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I would like to thank Nicoletta Bazzano and her suggestions during our discussions about Francisco de Castro and his political career. Their ascent at court and the different stages of their careers in the Italian possessions of the Habsburg Monarchy can show how the sixth Count of Lemos, and after him his sons, the seventh and the eighth Count of Lemos, gave their service and loyalty to the Duke of Lerma in different ways.
El Crisol Lealtad
Through their example, this paper aims to explain the extent to which various levels of fidelity and independence towards the directives of the faction's leader and his closest associates could exist within a faction. The branch of the Castro family who served the Rey Piadoso and his most important favourite was the only to survive after the crisis that the whole Castilian nobility had gone through in the second half of the Middle Ages.
The family inheritance was thus collected by the bastard branch, which was also located in Galicia. The struggles at court and those to defend and enlarge the family heritage led the Castros to play an increasingly leading role in the political events of the Castilian, first, and then the Habsburg monarchy. Some members of the clan, such as the second Count of Lemos, made unwise choices by placing himself, at the beginning of the sixteenth century, on the side of Philip the Fair in the complicated years that followed the death of Isabella of Castile.
The real turning point in the destiny of the family, however, arrived with Pedro de Castro, the fifth Count of Lemos, and the careful marriage policy that he was able to arrange for himself and his heir.
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More in general, on the court of the last years of Philip II, see the studies cited in the footnote 8. John H. Within the Ministerial faction, made up of family members, allied aristocratic families and the different hechuras of Lerma, the Counts of Lemos played a leading role, becoming essential figures in strengthening the power of their patron, and being largely rewarded by the valido for their loyalty and their service.
Lemos replaced then the Count of Olivares, a man linked to the previous group of power under Philip II, at the head of the most important among the Italian possessions of the Monarchy, easy source of profit for the viceroys but also an insidious step in a personal political career, considering the presence of a heavy economic situation and an aristocracy increasingly difficult to control. Since , the sixth Count of Lemos proved his loyalty to Lerma and the merits and prestige of his family and himself. He was also sent as extraordinary ambassador to Rome in order to pay obedience to Pope Clement VIII in the name of Philip III, a mission that gave him great prestige, but did not produce the desired political effects.
Un crisol de la cultura europea en la Edad Moderna, ed. Leaving aside here the youngest of the brothers, to whose descendants is due the confluence of the titles of Lemos in the house of Berwick and Alba in the eighteenth century, here I address the careers of two older brothers, summarising their essential steps and comparing the different contributions that they were able to give to the faction and power of the Duke of Lerma. Widowed, the powerful Countess of Lemos had returned to Madrid, called by his brother to fill the delicate role of camarera mayor of the Queen, a big opponent of the Sandovals, left vacant after the death of the Duchess of Lerma.
In , just 27 years old, Pedro was appointed President of the Council of Indies and then, starting from and for two consecutive three-year terms, took the place that had been of his father as viceroy of Naples. Lemos returned to the court in , at the end of his Neapolitan period, following the advice of his mother and of the Duke of Lerma, whose power was declining in favour of his son, the Duke of Uceda, and the King's confessor Luis de Aliaga.
There, he took up the position of President of the Council of Italy, thanks to which he could take revenge on his opponents in Naples and try to counteract the action of the Duke of Osuna, his successor in Naples linked to the Uceda-Aliaga group. Their shared passions, especially the love for theatre, helped Lemos in gaining the confidence of the Prince and his young wife.
El conde de Lemos Madrid: Imprenta de J. Unlike Pedro, who remained at court near the Duke of Lerma and at the centre of power, Francisco followed his parents to Naples in After the death of his father, he was appointed viceroy interino by the valido, and was in charge of carrying out the mandate of his father until the appointment of a new viceroy. After the arrival of the Count of Benavente in Naples in , Francisco returned only occasionally to the court of Madrid, preferring instead to spend long periods in Italy, at Rome and Gaeta.
The choice of marriage seemed to follow such a predilection for Italy as he married Lucrezia Lignana Gattinara, a descendant of the Grand Chancellor Mercurino, 14 related to some important families of the Italian Peninsula, such as the Colonna, the Acquaviva and the Caracciolo. The cursus honorum of Francisco continued with a number of prestigious positions: extraordinary ambassador to Venice in , immediately after the Interdict launched against the Venetian Republic by Paul V; ordinary ambassador to the Holy See from to ; finally, viceroy of Sicily from — when his brother left Naples to take part in the political struggle at court — to , for a total of two terms.
After the death without heirs of Pedro in the same year, Francisco inherited the title of eighth Count of Lemos, but did not become a leading figure in the court of Philip IV. In fact, even being a member of the Council of State and the Council of War, he was for a long time an impalpable presence at court, upset by his wife's death in , and perhaps unwilling to take a position in the changed factional balances.
Both in fact enjoyed prestigious offices and a great power thanks to their adherence to the lermista faction, to whose leaders they were linked until the end of their careers.
Another point in common was the passion for the arts and letters, and the ability to build around them flourishing intellectual circles which they protected and supported. El mundo en tiempos de Saavedra Fajardo, ed. Pedro enjoyed from an early age the esteem of the valido of Philip III, to the point that some of the contemporary witnesses indicated him, and not the first-born of Lerma, as the true heir in the favour of the sovereign and the head of the family.
Publication Timeline. Most widely held works about Angel de Saavedra Rivas.
Angel de Saavedra
Most widely held works by Angel de Saavedra Rivas. Fedorchek ; introduction by Joyce Tolliver by Angel de Saavedra Rivas Book editions published between and in 6 languages and held by 3, WorldCat member libraries worldwide "Don Alvaro, or The Force of Fate by Angel de Saavedra, Duke of Rivas , premiered in in Madrid and changed the Spanish state forever after. It was the benchmark Romantic play of early nineteenth-century Spain.
The play tells of the torrid love of the mysterious Don Alvaro and the lovely Dona Leonor, and how fate intervenes to bring about the extermination of Leonor's family at the hands of the man who loves her to distraction. In this English edition, Robert Fedorchek presents a readable translation faithful to the tone and spirit of the original.
Joyce Tolliver enhances the book with a rich introduction highlighting the work's lasting significance.
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Obras completas by Angel de Saavedra Rivas Book 39 editions published between and in Spanish and English and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide. Romances by Angel de Saavedra Rivas Book 22 editions published between and in Spanish and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide. Obras completas by Angel de Saavedra Rivas Book 12 editions published between and in Spanish and English and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide.