He provided him with a house and allowed him free access to the royal presence Casanova 3: He carried some of Mengs's paintings with him as the court moved from one royal residence to another Bianconi In addition, the King granted pensions to Mengs's five daughters and promised his protection to his two sons Bianconi , Woermann When Mengs's writings were published in Spain, they were printed by the Imprenta Real. As the King's painter, Mengs not unreasonably expected to play an important part in the Academia de San Fernando; on the other hand, some of the members were not keen on being lectured by a foreigner who thought he knew better how things should be done.
Apart from matters of pride, there were two major points of contention. Mengs believed that the Academy should be primarily a school of and for artists, yet it also contained highly placed laymen who saw it as a tool in the government's program of enlightenment and development. These members dominated the Academy, when in Mengs's view they should have had no voice in its affairs. In addition, Mengs believed that the training of artists should include theoretical work, especially lessons in perspective and human anatomy.
His family was not comfortable in Madrid Woermann , and much of the time he spent there he was alone.
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His work habits, according to Bianconi and Azara, were very demanding; and fresco painting damaged his health Bianconi et passim. Complaints about health and low spirits are frequent in the letters Mengs addressed to his students in Rome, as in this passage written in For Mengs, Rome was home and the artistic center of the universe. But how much happier would he have been elsewhere? Still, Mengs made important friends in Spain.
The Spaniard closest to him was Azara, a diplomat and man of letters who was also a friend of Bernardo and Domingo de Iriarte Corona 74 , active figures in Spanish political and cultural life.
Campomanes subsequently cited Mengs's contribution to improving and propagating instruction in drawing, and predicted that his paintings would rival the best of Raphael Campomanes and n Ponz's volumes not only list and describe the works of Mengs; they repeatedly cite Mengs's judgments on other painters, recognize his authority as a theorist , and proclaim Ponz's friendship with the painter , , These connections, his artistic reputation, and the favor of the King all contributed to the impression that Mengs left on Spanish letters of the late eighteenth century.
One of these master artists, though not named here, was Mengs. Mengs here represents classical taste in his art, as Haydn and Horace do in theirs. Note, incidentally, that Iriarte calls him a Saxon. The friendship with Mengs may have left yet another trace in the work of Iriarte. In a letter published in , the painter writes:. Admiration for Mengs appears repeatedly in the works of Jovellanos, the greatest representative of the Enlightenment in the Spain of the second half of the eighteenth century, a refined conoisseur of art, friend and patron of Goya, and a friend of Mengs's friends, though there is no indication of his having met the painter.
In , during the ceremonies accompanying the distribution of prizes by the Academia de San Fernando, Jovellanos read an Elogio de las bellas artes , in which he traces the development of Spanish painting and, coming to the reign of Charles III, devotes the following encomiastic paragraphs to Mengs, who had died in Rome two years earlier:. The museum to which Jovellanos refers is probably the huge collection of plaster casts of ancient statuary that Mengs had left the academy on his departure from Spain.
The notes to the Elogio cite the authority of Mengs's writings Obras publicadas 1: n10, n Arteaga 90, quoted above. These appreciations of Mengs appear not in a public forum, where praise for the painter might be flattery of his royal patron, but in the frank intimacy of private correspondence. Mengs also appears in Jovellanos' diary. He seems to have owned a Mengs sketch of the musician Saxier Obras completas 5: ; and while imprisoned on Majorca in , he took solace from a Mengs painting hung in his cell Obras completas 4: I have seen no indication that Esteban de Arteaga, Spain's leading aesthetic theorist of the late eighteenth century, knew Mengs; but after the painter's death Arteaga became an intimate friend of Azara Batllori, ed.
His own discussion of the topic, he states, will only be a commentary on and clarification of the thought of Mengs Comparing a Virgin by Murillo and Mengs's painting of The Soul , Arteaga claims that he cannot judge the relative merit of the two painters, but that. In spite of Mengs's quarrels with the Academia de San Fernando, the Academy repeatedly commemorated him during its triennial distribution of prizes, occasions on which some of the lay academicians would read speeches or poems.
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Salas similarly aims to recreate the painting in another artistic medium, though in effect he necessarily describes Mengs's work, while also interpreting and at times amplifying it, adding material of his own Urrutia, esp. He concludes:. As in Iriarte's verses, his work is praised in technical terms of analysis. The last four verses refer to the engravings of Mengs's paintings prepared by his son-in-law. The conclusion of the poem again evokes the same glorious pair:. Mengs's glory, which Quintana declared perpetual, survived in the triennial celebrations of the Academy for several more years.
On the same occasion Dr. Mengs was also remembered outside the academes and outside the circle of consecrated poets; ms. Since the Idilio speaks glowingly of the twin sons of the Prince of Asturias, it can be dated between September , when they were born, and October-November , when first one and then the other died Cotarelo The verses thus follow Mengs's death by four or five years. The handwriting is unknown to me; as for authorship, I feel confident only in saying that the poem's combination of hyperbole and awkwardness suggests that it is not the work of any of the better-known poets of the age.
