It can be argued that urban design is akin to planning in many respects and, since it deals with large parts of towns and cities, it too is concerned with distribution of resources and wealth. It would be advisable, for the urban designer wishing to remain within the safety of a technical design process, not to dabble with participation that confronts the designer directly with the issue of the distribution of power and wealth and, hence, takes the subject right to the centre of politics. Figure 1. From the viewpoint of participation in development it is convenient to concentrate on the middle portion of the range.
A state of anarchy, though an ideal among some thinkers and activists, in its more extreme forms does not last long before being replaced by a more disciplined regime. Totalitarian government, by definition, does not permit general and widespread participation. Democracy according to Carole Pateman has three main definitions. The theoretical basis of representative democracy has been developed by Joseph Schumpeter and others. Voters choose between the policies offered by competing political entrepreneurs.
Political parties are analogous to trade associations in the economic sphere and regulate competition. Representative democracy does not require high levels of participation and interest in political affairs except from a small minority. This theory is also concerned with the psychological effect of social and political institutions. In effect, he is saying that as one can only learn to swim by swimming so too one can only learn to be democratic by being involved in democratic processes.
These democratic processes, according to Rousseau and his twentieth-century followers, should permeate all aspects of society, and that, of course, includes planning and developmental decisions. Referring to Figure 1. It would appear that the use of techniques which represent the more intensive styles of participation requires a highly politicized and active population together with a high degree of tolerance for forms of local democracy by the central government. Even within the same country, relationships may differ between central and local government. In Britain, for example, the s saw a movement of power from the periphery to the centre.
In the late s, however, there seems a movement towards devolution of power to Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland and the English Regions.
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For full participation it could be postulated that it is necessary to have devolution of power to local communities; decision making in fields such as housing and local community services being placed in the hands of the residents of such communities. Such decentralization of power presupposes an active and highiy politicized population. Comparing Figure 1. When coordination of services, infrastructure and the economy at higher spatial levels is advisable it may be necessary to forgo full citizen participation and to delegate power to elected representatives.
At town scale and above, those bureaucratic procedures such as public meetings, enquiries and appeals, together with the enlightened use of the political manifesto, may be the best that can be achieved regardless of the political system involved. Increasing the level and intensity of participation in any large spatial unit requires its subdivision into small planning and design units the size of the neighbourhood and street block; each such unit having appropriate responsibilities delegated.
The scale ranges from the less formal types of planning, starting with the non-plan where economic forces determine settlement form through various types of ad hoc decisions, where short-term projects are pragmatically woven into the existing situation, to the more rigid planning methods culminating in the master plan, a blueprint for a desired future end state.
A similar range could be devised for architectural style.
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Such a scale would range from the worst forms of entirely cost-oriented speculative housing, through incremental, additive and irregular design concepts and eventually to geometrically dominated design and highly formal axial compositions. Comparing these notions of planning and design with previous figures it can be seen that high levels of citizen participation are more compatible with less formal architectural and planning styles. The physical result ranges from the large detached house in a wealthy European suburb to the temporary tin hut on the periphery of Nairobi. At the other extreme the blueprint for long-term city development and the rigid axial composition, almost by definition, are not.
It indicates some of the ways in which the participation process can be analysed. The diagram can be imagined as a type of complicated slide rule where each scale can be moved up or down in relation to its neighbours. It is then possible to outline or describe the sort of conditions likely to operate in any situation.
This situation would also presume high levels of participatory democracy together with some form of decentralization of power and decision making. The room, it is assumed, is a purely personal space and requires little or no community action, while the district or quarter may be too large for effective community action.
The sort of planning most suitable for such conditions would be incremental and ad hoc, probably resulting in less formal architectural solutions see shaded section of Figure 1. Conversely, the techniques of participation most suited to the planning of towns, cities, regions and for national planning would seem to be the political manifesto, public meetings, public enquiries, planning appeals, the planning exhibition and media releases. Arnstein would define this participation as tokenism but it would require some form of democratic structure.
At these scales, mixed scanning or structure planning would be most appropriate. Presumably the architectural style would be determined by the amount of genuine citizen control exerted at local levels see area in Figure 1. One such amplification is shown in Figure 1.
