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He afterwards entered into partnership with Alfonso Fernandez de Cordoba, but from that time printed no more in Roman, but only in Gothic type. The partnership with Fernandez seems to have been an event of no great importance in the life of Palmart ; they printed only one book together, a Bible in Catalan, of which no entire copy is known.

The last leaves only of a copy existed at the end of the last century, but are said to have since disappeared.

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From these the interesting colophon was copied, stating that the book was printed by Palmart and Fernandez at the expense of the Right Honourable Philipp Vizlandt, merchant of Isny in Upper Germany. Probably the Inquisition was active in causing the destruction of all copies throughout the Peninsula.

Another book, a Summula confessionis, claims to have been printed by Fernandez alone. But 6 it seems to have been executed with the same types as the Catalan Lambert Bible and the books subsequently printed by Palmart only. The Fernandez 1 latter continued printing for a long time, but no further mention is dfe Cordoba. There is indeed a family of printers of this name at Valladolid in the sixteenth century, who began printing about , and continued at work through three generations, at least till 1 6 1 2 ; but there is no Alonso among them, and the interval from to is too great, and the name Fernandez de Cordoba too common for us to assume any connection between Alonso and the Diego Fernandez de Cordoba who heads the line of printers of that name at Valladolid.

Very probably also Alonso, like Gabriel Luis de Arinyo and others, was only the promoter of the productions which bear his name, whilst Palmart was the real printer of them. The name of Palmart which perhaps is rather to be spelt Palmaert suggests a Flemish origin, and we are reminded of one Lambert Laurenszoon, who was some time partner with Antonius Mathias, who has been believed to be Mathaeus Flander. He never tells us from what country he came, but he constantly styles himself a German. The total number of his productions is thus raised to fifteen, of which 1 Bergmans, Paul.

Un imprimeur beige du XV' siecle — Antonius Mathias. Bruxelles, In his latter years Palmart Matthew of seems to nave passed into the service of a religious community, Flanders. Press of Matthew of Flanders at Saragossa. The second printing office in Spain was established at Saragossa. The Manipulus curatorum, completed on October 15, , at that place by Matthew of Flanders, is the earliest book executed in Spain with the name of a printer, the productions of Pal- mart previous to being anonymous.

The little we really know about him has given rise to numerous conjectures and hypotheses. His name never occurs again, and it is only by their general appearance and by the coincidence of date and place that three or four other anonymous works, covering the years from to , may be attributed to him. There has been some talk — and it has found its way even into the Index to Hain's Reper- torium by Dr.

Burger 1 — of his being identical with Matthew Vendrell, a citizen of Barcelona, at whose expense two books were printed in and , in Gerona and Barcelona respectively. But there is no ground for this supposition except the disappearance of Matthew of Flanders from Saragossa about the same time that the other Matthew, with a surname that might as well be con- sidered Flemish as Catalan, appears in a locality not far from the home of the former.

That Matthew of Flanders was a printer, and Vendrell as he decidedly declares was only the publisher at whose expense the books were printed, would not be wholly incom- patible facts ; but there are reasons of greater weight against identifying them. Matthew Vendrell tells us that in he was a citizen of Barcelona, and we know that the citizenship of the great centres of commerce, conferring as it did many profitable privileges, was granted to foreigners only after long residence.

But 1 Ludwig Hain's Repertorium bibliographicum.

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Leipzig, Fill P. I therefore believe that Matthew of Flanders and Matthew Vendrell are two different persons, the one of German origin, printer in Saragossa, the other Catalan by birth the double " 1 " at the end of his name is a peculiarity of Catalan spelling , and merchant and citizen of Barcelona. I do not think that he himself printed the books he published, but that they were executed by another Catalan printer, and I will give my reasons for so thinking when describing the work of Peter Posa pp. Another hypothesis is that of M.

Bergmans, 1 who suggests that Matthew of Flanders might be the same person as Anthony Mathias, a native of Antwerp, who, after having introduced, with one " Lambertus quondam Laurentii " of Delft, the art of printing into Genoa in , settled for some time at Mondovi, disappearing from there before , when he seems to have once more passed through Genoa before we finally lose sight of him.

