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As a result, our security selection process is focused on free-cash-flow metrics and capital allocation as opposed to traditional accounting-based metrics such as price-to-book and price-to-earnings. We look for a consistent, straightforward ability to generate free cash flow and to allocate it effectively among internal reinvestment opportunities, acquisitions, dividends, share repurchases and debt pay downs. The companies uncovered by this process have inherently less volatility due to their ability to generate cash flow. This strategy uses proprietary quantitative research to identify potential investments.

We look for factors including high current dividend yield, growth in cash flow, cash from operations that exceeds dividends and no dividend cancellations.

WACC -- Weighted Average Cost of Capital -- Definition & Example

Stocks are then subject to rigorous fundamental research. Once a stock has been purchased for the portfolio, we continually revisit our thesis and sell the stock if it appears the company will no longer be able to provide the required level of shareholder yield or if we see another investment with the characteristics we are looking for with less risk. While the portfolio is constructed from the bottom up, decisions are made with consideration of the macro context.

A senior member of the Quantitative Research and Risk Management team is a co-portfolio manager on every strategy managed by Epoch so that portfolio managers are aware of unintended biases and the effect individual securities may have on the portfolio. Email info eipny.

Improving Japanese Shareholder Returns Ahead

The current hype about two-sided digital platforms, blitzscaling and winner-takes-most markets has fueled a surge in IPO listings and produced stratospheric valuations that are difficult to reconcile with free-cash-flow FCF fundamentals. The big question is, are we repeating the excesses of the dot-com boom? In this paper, we look at the reasoning used by those who think history is repeating itself including IPO supply, profitability and VC funding.

We also look at the weaknesses in those arguments and why some believe that the current situation is different from the dot com bubble, such as median age of tech IPOs and sales growth. Finally, we explore how investors can look at these companies through a free cash flow lens. Conventional wisdom says yes, but we think otherwise. In this paper we explore:. Cost of capital tells the company its hurdle rate. The hurdle rate refers to the minimum rate of return the company must achieve to be profitable or to generate value.

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  3. How to Calculate the Cost of Capital for Your Business?

Each company has its own cost of capital. Different factors influence the cost of capital and these include things such as the operating history of the business, its profitability and credit worthiness. In case the company is solely financed through equity, the cost of capital would refer to the cost of equity. On the other hand, companies funded by debt alone have cost of capital refer to the cost of debt. As most companies rely on a combination of debt and equity, their overall cost of capital is derived from a weighted average of all capital sources. This refers to the average cost of capital WACC.

On the other hand, the cost of debt refers to situations where the company has funded itself through debt alone. This would mean the company has financed all of its operations simply by lending from creditors. The cost of debt reveals the effective rate the company should pay its current debt. Since interest is also added into the calculation, the cost of debt can either be measured before-tax or after-tax. For example, while debt financing is more tax-efficient to equity financing, high levels of debt can result in higher leverage, which means higher interest rates due to increased risk.

Therefore, a mixture of both financing sources often provides the lowest cost of capital. As we mentioned above, company financing hardly ever relies on a single source. Therefore, the cost of capital is often calculated by using the weighted average cost of capital WACC. Since it analyses both equity and debt financing, it provides a more accurate picture of how much interest the company owes for each operational currency it finances per each US dollar, British pound and so on. It gives a proportional weight to the different costs of capital, such as equity and debt, to derive a weighted average cost.

Each capital component will be multiplied by its proportional weight and the sums will be added together. When companies refer to the cost capital, they often would have calculated it based of the WACC method. Before we look at the formulas to calculate the cost of capital in more detail, it is important to understand why it is essential to do the maths. Since cost of capital provides the business with the minimum rate of return it needs on its investments, it is an essential part of budgeting decisions.

By knowing the cost of capital, the business can make better decisions on its future investments and other such financing options. For example, it can help the business to find projects that will generate appropriate gains for the business. Therefore, a cost of capital reveals the business plenty about the type and value of its past and future investments. Because the cost of capital is used to design the market fluctuations, it can help build better financial structures. In some instances, businesses even use it to better understand financial performance and to evaluate whether the management is performing well enough.

Naturally, if the business only uses either debt or equity alone, you can also use the formulas as the basis for calculating the cost of capital. First, lets look at how you can calculate the cost of debt. Debt in this formula includes all forms of debt the company uses in order to finance its operations.

These could be various bonds, loans and other such forms of debt.

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As mentioned earlier, there are two formulas for calculating the cost of debt. This is because it deals with interest, which can be deducted from tax payments. Thus, the alternatives are to calculate the cost of debt either before- or after-tax. Generally, the after-tax cost is more widely used. The before-tax rate can be calculated by two different methods.

The formula for calculating the after-rate tax is:. Keep in mind the before-tax rate is also often referred to as the yield-to-maturity on long-term debt. There are also two ways of calculating the cost of equity: the more traditional dividend capitalization model and the more modern capital asset pricing model CAPM.

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More recently, many companies have started to the use the CAPM method. There is an increasing likelihood that Corporate Governance Code will also be revised, to continue to push forward with this agenda. Until a meaningful impact is felt, Japanese companies may appear to be slow to react; however, once such change starts to take place, we believe they will start to move together rapidly.

In sum, active investors into Japanese equity are well positioned to benefit from both the alpha and beta that this unique market has to offer. This document is prepared by Nikko Asset Management Co. This document does not constitute investment advice or a personal recommendation and it does not consider in any way the suitability or appropriateness of the subject matter for the individual circumstances of any recipient. This document is for information purposes only and is not intended to be an offer, or a solicitation of an offer, to buy or sell any investments or participate in any trading strategy.

The information and opinions in this document have been derived from or reached from sources believed in good faith to be reliable but have not been independently verified. Nikko AM makes no guarantee, representation or warranty, express or implied, and accepts no responsibility or liability for the accuracy or completeness of this document.

No reliance should be placed on any assumptions, forecasts, projections, estimates or prospects contained within this document. This document should not be regarded by recipients as a substitute for the exercise of their own judgment. Opinions stated in this document may change without notice.

In any investment, past performance is neither an indication nor a guarantee of future performance and a loss of capital may occur. Estimates of future performance are based on assumptions that may not be realised. Investors should be able to withstand the loss of any principal investment. The mention of individual stocks, sectors, regions or countries within this document does not imply a recommendation to buy or sell.

A Guide to Calculating Total Shareholder Return

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