He was 26 and she was 13, though she is listed on the marriage certificate as being Reinstated by White after promising good behavior, Poe went back to Richmond with Virginia and her mother. He remained at the Messenger until January During this period, Poe claimed that its circulation increased from to 3, He published several poems, book reviews, critiques, and stories in the paper. On May 16, , he had a second wedding ceremony in Richmond with Virginia Clemm, this time in public.
In the summer of , Poe became assistant editor of Burton's Gentleman's Magazine. He published numerous articles, stories, and reviews, enhancing his reputation as a trenchant critic that he had established at the Southern Literary Messenger. Poe left Burton's after about a year and found a position as assistant at Graham's Magazine. In June , Poe published a prospectus announcing his intentions to start his own journal, The Stylus. Originally, Poe intended to call the journal The Penn , as it would have been based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Around this time, he attempted to secure a position with the Tyler administration, claiming he was a member of the Whig Party. Poe failed to show up for a meeting with Thomas to discuss the appointment in mid-September , claiming to be sick, though Thomas believed he was drunk. Though he was promised an appointment, all positions were filled by others. Poe described it as breaking a blood vessel in her throat. She only partially recovered.
Poe began to drink more heavily under the stress of Virginia's illness. He left Graham's and attempted to find a new position, for a time angling for a government post. He returned to New York, where he worked briefly at the Evening Mirror before becoming editor of the Broadway Journal and, later, sole owner. There he alienated himself from other writers by publicly accusing Henry Wadsworth Longfellow of plagiarism, though Longfellow never responded. On January 29, , his poem "The Raven" appeared in the Evening Mirror and became a popular sensation.
It was concurrently published in the A Whig Journal under the pseudonym "Quarles". The Broadway Journal failed in Virginia died there on January 30, Biographers and critics often suggest Poe's frequent theme of the "death of a beautiful woman" stems from the repeated loss of women throughout his life, including his wife. Increasingly unstable after his wife's death, Poe attempted to court the poet Sarah Helen Whitman, who lived in Providence, Rhode Island.
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Their engagement failed, purportedly because of Poe's drinking and erratic behavior. However, there is also strong evidence that Whitman's mother intervened and did much to derail their relationship. Poe then returned to Richmond and resumed a relationship with his childhood sweetheart, Sarah Elmira Royster. He was taken to the Washington College Hospital, where he died on Sunday, October 7, , at in the morning.
Poe was never coherent long enough to explain how he came to be in his dire condition, and, oddly, was wearing clothes that were not his own. Poe is said to have repeatedly called out the name "Reynolds" on the night before his death, though it is unclear to whom he was referring. Some sources say Poe's final words were "Lord help my poor soul.
Newspapers at the time reported Poe's death as "congestion of the brain" or "cerebral inflammation", common euphemisms for deaths from disreputable causes such as alcoholism. The actual cause of death remains a mystery; from as early as , cooping was commonly believed to have been the cause, and speculation has included delirium tremens , heart disease, epilepsy, syphilis, meningeal inflammation, cholera and rabies. It was soon published throughout the country.
The piece began, "Edgar Allan Poe is dead. He died in Baltimore the day before yesterday. This announcement will startle many, but few will be grieved by it.
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Griswold somehow became Poe's literary executor and attempted to destroy his enemy's reputation after his death. Rufus Griswold wrote a biographical article of Poe called "Memoir of the Author", which he included in an volume of the collected works. Griswold depicted Poe as a depraved, drunk, drug-addled madman and included Poe's letters as evidence. Many of his claims were either lies or distorted half-truths.
For example, it is now known that Poe was not a drug addict. Griswold's book was denounced by those who knew Poe well, but it became a popularly accepted one. This occurred in part because it was the only full biography available and was widely reprinted and in part because readers thrilled at the thought of reading works by an "evil" man. Letters that Griswold presented as proof of this depiction of Poe were later revealed as forgeries.
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His most recurring themes deal with questions of death, including its physical signs, the effects of decomposition, concerns of premature burial, the reanimation of the dead, and mourning. Many of his works are generally considered part of the dark romanticism genre, a literary reaction to transcendentalism, which Poe strongly disliked. He referred to followers of the movement as "Frogpondians" after the pond on Boston Common. For comic effect, he used irony and ludicrous extravagance, often in an attempt to liberate the reader from cultural conformity.