There are no chronological difficulties in M. Bergmans' supposition ; we might even think that Mathias' former partner Lambert if identical with Lambert Palmart invited him to Spain, but real evidence for these suggestions is wholly wanting. I have given p. The names Matthaeus and Mathias are not likely to be interchanged ; on the contrary, the name of Mathias was well known to Spaniards, and I do not understand why a man who always calls himself Mathias, with the addition of his christian name Antonius, should omit the latter and change his surname when he migrated to Saragossa.

The only foundation for these suppositions is the total want of information about Matthew of Flanders, and though I have quoted all the opinions regarding him, I think it prudent not to allow them a weight they scarcely deserve. Conjectured Press of Teodorico Aleman at Murcia. Three new printing offices were founded in Spain in the year , and it is very remarkable how the industrial and com- mercial towns in the east of the Peninsula took the lead and held the supremacy over the west.

Two of these offices were established in the eastern parts, and it is only the commercial metropolis of the south-west, the great emporium of Seville, which began to avail itself of the new invention. We must, however, confess that the existence of one of these offices is not quite certain. Clemencin J was the first to direcl: the attention of students to a privilege of Ferdinand and Isabella, dated from Seville, December 25, , in favour of one Teodorico Aleman, impresor de libros de molde.

Clemencin thought that the royal charter was addressed to the municipality of Murcia, and as the document had been found in the archives of that town, it was believed that Teodorico had exercised or had intended to exercise his art in that place. Not a single book printed by him has been found, neither do we know of any books printed about that time in Murcia without indication of printer's name; but notwith- standing this it has been supposed that Teodorico introduced printing into Murcia, and that the books he printed there have perished.

In recent times the question has assumed a new aspect, which is less favourable to the claims of Murcia. Knapp, of Yale College, New Haven, 2 has printed the privilege alluded to, after a copy taken from the original in the archives of Murcia, and from this it seems that the royal letter was not addressed to Murcia alone, but was directed to all authorities throughout the kingdom. Thus the only argument remaining in favour of Murcia is the facl: of the document having been preserved and discovered in its archives.

Moreover, the instrument not only specifies the printer, Teodorico, 1 Elogio de la reina D. In Memorias de la R. Annates du bibliophile beige. The tenor of the privilege, and the absence of any books Martens. About the personality of Teodorico Aleman a hypothesis has arisen among the Flemings, who suppose him to be the Flemish printer, Theodoricus Martini. He then ceased printing, and is not met with again till , when he begins once more at Alost a career which is one of the most splendid in the typographical annals of Flanders. In the interval he may well have made his way into Spain.

The mercantile relations between Spain and the Netherlands were very active at that time, and young men of the commercial establishments of Bruges, of Antwerp, etc. True, there is no ground for supposing that Thierry Martens took such a journey other than the correspondence of the name Theodoricus and his own temporary disappearance from the Low Countries ; but after all there is as much to be said in favour of the identification as against it. Even if we suppose Thierry Martens to be the Teodorico Aleman the designation Aleman for a native of the Low Countries is quite common, and we shall find some " Alemanni " who have much less claim to be so called the question remains unsolved whether it was at Murcia that he practised, or at some other place.

The favourite port for the intercourse between Spain and the Low Countries was Seville, and perhaps it is by no mere accident that the privilege is dated from that place, especially as the art of printing begins to be exercised there in this same year. Thierry Martens, in the Biographie nationale de Belgique, by P. Mendez, 1 Hazanas, 2 and Escudero 3 were of opinion that the in- Spanish trodudtion of printing into Seville must be referred to , on the Seville 3 " supposition that the edition of the Sacramental of Sanchez de Vercial, which bears neither place nor date, is earlier than the two editions of the book executed in and The assertion is a rash one, for even if the undated Sacramental is anterior to the dated editions, there is no proof that it was executed in Seville ; on the contrary, Salva 4 has at least proved that it is not from the same press as the dated editions, because its typographical characteristics are in many respects different.

He supposes that it was executed by Mayer at Tolosa or by Fadrique at Burgos, because the peculiar form of the double rr is used in it, which was only employed by a small number of German printers. At all events it is proved that this edition was not executed by the Seville printers, so there is nothing to show that they were at work in In they really began printing, but probably not with the Sacra- mental.

