He never held a conventional academic appointment, for example. Born in Lucerne and studying all over Europe, he started out as a Jesuit. Then he met Adrienne von Speyr, a medical doctor and mystic whom he received into the Church. He reluctantly left the Jesuits in to found with von Speyr a secular institute, a kind of religious order whose members continue their work in the world.
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They also established a house to publish his many books as well as her writings. Von Balthasar repeatedly and extravagantly or so it seems declared his indebtedness to the thought of Adrienne von Speyr. She, he said, was his chief inspiration, and he sometimes went so far as to suggest that his work was but a footnote to hers.
This is something of a puzzlement to many, including this writer, who have read von Speyr in search of what von Balthasar found so remarkable. To bring together in one volume the astonishing achievement of Hans Urs von Balthasar is, to say the least, a daunting task, but Pattern of Redemption does just that. Robert L. That is a seven-volume work translated in English under the title, The Glory of the Lord. The point is that God reveals himself not only as truth and goodness but also as beauty. Christian theology is reflection on the glory of God in the person of Jesus Christ.
If von Balthasar is one day formally recognized as a Doctor of the Church Doctores Ecclesiae , he might well bear the title of the Glorious Doctor. And a Christianity which went along with modernity and subscribed merely to the true faith as a system of correct propositions or merely to the good faith as that which is most useful and healthy for the subject would be a Christianity knocked down from its own heights.
Reading von Balthasar is frequently as much an experience of contemplation as of analysis or argument, which is no doubt to be expected in a theology of aesthetics that relentlessly orients the reader to the glory of God.
But there is also argument and analysis in abundance. There is, for instance, The Theology of Karl Barth newly translated by Oakes and published by Ignatius in which von Balthasar addresses some classic Protestant-Catholic disagreements over the nature of grace and the analogy of being analogia entis. Where to begin reading von Balthasar? Or readers with some theological training may want to take a deep breath and dive into the first volume of The Glory of the Lord , being forewarned that von Balthasar is known to become a habit that is hard to break, and that there is a long, long shelf of von Balthasar ahead once they get hooked.
It is an achievement worthy of its subject. Keeping Score. On Tuesdays and Thursdays or is it Wednesdays and Mondays? It really is in large part a matter of mood that determines how one rates gains and defeats. On some of the issues that matter most to us, are we better off now than we were at this time last year? Here, in briefest summary, is how part of the game turned out. The pro-abortionists have lost the public argument, and they lost massively in the November elections.
Sentiment in support of unlimited abortion license, always small, has declined further. And yet, the pro-life forces in Congress and the states seem eerily paralyzed; having more potential influence, they seem less certain about what to do with it. A very encouraging year. Antifamily feminists thrown on the defensive, a major turnaround among opinion makers on the irreplaceable father and the need for stable marriages.
Immense rebuilding required, but the direction is toward common sense on what is required for children and families to flourish. Very major and promising change. The intellectual argument has been won and legally mandated quotas are on the way out, although they will likely continue for years in business, universities, and other institutions. Under increasing intellectual attack, diminishing influence in most public policy areas, but solidly entrenched in educational establishment where there is slight prospect for change in near future.
This is yet another question on which the university in particular is increasingly a backwater suffering from severe cultural lag. Significant advances, especially between Catholics and evangelical Protestants. But too early to see whether the initiatives of the past year will take hold. That may take decades. No change in what appears to be the inexorable decline of oldline Protestant bodies, although rumblings here and there of revived theological seriousness. Eastern Orthodoxy in place, although renewed excitements positive and negative about possible reconciliation with Rome.
This could get ugly. The more hopeful course is moral, religious, and theological engagement, but only a minority on both sides seems to understand that. Debonair nihilism seemingly unlimited, and no change in sight. It is being turned back on almost every front except on the campus, of course. By their own testimony, the leaders are fragmented and dispirited. As a cultural force, homosexuality is returning to the closet, although the door will likely be kept ajar.
But nasty shocks from courts on same-sex marriage still possible. This encompasses everything from embryo research to euthanasia to the Human Genome Project-the making, manipulating, and disposing of human life. The advance of euthanasia and doctor-assisted suicide was slowed, although not stopped.
Clinton Administration was sharply set back at Cairo in ambition to impose abortion and population control on poor countries.
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On welfare and related policies a revolution is underway. The contest is depicted as one between the hard-hearted and the compassionate. The reality is a movement toward proliferating experiments with approaches that try to actually help the poor to become nonpoor.
Returns on what works are years away. Even in the best scenarios, so much will have to be rebuilt from scratch, notably the patterns of family formation. But there appears to be a decisive turn from the business as usual of the last three disastrous decades. Maybe big battles ahead, maybe not.
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Depends on whether the question of bringing some sanity and control to immigration policy can be separated from disputes over race and ethnic hubris. The lines of debate on both right and left are still emerging, but immigration is on the national agenda as it was not a year ago.
The U. Which means that, for the first time in fifty years, the world has no reasonably predictable understandings for the settling of international conflicts. Pray that nothing really major happens in foreign affairs in the next year.
Stop the world, America has gotten off. And that, in an all too cursory manner, is an overview of a few of the changes in the past year. All in all, and given the evils to which fallen humankind is prone, the indicators in the political and intellectual culture provide reason for carefully restrained hopefulness. Of course the above represents no more than impressions gained from a rambling Friday afternoon conversation with friends and colleagues, and a year from now it may look pretty dumb.
What a refreshing transformation that would be. Morphew seems very unlikely on the basis of what he says along the way to his conclusion. Pat Robertson on his infamous cable-television talk show. Like so many people in what they still complacently think of as the mainstream, Clark Morphew seems to assume that the only thing required for a reasonable debate of differences is the extirpation of those with whom he disagrees. The reaction is not atypical of mainliners awakening to the fear that they have been marginalized.
All of a sudden the phrase is popping up everywhere. The reference, of course, is to the Reformation insistence upon justification by faith alone sola fide. He went back to his books and has come up with the answer. It was Valentius E. As we have had occasion to remark before, history has many ironies in the fire. Joseph Fessio, provides about as good an overview of Catholic news in global perspective as any magazine around.
It is also very conservative. At least that was always our impression. Until we read this story on why the Church cannot change its teaching on contraception. There has been extended discussion of RFRA in these pages and we are, all in all, very much for it. RFRA is, at the very least, an important legislative effort to secure protections too often slighted by the judiciary.
The judges who so diminished religious freedom in the first place are still in place, and they will be interpreting RFRA as well. Thoughtful articles are now appearing in the law journals and they emphasize both the achievement and the limits of RFRA. Two are of particular interest: Thomas C. By the time this sees print, the Congress will have held hearings on a proposed amendment aimed at rescuing from the imperial judiciary the constitutional guarantee of the free excercise of religion.
An amendment carefully crafted to avoid getting sidetracked on the narrow question of school prayer could secure what RFRA rightly intended to do. On cable television, Mr. Pozner does a show with Phil Donahue, a kind of bacchanalia of debased discourse. For years he was a staple on talk shows, dependably defending the Soviet Union and all its works and ways.
In his family moved from the U. The fact is that for years and years he had a choice, and he chose to make a very good living and to become something of a celebrity by serving as an apologist for a regime guilty of some of the greatest atrocities in human history. One hopes that at least a few patrons at Alice Tully Hall that night recognized the smarmy moralism of Vladimir Pozner and wondered why a program in New York should thus desecrate the memory of the Holocaust.
A profile of the Estonian-born Patriarch of Moscow. Louis, Cleveland. Telephone Agne has resigned as director of the racial justice office. Banka Bohemia went into receivership last year. Why is it that we spend so much money on crime and violence in our streets? Why is it even that we spend so much money dealing with the problems of irresponsible behavior that contribute to the decline of the health of this nation? I think you all know in your hearts what the real answer is. Freedom requires that at the end of the day you accept the constraint that is required.
Do you think that the decline of marriage and the moral dissolution of the family is a money problem? The first is a movie that even reviewers who love the message have criticized as being one long rickety cliche. The second is a book by Thomas M. Disch, published by the distinguished house of Knopf. In this novel, Father Patrick Bryce is an all-out villain, truly a wicked fellow. Disch included, should do so with quasi-religious fervor.