In fact, "Metzengerstein", the first story that Poe is known to have published, and his first foray into horror, was originally intended as a burlesque satirizing the popular genre. Poe also reinvented science fiction, responding in his writing to emerging technologies such as hot air balloons in "The Balloon-Hoax". Poe wrote much of his work using themes specifically catered for mass market tastes. To that end, his fiction often included elements of popular pseudosciences such as phrenology and physiognomy. Literary theory Poe's writing reflects his literary theories, which he presented in his criticism and also in essays such as "The Poetic Principle".
He disliked didacticism and allegory, though he believed that meaning in literature should be an undercurrent just beneath the surface. Works with obvious meanings, he wrote, cease to be art. He believed that quality work should be brief and focus on a specific single effect. To that end, he believed that the writer should carefully calculate every sentiment and idea. In "The Philosophy of Composition", an essay in which Poe describes his method in writing "The Raven", he claims to have strictly followed this method.
It has been questioned, however, if he really followed this system. Eliot said: "It is difficult for us to read that essay without reflecting that if Poe plotted out his poem with such calculation, he might have taken a little more pains over it: the result hardly does credit to the method. Fellow critic James Russell Lowell called him "the most discriminating, philosophical, and fearless critic upon imaginative works who has written in America", though he questioned if he occasionally used prussic acid instead of ink.
Poe was also known as a writer of fiction and became one of the first American authors of the 19th century to become more popular in Europe than in the United States. Poe is particularly respected in France, in part due to early translations by Charles Baudelaire. Baudelaire's translations became definitive renditions of Poe's work throughout Europe. Poe's early detective fiction tales starring the fictitious C. Auguste Dupin laid the groundwork for future detectives in literature.
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle said, "Each [of Poe's detective stories] is a root from which a whole literature has developed Where was the detective story until Poe breathed the breath of life into it? Science fiction author H. Wells noted, " Pym tells what a very intelligent mind could imagine about the south polar region a century ago. One interesting trend among imitators of Poe, however, has been claims by clairvoyants or psychics to be "channeling" poems from Poe's spirit.
One of the most notable of these was Lizzie Doten, who in published Poems from the Inner Life , in which she claimed to have "received" new compositions by Poe's spirit.
The compositions were re-workings of famous Poe poems such as "The Bells", but which reflected a new, positive outlook. Even so, Poe has received not only praise, but criticism as well. This is partly because of the negative perception of his personal character and its influence upon his reputation. William Butler Yeats was occasionally critical of Poe and once called him "vulgar". Transcendentalist Ralph Waldo Emerson reacted to "The Raven" by saying, "I see nothing in it" and derisively referred to Poe as "the jingle man". Aldous Huxley wrote that Poe's writing "falls into vulgarity" by being "too poetical" It is believed that only 12 copies of Poe's first book, Tamerlane and Other Poems , have survived.
Physics and cosmology A Prose Poem , an essay written in , included a cosmological theory that presaged the Big Bang theory by 80 years, as well as the first plausible solution to Olbers' paradox. Poe eschewed the scientific method in Eureka and instead wrote from pure intuition. For this reason, he considered it a work of art, not science, but insisted that it was still true and considered it to be his career masterpiece. Even so, Eureka is full of scientific errors. In particular, Poe's suggestions opposed Newtonian principles regarding the density and rotation of planets.
Cryptography Poe had a keen interest in cryptography. He had placed a notice of his abilities in the Philadelphia paper Alexander's Weekly Express Messenger , inviting submissions of ciphers, which he proceeded to solve. He attempted to dosoin "TheBellTower"-ondemning, through his characterization of the protagonist, Bannadonna , Poe's "literarypersona, concern with mechanics of form, literary ambition, and political elitism" 9.