True, this, like the Repertorium of Montalvo, executed in the same year by the same printers, has the often-quoted colophon : " Si petis artifices primos quos Ispalis olim vidit et ingenio proprio monstrante peritos tres fuerunt homines Martini Antonius atque de Portu Alfonsus Segura et Bartholomaeus. Sevilla, I have always wondered that in a place like Seville, where there was a considerable colony of foreigners, and amongst them many Germans, the art of printing should have been introduced by Spaniards.

The fadt is, the latter did not print more than six works in ten years, and the art made no considerable advance there until it was exercised by some Germans who for more than fifteen years were the only printers at Seville. We shall presently see that even in the six issues of the Spaniards German influences were not wanting.

But the fadt of the privilege granted to Theodoricus Aleman in at Seville suggests another supposition. Was it he who came to Seville with the intention of establishing a printing office in the town, but sold his printing materials to the Spaniards when they offered him a good price, reserving for himself the trade of bookseller, which is prominently mentioned in the privilege? We know too little about Theodoricus and about the Spanish printers at Seville to be positive in the matter, but it is a very curious and remarkable coincidence.

The three Spaniards printed only three works in partnership ; then Antonio Martinez disappears, the other two issuing one more book in the year , and Alonso del Puerto by himself one more in This last an edition of Diego de Valera's Cronica de Espana, printed by command of Queen Isabella of Castile at the expense of the German Michael Dachauer and the Spaniard Garcia del Castillo, treasurer of the Hermandad in Medina del Campo is a most remarkable work in the history of printing in Seville. The colophon of this book, addressed to Queen Isabella, reads thus: " There are many things, most illustrious princess, which persuade me that if anything may, by talent or studious labour, be communi- cated to our contemporaries, and even to those who are to come after us, by brevity, which is the friend of all sound understanding, we should communicate it, so that our age or time, which seems to somewhat envy our ancestors, may not be deluded.

And this has been done by the Germans, who are very expert and constant inventors in this art of printing, which indeed may be called divine. Of which Germans is one Michael Dachauer, of marvellous talent and learning, most experienced and of copious memory, known to your highness, at the expense of whom and of Garcia del Castillo. German influence must be acknowledged again in the single issue, executed in i, of Antonio Martinez, who was the first to withdraw from the firm of Seville printers.

At the end of this book, a religious tradt, he styles himself " Antonio Martinez de la talla de maestre Pedro. In this case the " de maestre Pedro " might have indicated the father, who would then have been Maestre 1 Second ed. Pedro Martinez, and " de la Talla " perhaps the maiden name Seville, of the mother. But I do not think this is the corredt interpre- Maestre tation. Spaniards did not take the title of " maestre " except in p? So the father of our Antonio could scarcely have been a " maestre " Pedro.

The con- struction of "de la talla" with Martinez would not be impossible in Spanish if the words stood alone, but in connection with " de maestre Pedro " I think they have another meaning. This last interpretation is that which I prefer, and I think the meaning of the sentence is that Antonio Martinez received his training as a printer in the office of one Maestre Pedro, who by his title of " maestre " betrays his German origin. Who among the ancient printers can this Maestre Pedro have been? I once thought that he might have been Pierre Brun, a Savoyard printer, whose wanderings will pre- sently be recorded, because he has sometimes been believed to have executed a work in Seville in I even thought I had got strong evidence in my favour when the Rev.

This book, I supposed, might have been the first edition of the Nobiliario by Pedro Mejia, which Gallardo 2 remembered to have seen, though he was not able to give particulars of it. Yet more, I thought perhaps I had met with a copy of it, when I found in the Catalogue of the Columbian Exhibition 3 in Madrid the mention of a copy of the Nobiliario without either place or date.

But more accurate investigations proved that the sup- position was erroneous. Herr Reichardt could not remember whence he took his note, and as I found during these researches that some other of his most striking statements were pure misunder- 1 Beitraege zur Incunabelnkunde. Centralblatt fur Bibliotbekswesen. Beiheft JCIV. Sala X.

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On again examining the colophon of the edition of , a copy of which is in the Dresden Royal Library, I found it almost impossible that there should ever have existed an edition of ; for this colophon expressly states that after many years of study and labour the author only finished his manuscript in the last months of the year For all these reasons I can no longer venture to say with certainty that Maestre Pedro was Pierre Brun, though it is not quite impossible.

There is one other mention of a Maestre Pedro in the annals of early printing in Spain. Among the fifteenth-century books, the classification of which is almost impossible, because they bear no external marks of their origin, is a considerable number of ancient legal works. Being of a technical, rather than literary character, these rarely passed into the libraries, but are to be found among the documents of the judicial and government archives.

On account of their legal character great care has been taken about the accuracy of the printing, and the correctness of the printed copies is often attested by a manuscript note of the royal notaries. For the same reason nobody was allowed to reprint these laws without a royal privilege ; and these privileges, printed sometimes with the text of the laws, are the only indication we have, of their origin. But as privileges were not always granted to printers only, we must not take for granted that the possessors of them were invariably printers.

A safe judgment in the matter will only be possible when we can compare the founts with which these law-books were printed with those of the known Spanish printers ; a com- parison which, owing to the extreme scarcity of all Spanish incunabula, especially law-books, has never yet been made.

As a matter of fact, there is no trace of any printing press in Madrid before the permanent establishment of the court therein As yet, therefore, we can only register these books amongst those without place, and can only attribute them to the fifteenth century from the internal evidence that they must have been printed for legal purposes immediately after their ratifi- cation.

Some of them, as before said, contain an indication of the printer in the appended privileges ; as, for instance, one, the privilege of which is granted to Fernando de Jaen, though it is evident that he himself was not the printer of it, for he is styled "librero," bookseller, even in the privilege. The same laws were printed again with an analogous privilege in favour of " maestre Pedro, imprimidor de libros de molde.

Press of Brun and Spindeler at Tortosa. This Pierre Brun is one of the early printers to whom I have already alluded, but it was not in Seville that he began his career. In partnership with Nicholas Spindeler he issued a Perottus in the little Aragonese town of Tortosa in 1 , and in the following year both partners are to be met with in Barcelona. Though Pierre Brun, if he was born at Geneva, was a subject of the Duke of Savoy, he is called a German in the colophon of one of the few books he printed in partnership with Nicholas Spindeler.

These are only three in number, the Tortosa Perottus just mentioned, and the Commentaries of Aquinas on the Ethics and Politics of Aristotle, issued at Barcelona, whither the partners removed in There they soon separated. Brun seems not to have left the town, for only a few years later he reappears in company with a new partner, the Catalan priest, Pedro Posa, one of the earliest and most prolific Spanish printers.

Three books were executed by them, and then they too separated, and we lose sight of Pierre Brun. It is not impossible that he remained in Barcelona for some time longer, and continued, though anonymously, in the office of Posa, who in the next year developed an almost 1 Viage liter ario. But as in the following years not only Posa, Brun and but all the printers of Barcelona disappeared, we may suppose that?

We do not know what he may have done That he prints again in partnership with another makes it probable that he was rather poor — a facT: which explains why we hear so little of him. Giovanni Gentile need not necessarily have been a printer himself; members of the Genoese family Gentile repeatedly occur among the Italian merchants trading in Seville ; Brun may have had recourse to him owing to want of funds, and on account of pecuniary help he may have added his name in the colophon of the book.

Gentile is not mentioned again in any early Spanish book either as printer or publisher. Of Brun we only know that he issued in it seems at his own expense another publication, a romance of the Emperor Vespasian. If he is the Maestre Pedro who about printed the laws on petty causes, he may have lived for some years more, but as a printer we do not meet with him again, nor can we tell anything more about him.


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Little more can be said about Brun's first partner, Nicholas Spindeler. If we are not mistaken in the reading of the colophon of , b- e came originally from Zwickau in Saxony. This assump- tion has given rise to an attempt to identify him with one Nicolaus de Saxonia, who printed at Lisbon ; but the attempt is not wholly warranted by fadls.

After separating from Brun, Spindeler remained some time in Barcelona, where he issued three books during the years 2. Of these the Manipulus Curatorum seems to have been printed at his own expense, the others, a Regiment dels Princeps and the Antiguedades of Josephus, were executed for the booksellers Juan Zacoma and Nandeu Mir. They were both edited by a special 10 Nicholas corrector, the schoolmaster Aleix and the friar Lopis respectively.