Descriptions of the planning method indicate that the process is not a simple linear progression where each phase is completed before proceeding to the next step. The planning process is deemed to be cyclical having intermediate loops. For example, after an evaluation of alternative plans it may be necessary to redefine goals, or to collect additional data, or to analyse the data in a different way.
Design methods advocated by architects are similar in nature to those prepared by planners. The RIBA practice and management handbook divides the design process into four phases Phase 1 Assimilation: The accumulation of general information and information specially related to the problem. Phase 2 General study: The investigation of the nature of the problem: the investigation of possible solutions.
Phase 3 Development: The development of one or more solutions. Urban development is the result of a process. It is, therefore, a little simplistic to discuss participation in planning or design unless one is specific about the type of participation and the techniques used at each stage in the process. Thomas Markus and Thomas Mayer take the description of design method a little further. During the analytical stage, goals and objectives are classified and patterns in information are sought. Synthesis is the stage where ideas are generated.
It is followed by a critical evaluation of the alternative solutions against objectives, costs and other constraints. Decisions are made depending upon the findings of the evaluation,. This way of looking at the design process for an individual building can be extended to include urban design, town planning and regional planning see Figure 1. In this case decisions at the higher level should inform the design process at the next, lower order of design, for example, from regional to town planning.
It makes most sense when each component of the environment fits consistently within the framework of a higher order plan, for example, a building designed to fit within an urban design scheme which is determined by an urban structure plan based upon proposals for the region. It is, however, not simply a one-way process from large to small scale. It could, quite correctly, be. Hence in Figure 1. In the planning and design methodologies so far discussed there has been no mention of theory.
Facts without theory are meaningless pieces of information. They take on meaning when related to each other by some theoretical construct. Solutions to urban design problems, alternative ways of organizing space in a city, ideas about the relationship of function and urban structure have their origins in theory. In order to insert theory into the design. The six methods or techniques of transformation are shown in Figure 1. Theory, the most general type of information, is transformed into hypotheses through the method of logical deduction.
The hypotheses are transformed into observations by interpretation into observables, instrumentation, scaling and sampling. The observations are transformed into empirical generalizations through the process of measurement, sample summarization and parameter estimation. The hypotheses can then be tested for conformity with the generalizations.
From the test is derived the final information set, the decisions about the validity of the hypotheses. The last action in the process is the confirmation, modification or rejection of the theory through the processes of logical inference or concept formation, proposition formation and proposition arrangement.
While this outline of scientific method appears clear, precise and systematic, it is open to endless variation. Some elements of the process are more important for some research projects, some scientists practise a high degree of rigour while others behave quite intuitively and informally.
However, there appear to be two main constituents of science, theory construction and empirical research. The left-hand side of Figure 1. The top half of the diagram represents the process of theorizing using inductive and deductive logic while the bottom half illustrates the process of carrying out a piece of empirical research. It is theoretically possible to move directly from problem definition to ideas for. Nevertheless, both of these procedures require some preliminary notions about theory however ill formed or inexplicit they may be; it is only through theory that ideas and data can be related to form a pattern.
The more usual, the more classic procedure, is to move from problem definition to a theoretical understanding of the problem then to proceed through the steps in a clockwise direction. At the core of scientific method is asking the right question or questions. We are all aware of the home truth that asking a silly question will result in a silly answer.
The same is true of design. Posing the problem is the art of design. There is a school of thought, now somewhat out of fashion, which infers that the application of method results in good design. In complex design situations it is not always possible to define the problem, nor to collect all the facts, nor to generate all possible solutions.
This is to misunderstand the. An application of design method may result in the redefinition or clarification of the problem initiating a whole new round of investigation. The design process is not linear but dialectical, taking the form of an argument between problem and solution.
It is central to modern thinking that problems and solutions are seen as emerging together rather than one following logically upon the other. Lawson also goes on to say that: Since neither finding It would also be misleading to think that design solutions cannot be generated through logical deduction from theory or inductively from the data or evidence, or indeed, that problem exploration is not the outcome of standard design procedures.
It is, however, reasonable to suggest that the designer explores the nature of the problem through the examination of solutions or partial solutions. While theory is an important source for the development of urban design ideas, it is not the only one. Ideas can be generated in other ways which fall outside the scope of inductive or deductive reasoning.
Artists and designers often resort to the use of analogies in their work. Analogy is one of the most useful tools of the creative artist. Analogies offer a convenient technique for removing a thought block, a way of reviving design method instead of waiting patiently for inspiration to find new ways of looking at a situation.
Ideas, however, may be generated by a process of lateral thinking; these ideas can be evaluated later using techniques of logic. This all sounds very far from the life of the man in the street. How then can the community be involved in the process? At what point, therefore, do people take part in the design and development process? The planner is also Ideas are thought to be the province of the professions. Starting the design process from a theoretical foundation and from abstract notions does give to the professional, with his or her long period of education and experience, great advantages over the layperson.
If, however, a positive form of participation is desired, these notions that the professions know best must be abandoned. The layperson, too, has knowledge and experience. He or she is the expert on his or her family, its needs and aspirations. This is a highly specialized knowledge about the sort of housing, educational, health care and recreational facilities the family needs and can afford; it is his or her daily preoccupation.
The layperson then is the expert on the problems of the neighbourhood in which he or she lives. The ordinary citizen also has ideas about the ways in which these problems can be solved and how to capitalize on any possibilities that exist. For corroboration of this statement one has only to examine the self-help housing built in Third World cities or return to the roots of tradition when settlements were developed without the aid of the professional.
Experiments in Belfast, Nottingham and Newark confirmed that residents are perfectly capable of organizing their own survey and are also able to generate planning and architectural solutions. On the contrary, it becomes more delicate and subtle requiring patience and, above all, skills in listening. It also requires of the designer the humility to be able to offer advice only when requested.
The layperson can offer solutions only from within his or her own experience. The professional can open up a new world of experience to the client group through knowledge of many other similar situations. These wider issues, and their implications for the locality, have to be interpreted and made clear to the community by the professional.
If, however, high levels of participation are thought desirable then the planning and design process should give emphasis to a bottom-up order rather than working from the region or city down to the neighbourhood and the street. The higher levels of planning then become an amalgam of small-scale plans co-ordinated to ensure that higher level services are not inhibited. Culturally appropriate development may or may not result from deep, introspective, self-discovery by the designer or from a sensitive approach to the client group and its communal needs.
Clearly, however, people associate more closely with an environment that they can make their own through their own actions. To facilitate the active participation of communities with the planning and development of the environment requires a whole range of approaches and a full menu of techniques. These approaches are likely to vary with the type of political and administrative system, the spatial unit being designed, the current mode of planning and the. Citizen participation is maximized when there is a democratic form of government with high participatory levels in many fields of administration, where much of the decision making is decentralized and where the form of planning is incremental in style.
Even in such an ideal situation the greatest levels of participation could be expected to occur at the small scale of the group of families in the street, or the small community occupying a small neighbourhood. NOTES 1. A Vision of Britain, Doubleday, London, , p. A ladder of citizen participation. Op cit, p. Public participation and the implementation of development. The role of budding performance measurement and appraisal in design method. In Design Methods in Architecture eds.
Broadbent and A. Appraisal in the building design process. An overview of elements in the scientific process. In Social Research: Principles and Procedures eds. John Bynner and Keith M. Stribley , Longman, Harlow, , pp. Markets areas redevelopment. In Built Environment, February , pp.
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Do it yourself planning in Raleigh Street. In New Society, 19 October , pp. The ways in which these basic design concepts are used, and their relative importance. Writings on aesthetics and architectural criticism are often left confused by the number and vagueness of the terms used. Few designers, if any, appear intent on the creation of disorder; deliberate chaos, it seems, is not a legitimate goal of architecture. Definitions of order, however, differ. It is an adjustment according to quantity. By this I mean the selection of modules from the members of the work itself and starting from these individual parts of members, constructing the whole work to correspond.
The argument goes something like this; the evidence accumulated by science conforms with the idea of a rational world, or perhaps more importantly, the world and the cosmos we occupy is perceived by human beings as rational. Effective architecture like any other human behaviour conforms to the order of the universe; the model for architecture is the design of the universe. Architecture is of God or at one with nature when it conforms to harmony — disorder and unrest are its antithesis. Writers of the last century, steeped in this philosophy inherited from Vitruvius and his Renaissance followers, repeated its phrases as support for an architectural style quite different from one based on the Classical language of the Renaissance.
