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Online first, doi: Review of International Organizations , 11 1 : An Analysis of Policy Repertoires in 37 Countries.

Understanding environmental policy convergence : the power of words, rules and money

Environmental Politics 25 1 : Politische Vierteljahresschrift , Sonderheft Internationale Organisationen. International Organization , Volume 68 4 , pp Der Einfluss internationaler Harmonisierung auf nationale Umweltstandards.


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In: Perspectives on Europe Volume 41 1 , Environmental Competition in Europe. In: Environmental Politics , Volume 20 1 , In: International Organization , Volume 62, 4 , Oxford: Oxford University Press.


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The authors discuss the roles of international harmonization, transnational communication, regulatory competition, imposition, and parallel problem pressure in shaping and defining the scope, degree, and direction of environmental policy convergence. International harmonization involves states complying with legally binding regulations related to international or supranational law norms.

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Transnational communication leads to convergence through the exchange of information, and can involve lesson-drawing, transnational problem-solving, international policy promotion, or emulation. Regulatory competition drives convergence when [End Page ] countries, and industries within these countries, adjust to nationally authorized standards of production processes and tradable products. Convergence by imposition happens through the power of supranational organizations or states that demand the adoption of certain environmental policies and rules in exchange for an approval of membership in common markets or politico-economic unions like the European Union.

Finally, a parallel problem pressure mechanism explains international policy convergence independent of international dynamics.

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This book confirms previous arguments about policy convergence and its scope. For example, as is posited by those who study Europeanization, the authors here indicate that domestic actor constellations, institutional structures, and traditional policy discourse can lead similar international impulses for convergence to take different shapes.


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  7. The book also supports the idea that environmental convergence represents an upward trend in regulatory stringency. The authors conclude that transnational communication and regulatory competition are the most important mechanisms of convergence, and that harmonization is dependent on the prior competitive or communicative dynamics.

    Moreover, they do not find support for the claim that powerful states widely use imposition as a mechanism of environmental policy convergence.

    Understanding Environmental Policy Convergence The Power of Words, Rules and Money

    Besides contributing to improving our understanding of how the various mechanisms of convergence work in practice, this book also reveals methodological challenges in accounting for the parallel problem pressure mechanism. Because policy entrepreneurs working at the domestic level may also be active participants in transnational communication via international organizations or epistemic communities, it is not always easy to identify the driving forces of policy convergence—in other words Project MUSE promotes the creation and dissemination of essential humanities and social science resources through collaboration with libraries, publishers, and scholars worldwide.

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