I believe this deeply: but it is not a doctrine which inspires the young. They seek absolutes; and that usually, sooner or later, ends in blood. Though one may rightly bemoan the fact that yet another novelist of talent has chosen to join these bloody wars, Mr. Disch surely deserves full credit for having gone straight to the root of the matter.
True enough, but we mean particularly difficult. Then there is a multimillion-dollar financial scandal in the already floundering national offices in New York. In addition, ten bishops have made formal presentments against other bishops who have ordained sexually active gays. And so forth. But disturbing the doldrums is a bit of good news, according to Care and Community , an independent newsletter. While allowing that the question of abortion is not addressed directly in the Bible, John Paul makes a detailed argument that the foundational truths of biblical faith make imperative the protection of unborn and other innocent life.
It has been suggested that, since the argument did not need to be made in the context of Catholic moral teaching, it is principally addressed to other Christians and to Jews who claim fidelity to such foundational truths. One continues to scour the Protestant and Jewish press for a considered response to that argument. America , the Jesuit magazine, goes a step further and treats criminals as authorities on crime-which, of course, in a perverse sense they are.
I happen to know a little about Ross because I live in Eastern Connecticut, where his rape-murder spree left behind a sense of outrage that it would be difficult to put a price tag on-although it seems that Ross is trying desperately to do just that in that pages of America. Ross was convicted of raping and murdering six young women. Baribeault, 17, Tammy L. Williams, 17, Robyn D.
Stravinsky, 19, and Debra Smith Taylor, Ross has also said that he raped and murdered two women in New York. Whether the state should execute Ross for these heinous crimes is a difficult moral question. Surely America can find less blood-stained hands in which to entrust such arguments. My Wishlist Sign In Join. Be the first to write a review. Share This eBook:. Add to Wishlist. Instant Download. Description eBook Details Click on the cover image above to read some pages of this book! A Gil Vicente Bibliography The development of this tradition is a unique blend between the movements within the various Lutheran church bodies.
Students play a key role in crafting these services. Another significant contributor to the evangelical catholic values of Valparaiso University is the presence of the annual Liturgical Institute on its campus. Like some previously mentioned German religious clerical fraternities, in the United States the Evangelical Catholic Church and in recent years other small, biblically and theologically conservative high church evangelical catholic Lutheran Churches such as the Anglo-Lutheran Catholic Church , the Lutheran Church - International , the Lutheran Orthodox Church , the Association of Independent Evangelical Lutheran Churches , the Evangelical Marian Catholic Church , and the Lutheran Episcopal Communion have succeeded in restoring the historic apostolic succession from Old Catholic churches.
Additionally, some have moved from decentralized, democratic congregationalist polity to highly centralized episcopal polity ; worship using the liturgies of the Roman Catholic Church exclusively; and work actively toward a form of visible, corporate reunion with the Roman Catholic Church. As is the case among Anglicans, however, "high church" movements have proven to be more attractive to the clergy than to the laity. In North America, Lutheran liturgical renewal has also been seen in such organizations as the defunct St. The most fundamental division in evangelical catholic circles is between those who are determined to remain Lutheran and those who are at least willing to consider that their catholicity might one day edge into Roman Catholicism.
On February 21, , it became public that Catholic authorities in Rome have invited the Anglo-Lutheran Catholic Church to join the Catholic Church through the provisions of Anglicanorum Coetibus and that the ALCC has officially and unconditionally accepted that invitation. The Church of Norway is generally pietistic. The Pietism movement in Norway embodied to a great extent by the Haugean movement fostered by Hans Nielsen Hauge has served to reduce the distance between lay and clergy in Norway. The high church movement is more isolated and much smaller than in Sweden.
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In the Church of Denmark the high church movement is marginal. The Church of Iceland and the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland have also had high church groups and interest has been expressed among both clergy and laity , though to a very small extent. Through ecumenism , evangelical catholic ideas have been accepted more widely in academic theology, e.