Milan: Rosellina Archinto, Arburg, Hans-Georg von. Bern, Switzerland: Peter Lang, Argersinger, Jana L. Project MUSE promotes the creation and dissemination of essential humanities and social science resources through collaboration with libraries, publishers, and scholars worldwide. Forged from a partnership between a university press and a library, Project MUSE is a trusted part of the academic and scholarly community it serves. Built on the Johns Hopkins University Campus. Extremely scarce. The only book that concentrates on her watercolors.
This catalog is concerned with Fini's commercial work, including designing for the opera, theater, Ballet, books, etc. It contains the only accurate and comprehensive bibliography of Fini. A must for any Fini scholar! An important dissertation on her work by this respected art historian and critic. Contains the largest selection of early images in any book. Written by her companion and close friend of over thirty years. As issued with no dust jacket.
A little gem of a catalog. This is the official catalog for the retrospective. Tremendous scope of work represented. A collector's edition of an invaluable reference book.
Same except "Palazzo Dei Diamanti" is not on spine and bound in pictorial boards; No dustjacket. This constitutes the 1st edition in conjunction with an HC not for sale limited edition of 5, copies which was printed simultaneously. Without dust jacket. HC edition limited to 5, copies printed for members of the Guilde du Livre; numbered; white illustrated same as dust jacket in item 26 pictorial boards with imprinted black cloth spine. The exhibition had work from as early as and as late as A wonderful addition to any collection. A new chronological look at Fini's paintings.
A well presented selection with a few works that appear nowhere else and the first time that "La Vie Ideal" has been published in color. At last an inexpensive Fini book!
Phantastische Geschichten by Edgar Allan Poe
Important study of Fini's paintings. This volume constitutes the 1st edition in conjunction with an HC limited edition of 5, copies which was printed simultaneously. This is arguably the most important critique of Fini's work. The author lived with Fini for many years and was her closest confidant.
HC edition limited to 5, copies printed for members of the Guilde du Livre; Numbered copies; illustrated pictorial boards with imprinted black cloth spine. Out of Print in and will not be re-printed. The only major work on Fini's paintings written in English. Long out of print. Suitable for framing! Over 75 rare photos of Fini, her friends and her environment; More than 85 illustrations of paintings, drawings and water colors, many seen here for the first time.
This is the catalog for the largest retrospective and sale of Fini's work to take place outside of Europe. Published in a limited edition of 2, copies. Fini's hauntingly beautiful, softly colored lithographs capture the substance of the text; consider to be Baudelaire's master work. All copies are numbered. This copy is one of 4, with another in other editions.
These colorful cats run the gamut from serious to totally absurd! This is the cat-loving Fini letting her legendary sense of the ridiculous run rampant! Since this book has often been destroyed to allow the sale of individual lithos, a bound copy is exceptionally rare. This line illustrated play is a burlesque about a cat queen and her friends. The text, in Fini's handwriting, is interspersed with numerous funny sketches of cats in often droll, sometimes erotic, poses and situations.
Many of the characters are various person friends of Fini. It is dedicated to the two men with whom she lived from the 's until their untimely and tragic deaths in the 's. A wickedly funny story with equally outrageous and wonderful pen and ink illustrations. Erotic, explicit illustrations enhance the mood of this classic.
Copy is the deluxe edition. There is some question as to both the authenticity and the "legality" of this edition. Bound copy in red moire silk with gold stamping on cover. Edition Claude Tchou; ; Paris; 11" x 8. Bound in Padded Gold "Leatherette" in a clear plastic wrapper with a colored illustrative detail.
This edition was limited to 8, copies, each numbered. Limitation Page is signed by both Fini and Guibbert. Total edition size is This is book number EA 35 and is a collaborators copy on Velin de Rives paper. Many of Fini's most beautiful images, such as "Vesper Express" and "Guardian of the Wells" are included. This is another book which is difficult to locate in complete condition.
It weighs 23 lbs! This privately printed booklet is the text of a letter sent to Fini by Genet. One of the most beautiful collections of large format lithographs by Fini. This is the 1st Edition. Profusely illustrated with photographs, reproductions of paintings, drawings and depictions of influences on her life and work. The definitive study of her life as an artist, writer, designer, illustrator, personality and visionary.
Substantially the same as the original edition with about 15 pp of changed illustrations.