From down to the end of the fifteenth century he is established in Valencia, but must have returned to Barcelona early in the sixteenth century, for he printed two books there in 1 50 1 and Thus we see that Spindeler was one of those wandering masters of the art who are so typical of the early history of printing, and his career would be still more unsettled if a sup- position of Herr Volger l were accepted. He is of opinion that from Valencia Spindeler might have made an excursion to Lisbon about , because in the latter city a Nicolaus de Saxonia appears as printer, at first in partnership with the well-known Valentin Fernandez de Moravia, and again independently from to Now it cannot be denied that Spindeler, if he was a native of Zwickau in Saxony, may well have called himself Nicolaus de Saxonia ; we have an analogy in the case of Christopher Cofman, who only once gives his surname, calling himself Christophorus de Basilea in the majority of his productions.

But Herr Volger has not paid attention to a note of Mendez, 2 who on second-hand reference indeed quotes an edition of the Letters of Franciscus Aretinus, which Spindeler is said to have printed at Valencia in This quotation is corroborated by Senor Toda, 3 who discovered in the library of the University of Cagliari an edition of the Letters of Phalaris translated by Franciscus Aretinus and printed by Spindeler in A second copy of this extremely rare book has since been found in the University Library of Goettingen, and by the kindness of the director, Herr Dziatzko, I have been enabled to study it at leisure.

We must therefore acknowledge that the Letters of Phalaris were actually printed twice at Valencia in , not only by Lope de la Roca, but again by Nicholas Spindeler ; and as the latter was thus working in Valencia at this time he cannot be identical with Nicolaus de Saxonia, who printed in Lisbon from to H Pierre Brun and fourteen independently ; of these two bear no date, but they were probably executed before 1 , as the only known copies are bound up with other fifteenth-century publications. Two others were printed in the sixteenth century.

He was a priest, and styles himself varon venerable, and presbyterus or prevere Catala. He is not the only instance of a clerical printer in Spain. Of Pedro Posa and his work we know but little. In the first year after his separation from Brun he develops a rather astonishing activity, issuing in six works. They are all excessively rare, so rare that even the existence of some of them has been doubted. For this reason they have not yet been fully described, though they are quoted by good authorities.

After Posa disappears for a con- siderable time. It is curious that there exists only one book printed at Barcelona between the end of and , and the printer of this is not named, though he is said to have been employed by Matthew Vendrell. There were neither epidemics nor great political revolutions at Barcelona during that period to account for this sudden cessation of printing, which is all the more remarkable as both before and after it there were several presses in operation in that city.

It was Pedro Posa who printed the last book before this interruption, and he is the 1 Though I do not think that Nicolaus de Saxonia of Lisbon is identical with Nicholas Spindeler, yet for the sake of comparison I will here mention the works printed by him. His first production is the Vita Christi by Ludolfus de Saxonia, a bulky work consisting of four volumes in folio, executed between August 14, , and May 14 of the next year, in conjunction with Valentin Fernandez de Moravia.

We cannot precisely say whether Nicholas alone executed two or three other books. Hain mentions two editions of a Missale Bracarense issued by him, but as they have not yet been described accurately, and both bear the date of June 20, though of different years, there may be a mistake in Hain's statement. What became of him afterwards we are not able to say. I think therefore he was most likely the printer of the book executed in at Barcelona at the expense of Matthew Vendrell. Was he the printer of the book executed for Vendrell in at Gerona?

We might believe so, if we ascribe to him the Barcelona book. But it is not without some doubt. Though in Gerona there was no printing office throughout the sixteenth century, there were three books printed there from to by three different persons. These printers are not met with again, so that we cannot conjecture anything about them ; but the fact of their existence in the locality makes us doubt whether we should attribute the Vendrell book to Posa, or not.

The second period of Posa's activity covers the years to , or, if we pass over an interval during and , down to the year During this period he is said to have published thirteen books, all of them scarcely less rare than those of And even this is not the end of his work ; besides some undated publications, which must be attributed to the last years of his printing, there are two more, finished respectively July 3 and September 28, 15 These indeed are the last vestiges of Pedro Posa that until now have been found; but there may be others not yet discovered, for Mendez 1 quotes a book printed by Posa in , which neither Herr Volger nor I have been able to meet with.