This school of thought includes also Carl Braaten and Robert Jenson. Roman Catholic view of Luther in research has changed to positive since Joseph Lortz. This however did not happen. The aim of the Evangelical Catholics is to recover the liturgical and confessional heritage of Lutheranism in continuity with the broad tradition that includes Anglicans, Roman Catholics, and the Eastern Orthodox. There is also emphasis on Catholic concept of priesthood and apostolic succession , ecumenism and Mariology. The Catholic concept of priesthood and continuity of the Church sets the movement apart from mainline Lutheranism and the ecumenical openness for some extent distincts the movement from Confessional Lutheranism.
The approach to worship may also significantly vary within Confessional Lutheranism. By theological emphasis the High Church Movement may vary from one country to another. In its beginning the German high church movement was inspired by the 95 theses " Stimuli et Clavi " by pastor Heinrich Hansen According to formerly Roman Catholic Friedrich Heiler , the Lutheran Church is the proper via media between Roman Catholicism and Protestantism because of its emphasis upon doctrine and because it has preserved the Catholic doctrine of the Sacrament and its liturgical traditions in purer form than the Anglican Church in the Book of Common Prayer.
Evangelical Catholic spirituality is characteristically more theocentric and christocentric than that of Pietist, rationalistic, and Liberal Protestant Lutheranism. In addition to the Theology of the Cross there is usually emphasis on Christus Victor , which makes it clear that Easter is more important than Good Friday. Theocentricism makes salvation history and the cycle of the church year important, from point of view of the incarnation. These stresses have created the need to give an evangelical interpretation to the sacrifice of the Mass in order to provide a more theocentric view to Real presence.
Here all of the chief doctrines of Christianity, especially those highlighted by the Reformation, have their focal point. One divide within high church Lutheranism is in the matter of the direction of the liturgy. Some follow the understanding of liturgy as "work of the people" whereas others follow the understanding of the Apology of the Augsburg Confession, Article XXIV which states that the liturgy is not a sacrifice but squares with the public ministry.
A common hallmark of this divergence is the preference of the term " Divine Service " for the liturgy of Holy Communion from Gottesdienst , Gudstjaenst , Jumalanpalvelus among those who see the liturgy as chiefly the service of Christ for the Church. This divergence in liturgical theology is also manifested in debates on the eucharistic prayers , the epiclesis, and the role of the laity in the liturgy.
The praying of the Divine office is also characteristic to high church Lutheran spirituality. Confession as a sacrament is part of Lutheran tradition and is not considered unique to "high church". A small number of evangelical catholic congregations reaffirm Melanchthon's wider use of the word "sacrament" in the Apology and in Loci Communes by considering Holy Matrimony , Unction , Confirmation , and Holy Orders to be Sacraments. Formal liturgy based on the western Catholic Mass with varying degrees of chanting , the use of organ music, crucifixes , silver chalices , hosts and the use of vestments for Holy Communion has always been characteristic of Lutheran worship.
The use of hosts has been an important way to express belief in Real presence. The return of the weekly Mass, sign of the cross , eucharistic prayer and regular use of vestments in all churches are results of the liturgical movement , but things like altar servers , Gospel processions, incense , aspersions, a complete eucharistic prayer i. Also genuflection , together with the elevation of the host and chalice, is often regarded among more Protestant-minded Lutherans as Roman Catholic practices, although Martin Luther himself held these practices  and they were part of early Lutheranism.
In Lutheran churches the use of altar bells during the elevation to draw the attention of the congregation during the Words of Institution was occasionally practiced until the 18th century. Unlike in Anglican Church, use of "fiddleback" chasubles are not seen as an adherence to Roman Catholic practice, because they were traditionally used in Lutheran churches in Germany until the Enlightenment and in Nordic countries until the Liturgical movement. Today they are more rare and are not necessarily favoured by clergy in Nordic countries because of the associations with the former era of liturgical decline.
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Book of Concord. Apostles' Creed Nicene Creed. Apology of the Augsburg Confession. Treatise on the Power and Primacy of the Pope. Theology of Martin Luther. Justification Law and Gospel.