It presents an unidentified water deity mourning the death of Mengs:. Tiber goes on to link Mengs's name with that of Apelles and to praise his depiction of nature. Deprived of Mengs's person, he is reduced to contemplating Mengs's paintings; and he apostrophizes death:. As do better-known, and better, poets, this writer proclaims Mengs's art superior to Nature herself and sees in it and in the learned painter's teachings the basis for his eternal fame.
While we have here limited ourselves to the comments of Spanish writers, Mengs's fame and glory extended throughout Europe. In Winckelmann dedicated his Geschichte der Kunst des Altertums to Mengs, whom he calls the greatest artist of his time and perhaps of times to come Pelzel 2. Frederick the Great commissioned work from Mengs Pelzel 79ff.
Anton Raphael Mengs in Spanish Literature
Petersburg Nikulin After his death, Mengs's works were published in several countries and several languages. Still, as the eighteenth century ended, Mengs's standing as painter and philosopher, at least outside Spain, was in sharp decline Pelzel, esp. His bust was removed from the Pantheon in Pelzel and n Some recent critics have in part rehabilitated Mengs's reputation. This dream met with an enthusiastic response in the Spanish literary world, among major writers and among more humble ones, on official occasions when the name of Mengs was linked with that of his royal patron, and on the more private level of personal letters and individual collections.
For a quarter of a century after his death, Spanish prose and verse, consistently taking up the notes first sounded by Azara, celebrated Mengs as the modern Apelles, excelling all other painters and Nature herself, teacher and philosopher of art. Mengs left his mark on Spain's painting, but also on her literature.
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Mitos de hoy. Cultural Myth Criticism, the new proposal that it is offered here, combines traditional tools of myth criticism with factors not systematically considered by previous criticism: globalization, immanence and consumerism. Thus it provides a modest contribution to the task of identifying, analyzing and synthesizing the typology of the manifestations of myth in literature, the arts and contemporary media. It wants to make easier the task of understanding ourselves in this bewildering world. Revista de Ciencias de las Religiones Madrid , 21, , p.
This trilingual volume examines the extent to which myths are affected by the crisis of the 20th and 21st centuries. The largest section of the volume focuses on the crisis that affect ancient, medieval and modern literary myths from a global perspective: psychology, ethics, politics and contemporary meta-literature. The final section of the volume examines the crisis experienced by the myths of the immanence: historical and fictitious characters, mythologized places and language.
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Table of Contents and Preface. Nuevas formas del mito. Myth: explicative, symbolic and dynamic tale that recounts one or more extraordinary events —which are personal and transcendental; it lacks historical testimony and is made up of invariable thematic elements, which are often presented in a situation of crisis; presents a conflictive, emotive, functional and ritual character, and always points out towards an absolute cosmogony or eschatology, which may be particular or universal. This definition, general, cold and indeterminate, requires a time, a space and especially a consciousness to come to life.
Myth is not a mental construct unconnected to sociocultural vicissitudes: it bears —on its skin and in its entrails— the mark of each individual and of each society. Myth is a slave longing to be set free: in the same way it cannot be rid of its inherited form and content, it also cannot keep from dreaming of new forms and contents —the promise of an improbable liberation.
New Forms of Myth depicts those forms and those contents in a new time and in a place. The novelty of the method lies in vindicating the coalescence of the traditional procedures of myth-criticism and new aspects that have not been systematically analysed yet by scholarly research, namely: globalization, immanence and consumerism. The book thus offers a modest contribution to the task of identifying, analysing and synthetizing the typology of myth in literature, fine arts and contemporary media.
Hopefully, this will lead to a better understanding of our own consciousness in this disconcerting world. Table of Contents and Introductory Chapter. Revista Complutense de Estudios Franceses Madrid , 31, 2, , p. This book collects and analyzes them throughout his poetic work reviewed in its entirety. Weighed and placed in the path of his production, this Spanish influence comes to get significance and uniqueness both in Hugo as in the perspective of the French romantic movement.
Table of Contents. Mitos y reflexiones sobre el mar , dir. This is the aim of the present study: to account for what the sea has represented and represents for us today. The sea transformed into a school, a form of learning. The point is to research a new side of the sea: the unaccounted for seas, the imaginary seas. Over the centuries, oceans have inspired uncountable mind constructions, built upon their currents and beasts, upon the cliffs and depths. And thus, the culture of the sea has arisen, different from what we can see through the lens of a microscope.
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Mito e interdisciplinariedad. So far, myth criticism had proceeded to identify myths within the literary and artistic productions of each era or to display the resistance of mythical factors to the diverse trends present in literary and artistic movements. The focus was generally limited to a single mode of expression: literary or artistic. Nowadays, however, myths are characterized by the use of a multitude of media, each of which has traditionally been studied from a single discipline. The aim of this study is to decipher the reasons for this versatility of the myth and its interdisciplinary use.
Sumerjase en el mundo magico de poemas de reflexion, profundizacion y motivacion. Visit Seller's Storefront. Books should arrive within business days for expedited shipping, and business days for standard shipping. Standard shipping can on occasion take up to 60 days for delivery. List this Seller's Books. Payment Methods accepted by seller. AbeBooks Bookseller Since: 14 August Home Vulfrano Dominguez Horizonte: 76 poemas.