Many crimes against humanity are committed in the name of religion, so too, many architectural transgressions are created in the name of order. Prince Charles has lighted on several popular examples in his attacks on some modern architecture in Britain. It has no charm, no human scale, no human character except arrogance. Though striking a chord with the common sense of the layman, these remarks have brought no act of contrition from the profession.
Nevertheless, while caution must be used in judging contemporary or recent buildings, it is difficult to conceive of anything less human or more out of scale than Bijlmermeer in Amsterdam Figure 2. The necessity for order. The regulating line is a guarantee against wilfulness. It brings satisfaction to the understanding. It accommodates as well as imposes. Eclecticism — not necessarily historical in form — is the vernacular of sophisticates, the language of freedom.
For an understanding of Post-Modernism it must be seen in part as a product of North American culture from which it grew and from which it takes its nourishment. Its forms derive from the desire to show off the power This is the style of freedom, but only for those with untrammelled power.
Many of our finest buildings owe their existence to a model from the distant past, the Parthenon perhaps, with its timber detailing fossilized in stone being one of the great examples of this process. However, in the writing of some modern eclectics there appears to be a loss of clarity in the presentation of theoretical ideas, a weakening of rationality, the basis of reasonable behaviour. Such lack of rigour holds out little prospect for the development of the discipline of architecture.
And yet, if architecture is to return to its roots, re-establish contact with the client group, the man and woman in the street, then it is patently obvious that eclecticism and building within the traditions of the general population is essential. The discipline to give structure and order to the potential anarchy and chaos of eclecticism is urban design.
Since most buildings are seen from the street, square or civic landscape then the public face of building is the prime consideration. This is the public realm and it is by establishing order here that buildings may take their place within a disciplined framework. The eighteenth-century John Wood the Elder and his son, also called John Wood, organized the land holdings and made the overall three-dimensional design including elevations. Individual plots were then sublet to other developers who were obliged to conform to the master plan but were free to design the interior to suit individual clients.
The result is one of the masterpieces of European civic design Figures 2. Giving primacy to the public domain or the context for buildings is the foundation of good city building and a very necessary discipline for the architect. The city context is the generator, that is, the streets and squares should condition the form of buildings.
The hope that good work will show off better for being different from its surroundings which are to act as a foil, is an illusion. The noise produced at county fairs by many orchestras simultaneously playing different tunes is a true symbol for the architectural appearance of the typical modern city street. The fact that one of the orchestras plays Beethoven will not resolve the chaos. Now whilst fine architecture is all important for a satisfactory urban scene, the architect has to realise that the forms of his buildings react on adjacent forms.
The neglect of this principle is a major failure of much modern architecture. Urban designers like their counterparts, the architects, write about organic order, the order of nature as it applies in urban or civic design; they too see orderly design as being part of larger order as represented in the cosmos. Everyone is aware that most of the built environment today lacks a natural order, an order that presents itself very strongly in places that were built centuries ago. This natural or organic order emerges when there is perfect balance between the needs of the individual parts of the environment, and the needs of the whole.
The look of something, particularly a complex artefact like a city or part of a city, cannot be separated from its function. To seek for the look for things as a primary purpose or as the main drama is apt to make nothing but trouble. Despite the strictures of Jacobs, the analysis of city form has engaged the attention of designers for many centuries.
The failure of some large-scale city projects may have resulted from neglect of this important principle linking beauty, utility and durability. This perceptual order is related to the legibility of the environment or the ease with which its parts can be recognized and organized into a coherent pattern. It can furnish the raw materials for the symbols and collective memories of group communication. However, the results of the activities performed by architects or those involved in urban design are widely different.
Even those products. The development of a theory of urban design requires the use of analytical concepts other than, or in addition to, order, with which to define either good architecture or good urban design. In their search for tools with which to analyse good architecture, writers on theory turn to the other arts for useful analogy. The perfection of grammar, however well this technique is mastered, does not of itself produce a great work of literature. In much the same way that a great book has a theme or idea and grammar is merely the vehicle of expression for that idea, so too, the test of good architecture is the quality of the idea that the designer is trying to express.
Architecture, then, is the concrete expression of an abstract idea.
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A haphazard collection of such scattered architectural or urban design elements represents a weak and incomplete idea. The full realization of an idea in architecture and urban design must express complete unity.