The latest productions of Posa, including two of the undated, have the peculiarity of bearing a printer's mark : a pelican feeding her young with the blood from her own breast. This mark has given rise to much dispute, and I must confess that I am not able to explain all the circumstances connected with it.

It first occurs in a book where the name of Posa is not mentioned, viz. For this reason the mark has been attributed by some scholars to Michael, by others to Gumiel. I do not venture upon any conclusion as to the early owners of the mark; the several interruptions in the printing career of Posa suggest by themselves some connection with other offices to fill up the time of his inactivity, but at present we know too little about the matter to hazard an opinion which might be contradicted by a new discovery.

I cannot do more than state the fact that the mark which later on is undoubtedly that of Posa, is to be found some years earlier in a book which seems wholly unconnected with his office. Pedro Posa is one of the most productive native typographers of the Peninsula. He printed nine books including those executed with Pierre Brun during his first period of activity, thirteen others during the second, and probably five books later on in the sixteenth century.

If we further credit him with the books issued by Matthew Vendrell, the number mounts up to twenty-eight, of which twenty-one belong to the age of incunabula.

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Posa thus holds the first place among native Spanish printers of the fifteenth century, and his total work is only exceeded by Brocar, who, how- ever, if we reckon incunabula only, must be ranked below him. V- H Press of H. Botel at Lerida. No new printing office was established in , but in we meet with another German printer in the Catalonian town of Lerida.

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Like Nicholas Spindeler, Heinrich Botel was a native of Saxony, and he is conspicuous by his passion for adorning himself with flattering epithets. As he styles himself venerable maestre, we 1 Cf. Gallardo, No. He is also called vir eruditus and dominus ; it seems, therefore, that he was no common person. His name does not appear in all of the Lerida books printed during his life- time, but as he is the only printer of that town, and as it is not until that another printing office was established in the locality, I have not hesitated to attribute to him all the books printed there during the fifteenth century.

The last of these is dated , but we do not know if Botel died or if he only ceased printing then. My list of books printed by Botel numbers eleven titles ; one more is vaguely hinted at by Herr Reichardt, 1 but without proof. Presses at Salamanca. By 1 48 1 a printing press had been established at Salamanca, the first book printed there — an edition of the Introduttiones latinae of Nebrissensis — being dated January 16th. It bears no printer's name, this being also the case with most of the forty-eight books issued at Salamanca up to In three books only are the printers' names given ; two of these are executed by Leonhard Hutz in conjunction with Lupus Sanz, the third bears the name of Juan de Porras, but none of these can have executed the earliest books printed at Salamanca.

Porras will be spoken of with the printers of the year , but I must say a few words about the two former. With Leonhard Hutz we shall meet again at Valencia, where he practised in with Peter Hagenbach, from whom he must have soon separated, for his Salamanca productions bear the date of Spaniards have repeatedly called him Butz, con- founding the letters B and H, which in ancient Gothic characters often present a great similarity, and there are other names where B, G, and H are interchanged.

That his real name was Hutz is proved by the mark he used in his latest productions, issued, like his first attempts in the art of printing, at Valencia. He, too, is one 1 L. Lerida, At all these places he appears in company with others, with Hagenbach at Valencia, with Sanz in Salamanca, with Coci and Appentegger at Saragossa. Indeed there is no more foundation for the supposition than the Christian names of the partners, Wolf being much the same as Lope or Lupus. But whilst Wolf Appentegger assures us that he is a Swiss, as we might have concluded from the form of his name even with- out this information, Lupus Sanz was a native of Navarra, as he expressly states, and, moreover, a clergyman frater , which does not seem to have been the case with Appentegger.

For these reasons I think it is evident that the two " Lupus " are two different persons. Although a larger number of the anonymous Salamanca books in Gothic character, issued about , may have been executed by Hutz and Sanz, no proof of this has hitherto been found, and I prefer to attribute to them only the two books bearing their names, leaving to a future comparison the decision which of the anonymous issues may be theirs.

Among the anonymous Salamanca books there is one group which can be separated from the rest, being printed in Roman characters, whilst all the others are in the more usual Gothic type. At least seven books belong to this group, the first being dated July 15th, 1 49 1. There exist other works printed at Salamanca in Roman type, with dates subsequent to 1 , but none of them have any printer's name. The only thing we can venture to assert positively about the introduction of printing into Salamanca is that it was due to Aelius Antonius Nebrissensis, the famous orator, grammarian, and historio- grapher.

It is possible that he may have been acquainted with the 1 L. It must be confessed that some time elapsed before the art found its way to Salamanca, but that it was Antonio who brought it cannot be doubted, for the first two books published there were two editions of his IntroduSiiones latinae.

In the production of these and many other works, both by himself and by other writers, he manifested the greatest interest, and I believe he either superintended the press or had it in his own house. There is a certain religious tract entitled Ensenamiento del Corazon, printed at Salamanca July 30th, , which has a very curious and unique printer's mark. It has never been reproduced in entirety, but part of it was repeated in a remarkable manner by Sancho de Lebrixa, the son of Aelius Antonius, when he established a press in his house at Granada, with the object of securing to himself the whole profit of the privileges profusely conceded to the descendants of Aelius Antonius, in consideration of the latter's great merits.

The portion of the mark which I allude to is an objed: in form of the letter Y, which in the above-mentioned work, dated , was thought by Gallardo, 1 when he first described the book, to be the initial or mark of the printer. I do not think it to be an initial or a letter at all, but rather a printer's instrument of common use in those days, as can be seen in a mark of the Ascen- sian Office at Paris, 2 representing a printer's shop. This shows to the right of the press itself two instruments, viz.

Now I have found that the works executed with the utmost accuracy and splendour from to , and bearing the words apud inclytam Granatam, are due to Sancho or Xanthus, as he translates it Nebrissensis, who gives the reasons for his practising as a printer in the preface to the first 1 L.

The mark is to be found, e. Paris , , fol. The same instrument in the form of the letter is used as printer's mark by Stephanus Valerius in Panderanus, Pet. Prochiron s. Lovanii, In this and in other works claim copy- issued by the same press the same Y device — in a more letter-like spainl" shape indeed — always appears in the ornamentation of the title, and also occupies the centre of the printer's mark with the motto, ArSla est via quae duett ad vitam, which motto is sometimes repeated in the title decoration.

If this Y, which appears in and in the Granada books, is really the mark of the Nebrissenses, it is extremely probable that it has a similar signification in both, and that the Salamanca tracl: must have been in some way connected with that family. There is another interesting point in the history of the works of Antonius Nebrissensis.

I am convinced that he was one of the first authors who made use of copyright in Spain. After 1 5 1 o it is very common for Spanish printed books to bear the words Cum privilegio, with the frequent addition of ne quis alius excudat, etc. Printing privileges seem to have been granted many years pre- viously, the first book where I have found one mentioned being the Cura de la piedra, printed by Peter Hagenbach at Toledo, April 4th, Perhaps in this case it was Melchior de Gurrizo, at whose expense the book was issued, who first in Spain took advantage of an institution he had known in his native land ; for it was in Italy, especially in Venice, that printing privileges were first of all granted.

In later times it was very common for the promoters of printed books to be in possession of privileges, and in Cuenca we even meet with a silversmith, platero, Antonio de Alfaro, who seems to have made a business of the acquisition of printing privileges. But the first author who took advantage of such privilege seems to have been Antonius Nebrissensis, all the early editions of whose works were issued cum privilegio.

An exclusive printed edition only available for backers during the active period of this campaign. Order it here. A free promotional ebook to promote tourism in Nepal. Specially designed for tablets and laptops. Download it here. The earthquake and subsequent aftershocks of April were a tragic episode in the history of Nepal. But the idea of Apocalypse that mass media have shown us is not as real as it seems. They gave full coverage to the tragedy and that helped the whole world begin a major aid campaign. But they forgot they were also destroying one of the most important parts of the Nepalese economy: tourism.

And the fact is that Nepal remains an exotic, magical and wonderful destination. Even after the quake. It is estimated that the money every tourist spend maintain 10 or 11 Nepalese" Lonely Planet. If the project is successful I will travel to Nepal for 6 weeks to do the inspiration part : illustrations, sketches, explore the Nepali culture, etc On the way back I will start the working part : finish the illustrations, texts and prepare your rewards.

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In 'Ra Yeah, but is it art?

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