The private German foundation Bertelsmann Stiftung, which sees itself as a driver of social change, has conducted a survey on the topic of workforce diversity. The main objective of the survey is to assess the status of diversity management in German corporations and compare it on an international level to Europe, UK, USA and some other countries. The survey represents a standardized questionnaire in German and English, whose target group are top of German companies and top of international ones.
The study was conducted between March and June The importance of the following diversity criteria to a company is ranked on a scale from 1 no relevance to 7 highest relevance : age, disabilities, gender, culture, religion and sexual orientation. According to the chart in figure 1. Germany is obviously behind UK and USA concerning all criteria, though when it comes to differences in age, physical abilities, religion and sexual orientation the other European countries show less relevance than Germany.
However, the most neglected differences among employees are their religion beliefs and the sexual orientation. Although German corporations are not in the leading positions their progress in the area should still be recognized and hopefully continued. This written paper focuses on the cultural differences among employees in tourism and hospitality, as managing across cultures has become an inseparable and a very important part of this industry.
However, the term culture in its complexity could be quite confusing.
A dictionary definition of culture incorporates many elements like history, common traits, geographical location, language, religion, race, hunting practices, music, agriculture etc. This makes culture and cultural differences very hard to define. Peter Brooks, an interdisciplinary scholar, tries to embrace the complexity of the term through an interesting analogy. This example shows that the most important aspects of culture, like the roots of a tree, are hardly recognizable at first.
When different cultures collide on the workplace this might have a great impact on the whole well-being of a company. Cultural awareness could therefore be very useful and even profitable for corporations. To Chinese, there is just no absolute truth. Germans highly value time and punctuality, while Spanish often tend to be late.
Workplace Diversity in Hospitality & Tourism
Religion beliefs could also contribute to cultural gaps between employees, e. These and numerous others are examples for cultural differences which people come across in the everyday business life. The different relations between cultures are formed in seven different dimensions according to Fons Trompenaars, which is a worldwide acknowledged authority concerning intercultural management.
For example you go by car with a really good friend and he runs into a food passenger with 50 km per hour even though only 30 were allowed. There are no witnesses. Would you keep it secret in court to protect him or not? Both North America and Europe would approach this problem almost exclusively universal and would not protect their friends in court. However Africa, Latin America and Asia would approach the problem sectional. In universal cultures, rules are more important than relations. The contracts have to be observed strictly and only the people who follow the rules and the contract provide confidence.
More over, there is only one truth and reality on which you have agreed. Business is Business. If you have to manage universal cultures:. In sectional cultures, relations are more important than rules are.
Contracts have to be modifiable and only people who accept changes provide confidence. There are different perspectives of reality, concerning this of each partner. Further more, relations have to develop. If you have to manage sectional cultures:.
In collective cultures, the delegates decide after consulting. Ideally, staff members do their work in groups with divided responsibility and staff members spend their holiday in groups or with family. In individual cultures, the representatives decide immediately.
Ideally, staff members work on their own and feel individual responsibility. Further more, staff members spend their holidays alone or with their partner. In neutral cultures, people do not want to uncover their thoughts and feelings. Their inner tension can be reflected in their attitudes or their faces. Physical contact, gesticulation or facial expression are often off-limits.
If you have to manage neutral cultures like Ethiopia, Japan or Hong Kong:. In emotional cultures, people uncover their feelings and thoughts and this creates transparency. A spirited behavior is admired and physical contact as well as facial expressions are the rule. If you have to manage an emotional cultures like Egypt, Spain, France or Russia:. Article 1-Cultural diversity: the common heritage of humanity 2-From cultural diversity to cultural pluralism 3-Cultural diversity as a factor in development 4-Human rights as guarantees of cultural diversity 5-Cultural rights as an enabling environment for cultural diversity 6-Towards access for all to cultural diversity 7-Cultural heritage as the wellspring of creativity 8-Cultural goods and services: commodities of a unique kind 9-Cultural policies as catalysts of creativity Strengthening capacities for creation and dissemination worldwide Building partnership between the public sector, the private sector and civil society Theories of International tourism.
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The future of cultural diversity The importance of cultural diversity for global business will grow in significance. There are several reason for this: 1 Increasing multicultural work force 2 Growing international ownership 3 Increasing migration 4 Changes in demographics Theories of International tourism. Challenges for the tourism and hospitality industry A truly multinational organization is one that is able to utilize cultural diversity as its competitive advantage.
Cultural diversity derives from human resources of different backgrounds, with different values and expectations. The tourism and hospitality industries have to adapt to the multicultural environment of its workforce; otherwise the relationships between customers and employees may be threatened. Culturally difference markets will be the future of the tourism and hospitality industry: travelers represent a culturally diverse pool of potential customers, a cultural approach to marketing and providing services will be required.
In conclusion, the tourism and hospitality industry is people based. Differences in their behaviors and values reflect a wide cultural diversity in these countries and regions. In the United States, one third of the population is represented by multicultural or multiethnic groups of people. Cultural diversity often refers to multiculturalism, which describes the nature of society whose members are from different ethnic and religious groups.
Cultural diversity advocates equal status and rights for these groups. Cultural diversity brings numerous benefits to the workplace, including greater innovation, creativity, and responsiveness to consumer demands, increased productivity, and more effective competition. Cultural diversity determines management styles and practices of tourism and hospitality organizations.
Diversity in the Hospitality Industry | Your Business
The major challenge for the tourism and hospitality industry is to utilize cultural diversity as its competitive advantage. Globalization Affecting Atlantic Canadians. What is Globalization? Globalization is: is a process of interaction and integration among the people, companies,. Business Environment.
Business environment has a direct relation. Publishing as Prentice Hall. Regional Economic Development Module Two. Session Overview Defining economic development Exploring major trends Examining your economic development. Learning Goals Learn the three steps of target marketing, market segmentation, target marketing, and market positioning Understand the major bases for.
People who make organizations sucessful… The practices that a company apply to manage employees… A support function of an organization that works for. Giving Culturally Competent Care As the United States becomes a more racially and ethnically diverse nation, so do the needs of the patient population. Similar presentations.
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