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Unity is the first and most important of the basic design concepts in the grammar of formal architectural composition. The clearest expression of this concept of unity is found in Renaissance Italy. Pietro in Montorio, Rome, by Donato Bramante and completed in , epitomizes in built form this philosophy of Alberti Figure 2. The first fully planned, ideal city of the Renaissance appears in the Treatise on Architecture by Filarete. Vincenzo Scamozzi was a sixteenth-century Italian Figure 2. The small fortified town of Palma Nova, started in , is usually attributed to him.
Paradoxically, it is only by acceptance of discipline that energy can be channelled in creative directions. Without discipline there is only chaos. In criticisms of the style of architecture associated with the first half of the twentieth century care should be taken not to dismiss the wealth of tradition gained over 2, years or longer. The concept of unity is one of the pillars of our discipline. Lynch and others who have tried to come to terms with the complexity of the concept of unity, particularly when it is applied in the field of urban design, have turned, in part, to the study of human.
Man, in order to orientate himself in the city, of necessity reduces the enviromnent to an understandable pattern of signs and clues. This is done to reinforce the normal tendency to see, understand and respond to vivid and coherent images. Secondly, it is to bring together these lesser unities into a city or town structure which itself is a visual and organizational unity. The goal of urban design has been given by Lynch as the development of a strong urban image This is the lacuna of much modern city planning.
Using once again the analogy of language, the mere juxtaposition of words without composition into meaningful and connected statements is unthinkable; so, too, in architecture and urban design, the elements are arranged to form a coherent visual statement. The method by which visual order and unity is established is through the use of proportion, or giving. The Renaissance writers provide a good model for the understanding of this broad principle. This focal point dominates the architectural composition as does a thematic tune in an orchestral work or the thematic plot in a play.
In urban design it may be the main town square around which the civic buildings are arranged, or it may be a group of related squares serving the same civic function. Chipping Campden and other Cotswold villages are lovely examples of unity achieved in this way through the constant repetition of a particular set of local building patterns developed by many hands over a number of generations. One principle of proportion, however, appears universally held to be true; since unity is the recognized aim of every designer, any composition which breaks down into two equal parts is to be avoided.
In any element divided into two equal parts, and with The double square has, however, been used to great effect, for example, it is the basis of Japanese house planning. A door, for example, is seen against the surrounding wall and a wall against an abutting wall and the floorplane on which it sits Figures 2. The apparent size or proportion of an element is also changed by its detailing Figure 2. While many riders and qualifications can be added, the general principle holds true that the.
Antonio, Padua Figure 2. Geometric forms which can easily be divided into two equal parts are, therefore, to be used with care. For this reason some writers have suggested that the double square is a weak form to be avoided. The eye, it is argued, conditioned to see simple shapes, detects the presence of the two squares and divides the original unit into two definite and equal single units so creating a duality.
Venturi, for one, probably could not accept such a clear and unambiguous statement on the role of duality in architectural composition. The small town or village dominated by one church spire when seen in the general landscape presents a unified picture. Boston in Lincolnshire,. Two such elements in the scene would cause confusion and a duality.
However, the repetition of the many spires of Stamford in Lincolnshire and the towers of San Gimignano once again present a unified theme and, with it, the feeling of a balanced composition Figure 2. The duality of the twin churches of S. Maria dei Miracoli and S. Maria di Montesanto in the Piazza del Popolo, Rome, has been resolved through their subordinate visual role in relationship to the dominant space of the piazza with its obelisk at the centre and the town gate.
The churches take their place as incidents in the overall theme of portal or gateway to the corso. In urban design the unity sought is in terms of town mass or urban space. For a two-dimensional object, such as a door, the proportion is the height to width. The definition of proportion that permeates architectural thinking is a little more complex; it is the relation of the parts to each other and to the building as a whole.
In other words, it is a system of proportion applied to the whole building or group of buildings. Scale, in contrast to proportion, depends upon the comparison of one set of dimensions and proportions with another set. The architect and urban designer are most concerned with human scale. Human scale is a measure of real size.
