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News from Latin America: I have reorganized the section on "News from Latin America" and included a number of reliable blogs delivering news and reports from and about Latin America. This is now the first section on the site. The full document is available and searchable on the NSA's website. Outstanding Historiographic and General Resource Sites. Academic Journals. Pre-Conquest Period.

Heritage History | Simon Bolivar: His Life and His Work by Guillermo Sherwell

Colonial Latin America:. The "Columbian Exchange" environment and disease :. Late Colonial Revolts. The Waging and Winning of Independence. The National Period: Sources by Country. It represents the wisdom of the nation, the legitimate hope of the people, and the final point of reunion of the patriots. Its sovereign decrees will determine our lives, the happiness of the Republic, and the glory of Colombia. If dire circumstances should cause you to abandon it, there will be no health for the country, and you will drown in the ocean of anarchy, leaving as your children's legacy nothing but crime, blood, and death.

Fellow Countrymen! Hear my final plea as I end my political career; in the name of Colombia I ask you, beg you, to remain united , lest you become the assassins of the country and your own executioners. Gran Colombia was dissolved later that year and was replaced by the republics of Venezuela, New Granada, and Ecuador. Sucre was regarded by some as a political threat because of his popularity after he led a resounding patriot victory at the Battle of Ayacucho , ending the war against the Spanish Empire in South America.

For the rest of the 19th century and into the early 20th century, the political environment of Latin America was fraught with civil wars and characterized by a sociopolitical phenomenon known as caudillismo , which became very common in Venezuela, especially after Indeed, such struggles already existed shortly after the patriot victory over the loyalists because the former Spanish colonies created new nations that proclaimed their own autonomous states, which produced military confrontations with political conspirations that sent some of the former independence heroes into exile.

The main characteristic of caudillismo was the arrival of authoritarian but charismatic political figures who would typically rise to power in an unconventional way, often legitimizing their right to govern through undemocratic processes. These caudillos maintained their control primarily on the basis of their personalities, as well as skewed interpretations of their popularity and what constituted a majority among the masses. O'Leary , to burn the remaining extensive archive of his writings, letters, and speeches. In , he was moved to a monument set up for his interment at the National Pantheon of Venezuela.

The Quinta near Santa Marta has been preserved as a museum with numerous references to his life.

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She was related to the aristocratic families of the marquis del Toro of Caracas and the marquis de Inicio of Madrid. Eight months after returning to Venezuela with him, she died from yellow fever on 22 January He swore never to marry again, a promise he kept. Not surprisingly, Spanish historian Salvador de Madariaga refers to the death of Bolivar's wife as one of the key moments in Hispanic America's history.

He lived in Napoleonic France for a while and undertook the Grand Tour. Humboldt later wrote: "I was wrong back then, when I judged him a puerile man, incapable of realizing so grand an ambition. One of them was during his presence in Europe, after his marriage that ended in They had a long-term relationship that was controversial at the time due to the fact that Manuela was already married to James Thorne although she had been estranged from him since because of their irreconcilable differences.

He would not hesitate to stop the fleet transporting the whole army and bound for Margarita Island during two days in order to wait for his mistress to join his ship. He was also deemed incompetent in military matters, systematically avoiding any risks and permanently anxious for his own safety.

Karl Marx [55]. His closest living relatives descend from his sisters and brother. One of his sisters died in infancy. In his long life, Fernando had minor participation in some of the major political events of Venezuelan history and also traveled and lived extensively throughout Europe. Fernando died in at the age of First of all, he was staunchly anti-slavery, despite coming from an area of Spanish America that relied heavily on slave labor.

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Second, while he was an admirer of U. By contrast, he referred to Spanish America as having been subject to the "triple yoke of ignorance, tyranny, and vice". The Bolivian constitution intended to establish a lifelong presidency and a hereditary senate, essentially recreating the British unwritten constitution , as it existed at the time.

How to govern ourselves after winning independence. It can be said that the Liberator exhausted his soul trying to find an answer to that question Tyranny or anarchy? Absolute liberty always leads to absolute power and among these two extremes is social liberty'. He is the disciple of Montesquieu in his insistence that institutions have to be adapted to culture. Alexander of Scotland" in Paris.

He founded the Masonic Lodge No. Navy between and Minor planet Boliviana discovered by Max Wolf is named in his honor. The name was suggested by Camille Flammarion.

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His birthday is a public holiday in Venezuela and Bolivia. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Venezuelan military and political leader, South American libertador. This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. The specific problem is: This section contains a repetitive and contradictory description of events. Please help improve this section if you can. February Learn how and when to remove this template message.


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This I can, of course, do, although it is a singular demand. As regards the 'partisan style', it is true that I departed somewhat from the tone of a cyclopedia.


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To see the dastardly, most miserable and meanest of blackguards described as Napoleon I was altogether too much. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Spanish American wars of independence portal Venezuela portal Politics portal Biography portal.

Biography of Simon Bolivar, 'Liberator of South America'

First edition, Retrieved 20 January David Bushnell. New York: Oxford University Press The literature of propaganda. Detroit [u. James Press. Moya, ed. New York: Oxford University Press , p. Retrieved 9 April New York: Alfred A. Knopf, The same night, Pio the servant of Bolivar and Paez plunged his murderous knife into the neck of Captain Felix Amestoy, thinking it was the Liberator.

Owes Haitian Gratitude, Not Abuse". The Crisis. Retrieved 15 September Huffington Post.

Video Cuento Educativo: Simón Bolívar, "El Libertador".

Trujillo, 19 March Archivo del Libertador , Document Trujillo, 21 March El Libertador: Writings of Simon Bolivar. Oxford University Press, , p. Skyhorse, , Ch. Retrieved 15 August Hope of the universe print ed. The Washington Post. Retrieved 17 July Council on Hemispheric Affairs. Archived from the original on 30 March Science Daily. The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 20 July Retrieved 16 July And that's how the story ends".

Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 29 June Buenos Aires: Editorial Sudamericana. Archived from the original on 16 November Retrieved 29 January Diario de Bucaramanga PDF print ed. Retrieved 18 August First published in the New American Cyclopedia, Vol. III, Archived from the original on 8 March Retrieved 6 February Masons of California. Archived from the original on 13 August Retrieved 23 January Unmerged Lodge St. John's No.