokesperson for the Interior Ministry broached the subject in a news conference, saying: "To fight crime effectively, it's very important that federal and state authorities should have access to data collected by these devices.
That set off alarm bells for those monitoring digital privacy rights. Tech's antitrust problem has been out in the open for years. The possibility that everything you do at home will be tracked and the data given to law enforcement, just because of court order, is pretty scary. Germany is certainly not the only country grappling with where to draw the line on digital privacy. But because of its history, Germany has been especially sensitive to privacy rights, installing some of the strongest privacy laws in the world.
Cybersecurity expert Sven Herpig said German policies have traditionally been supportive of encryption for this very reason. But in the case of digital assistants like Google Home or Amazon Echo, much of the data gathered is not held in Germany, but in outside countries, especially the United States.
On Thursday, the European Commission Security Union met to evaluate proposals that would allow for any member, including Germany, to access digital evidence gathered in another country. But digital rights groups in Germany have criticized the EU proposals, pointing out that Germany's strict privacy laws can be subverted and arguing that current proposals don't take into account whether a crime committed in one country is necessarily considered a crime in another.
Facebook's new plan doesn't protect your privacy, and neither does the FTC. Germans know from personal experience how mass surveillance can be abused.