Manual Soziale Ordnungen im Spiegel der Märchen (German Edition)

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Core story — Marriage, followed by a taboo and its violation. End — Wife leaves, man is again single and poor. There are three types of marriage-tales in Japanese tales: the human-animal marriage based on mythology ; the desired child based on initiation rites , and the reality marriage based on real relationships between human men and women. Very often, marriage with a supernatural being or animal ends in separation, especial- ly if only one party has decided that the marriage must take place — parents, the female or the male character alone, or village members.

The end of these tales is particularly interesting: the separation of the couple. This fact fascinates many scholars. The plot of these tales is characterised by the broken taboo and the dis- appearance of the initial scene. The tale starts as it finishes, and it holds neither anything good nor bad for the male protagonist: all that happens between the two 35 SEKI, OZAWA, Seeing means knowing, knowledge is a revelation of sacred nature corresponding to Adam and Eve and the apple.

The taboos are all connected to different female actions like giving birth, breastfeeding, bathing, weaving, cooking, etc. The divine pair Izanagi and Izanami also separate because of a broken taboo — according to mythology, Izanagi sees Izanami rotting in the Land of Death. Watching his wife without her consent brings the final separation upon the couple. Bakemono reveal their true shape only after death, whereas they exist in a different shape while they are alive. The first is a conclusion based on depth- psychological analysis, the second a conclusion based on structural analysis.

The wife starts weaving; the man sells the woven cloth at a high price. Although the wife asks the man not to watch her while she weaves, he peeks into the weaving room to find a weaving crane.

Being exposed, the wife returns to her original bird-shape and flies away. The function sequence of this tale could be represented in several ways: I.

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It is easy to see that in this analysis the tale ends with functions b, which, according to Propp, are typical for the initial situation and can be found in the beginning of the tale only. The initial situation is hereby marked by A, not by i, because it is believed that in this tale marriage and riches are not seen as a final point but as a lack and the resolution of lack. Is the end of this tale then implying new functions not described by Propp?

How should we then interpret an initial situation combination appearing at the end of the story? Here, the tale develops further into a new initial situation instead of finishing with the resolution of lack — the end takes us back to the beginning. Yet there could be another way of interpreting the end of this tale. In this way the same tale about the crane wife could have the following sequence of functions, this time in a perfect linear shape: II.

No successful marriage. When analysing the tale in this way, we discover that the functions of Propp are perfectly in line with the story of the crane wife which is considered one of the most typical Japanese tales and one of the most difficult tales for European readers to comprehend. On a morphological level the tale is an ordinary fairy tale, the only difference being the negative and contrary result, determined by the last two functions, that mostly comes unexpected to the reader.

The separation of animal-wife and human-husband is a sad and beautiful parting or, in other words, an expression of a Japanese aesthetic concept such as mono-no aware, implying melancholic emotions in viewing the beauty of evanescent phenomena. The negative and contrary realization of these last functions is in fact an illustration of this aesthetic view but other devices of analysis would be needed to explain this end — namely, the means of world-view and aesthetics.

Since this is not the aim of this study, it might be a new topic for future research. So far, we have discussed the morphological explanation to the circular development of the plot of the Japanese tales suggested by Ozawa. We have also seen the result of nothingness, defined by Kawai, in the negative and contrary results of the tale — nothingness, because there is no positively accomplished final function. The above list provides a solution to the question raised. In the tale about the crane, however, the bird arrives unrecognised in the shape of a woman, and after its true appearance is revealed, it is given a new one so crane arrives in the shape of an unrecognized woman, the true appearance of the crane is disclosed to the male character by taboo violation, then the crane transforms into the shape of a bird to fly away and can thus not accomplish the function of marriage and acquisition of riches.

This is not new to the tale because Propp notes that for grateful animals it is typical to act in several spheres of action. The first marriage is of the male character as main role, and it is a happy-end story. This complex tale develops gradually and is reminiscent of the examples given by Propp.

The 31 functions that Propp elaborated were found in the Japanese texts but no new ones. The transformation of animal into human and the retrans- formation is a remnant of earlier folklore strata and could either be ignored or marked N. The sequence of functions is not disrupted, yet some possible derivations may occur. Sequence of functions may explain the circular plot development of Japanese tales, suggested by Ozawa, where the end of the tale implies a new beginning.

Functions in their negative and contrary state may explain the difficulties in perception of Japanese fairy tales by the European public. A new combination pattern stands out, and there is a specific distribution of roles between dramatis personae, which is more explicit than in the European tradition. In a complex 2-step tale the male character is the protagonist in the first stage, while the female-animal character is in the second.

The new reading and understanding of functions may also solve some issues regarding the character of the Japanese fairy tale and could offer explanations for the reception of Japanese tales by the European public. Of course, only a limited number of tales was considered in this study.

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Folklore Fellow Communications. Helsinki: Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia. FF Communications Helsinki: Aca- demia Scientiarium Fennica. In: Asian Folklore Studies — In: Journal of the Folklore Institute — JUNG, C. Atanasova and Boyajieva transl. Pleven:EA Publishing House. Hadano: Kokinsha— Oslo H. In: AFS — I und II. In: Fabula — Stuttgart: Kohlhammer— In: Kurt Ranke Hg. Berlin: de Gruyter — In: Leander Petzold Hg. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang— Hadano Kokinsha. Sofia: Simolini Publisher. Leningrad: Izd-vo Leningradskogo universiteta. Wies- baden: Franz Steiner. In: Richard M. Dorson, ed.

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