The dimensions of buildings, squares and streets are compared with the proportions of the human figure. We expect larger doors to repeat this proportion. The method of scaling-up the door is to project the diagonal of the rectangle of the normal door. A door which is too wide for its height looks wrong, it will be out of scale and badly proportioned62 Figure 2. When we speak of scale in city planning two analogies from the allied fields of economics and sociology immediately spring to mind. Judging from the rash of company takeovers it appears that maximizing size assures survival in the global market of the twenty-first century.
At the other extreme, many believe that the revival of the dying inner city can only be achieved through the creation and stimulation of the small business enterprise; much emphasis has been placed in the Britain on the development of the enterprise culture. In social terms human scale is defined as a series of groups where every person knows every other. Plato proposed that the good city should have a population of 5, citizens.
It is generally acknowledged that the complexity of modern urban life, with its diversity of social structures, stimulates the development of non-spatial communities. There is, nevertheless, the need for local neighbouring communities of a few hundred families sharing the same locality and basic facilities. Figure 2. Maria del Fiore, Florence Figure 2. Maria del Fiore, Baptistery, Florence Figure 2. Maria del Fiore, Campanile, Florence Figure 2. Maria del Fiore, Florence. There is a limit to the size of anything and when that limit is broken it can survive only by becoming something else, that is by a change of function.
This question of scale and proportion is important in the fields of architecture and urban design. There are structural and functional limits to the size of buildings. So, too, are there thresholds for the support of urban services, as well as physical limits which determine the ways in which we perceive and appreciate the urban landscape. It is the visual quality of the built environment which is the prime concern of this text and, in this matter, the correct scaling of the urban landscape from the intimate human scale of the housing cluster to the extra human scale of the metropolitan area is of great importance for the way we appreciate our surroundings.
Taking man as the measure of scale then for scale to be determined man must be visible. The mathematics for the measurement of scale was related to building design by H. The part of our field of vision occupied by any object is defined by the rays from the outline of the object to the eyes. In addition to the general field of vision there is a detailed field of vision which is a very narrow cone within the larger one.
The smallest discernible difference is determined by this narrow cone measuring one minute which means that we cannot distinguish any object at a distance more than about 3, times its size. It is the limitations set by this geometry that defines the varieties of urban scale. For example Maertens suggests that the nasal bone is a critical feature for the perception of the individual.
At a distance of about 35 m ft the face becomes featureless. The amenities of Plano seem limitless with countless grocery stores, restaurants, and department stores. Transportation in and out of Plano is possible through accessible highways by car, or by the DART system that travels through Dallas.
Despite being a large city, Plano has an extensive park and recreation system. The two main open space preserves - Bob Woodruff Park acres and Oak Point Park and Nature Preserve acres are connected by biking trails, making this green space a total of acres, larger than Central Park in in New York City acres. The total managed park acreage in Plano is currently at 3, The Plano Independent School District is well-known for its success. With a great mixture of family-friendly amenities and business-oriented features, Plano is an excellent place to find your right home.
You may not reproduce or redistribute this data, it is for viewing purposes only. Kevin Veara: Birds of Paradise. Colin Passmore resides in Noosa Australia, where he creates works inspired from Australian landscape, flora and fauna. He began exhibiting his work in , winning much acclaim and acceptance from some of Australia's top galleries and critics. He is now represented by galleries throughout Australia and Japan. A favourite of Australian Interior designers, he has work placed throughout prestigious private homes, as well as corporate and university collections.
His eclectic style is alive with the passion and flair he translates from the Australian environment, marking his own style in his colour combinations and his distinctive brush work. Having resided in Byron Bay for the last five years, the self-taught Art director, photographer, painter, fashion designer and multi- disciplinary visual artist left his native New York City for Tokyo in on an invite from VOGUE Japan to host a retrospective of his works from at the Rocket Gallery, Omotesando. The next 9 years were spent in Tokyo Shibuya immersed in the unique and ancient Japanese culture which not only influenced his art but permeated it's way through his entire being.
Produced during his stay, the photographic series "Tokyo undressed' garnered him the title "Photographer of the Year" at the UK's Erotic Awards. The collection became a global success after it featured as a blog narrative and was published in a page photo novel by the premier Japanese art book publisher Powershovel books. The combination of Rikki's observations of his surroundings and his almost photographic watercolour style produce stunning and almost voyeuristic images in which with a lot of his works, the viewer can identify themselves as the subject.
In paintings by Hollie McKenzie historical and contemporary imagery collide. Simultaneously historical, surreal and contemporary, her paintings speak to the way in which virtual reality mediates our world. By using her young daughter as a sitter, the artists intends to highlight uncertainty in the face of potential futures.
The artist indicates that the application of paint is heavily influenced by the Rococo, in terms of light and a feeling of both delicacy and flamboyancy. While only in the early stages her career, Hollie exhibits an established understanding of oil paint and an aesthetic that could easily be situated alongside that of well known LA based Pop Surrealist artist such as Mark Ryden Marion Peck and Alex Gross. Her combination of quirkiness and calm blend to create works with a strong spiritual base.
The artist is heavily sought after and her works are part of many private and public collections around the world. His tribal roots reflect greatly throughout his bold works, embracing a rhythmic flow with vibrant colours and abstract style. After a decade as an art agent, he started to create works of his own and was encouraged by his peers to continue on this path.
His work has won the respect and acknowledgement of artists, interior designers and and collectors world-wide. She creates beautiful realistic works from her surroundings in the Northern Rivers and draws inspiration from the ethereal beauty that this landscape has to offer. After meeting Landscape Artist Andy Reimanis at the Caldera Art Gallery, and being offered the opportunity to be part of the "Green Cauldron Panorama", an 18 metre long painting depicting the degree view from the summit of Wollumbin, Mt Warning, taking 12 months to create, her trajectory was set to produce more pieces of this calibre.
Roslyn uses pastels, acrylics and oils, sometimes all in one piece, to produce images of native Australian Flora and Fauna, and strikingly realistic natural wildlife. Her work with Graeme Stevenson from "Colour In Your Life" in both teaching and fund-raising capacities has opened her work up to a greater Australian and International audience with television promotion of her work as an Australian artist to watch. His large scale works are inspired by the Japanese tradition of Suminagashi, an ancient technique of marbling that originated in the 12th century.
The unique and highly visceral process of this method raises important questions regarding artistic authorship and the agency of matter, and how a non-anthropocentric relationship to the natural elements can be embraced through artistic practice. After a year marked by a record-breaking number of floods and natural disasters, this project forms a timely manifestation of an environmental sensibility that proves both politically urgent and artistically compelling.
His work flows from a deep psyche that is as much about abstract mathematics as it is about colour and shape. His love of geometry leads him to paint what he considers to be the shapes that work themselves into the continuous lines of movement. What he deems, the shapelessness of shape. His drawings are mainly one continuous line. Sometimes he closes his eyes when he draws and simply trusts to the shapes already within.
He prefers watercolours because of the soft impressions they leave. As a philosopher, he lectures on the work of Immanuel Kant, so as to further advance our understanding of the human mind , and records his own music. Yap chose his philosophical and artistic pursuits over the music industry and has thrived in these fields ever since. Yap was diagnosed with Aspergers High Functioning Autism eight years ago, which in turn recognised a mind that was downloading complex abstract mathematics of its own accord. He has had two successful solo exhibitions to date and was shortlisted for the National Art Competition in Out to shape the world in any way he can, Yap is an artist truly in a field of his own.
Art has always been at the heart of all her career decisions. Wendy's new body of work explores elegance through the female form, pattern and shapes drawn from nature. Her subtle colour harmonies combined with overlapping patterns and silhouettes create contrasts; balanced between the abstract and the illusion.
Wendy's work presents itself in an enclosed space of aesthetic form and complex structure. It can be described as dismantled and transformed evanescent beauty, sensual and organic. Concerned with colour, composition and atmospheric mood, Jewels Stevens creates works that are in constant flux between the quiet and the chaotic.
In essence, Stevens is interested in creating a pictorial landscape where the paintings possess their own logic. While there is most often an immediate impact in her bold and expressive paintings, as one delves further into the layered brushwork, more detail and nuance is revealed. He has also worked as a puppet-maker and performer, plying his thespianism on stage, television and film.
As a software developer he worked on interactive games, also on framework development for financial administration systems. Michael is a firm believer in the fundamental interconnectedness of nearly all things but would like to single out some particular geniuses in regards to artistic debt and influence in no particular order. Despite being increasingly informed that Art is not a proper job he considers it an essential service.
She studied representational art for many years at Lismore Tafe College, before following her instinct to explore new boundaries in abstract and contemporary art.