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Vor allem Kinder und Jugendliche folgten dem Kreuz. Diese Entwurfszeichnungen lassen die Tableaus bereits auf dem Papier lebendig werden. Wie ein surrealer Moment wirkt diese Aufnahme und doch dokumentiert sie einen ganzen Spielfilm. Was glauben Sie, welche Aufnahme die Betrachter im Investmentbereich am meisten interessierte? Der gelbe Ferrari war verschwunden. Seit ihrem ersten gemeinsamen Projekt, , arbeiten sie im Team.

Halt findet Caur im Bild an einem Baum. Und doch scheint alles im Fluss — alles in Bewegung. Dabei bleibt die ironische Distanz gewahrt. Bereits Mitte der achtziger Jahre begann Rosemarie Trockel, mit ihren subversiven Strickbildern den Kunstbetrieb zu verunsichern. Ist es wirklich ein Lippenstift? Am Mit Grund- und Aufrissen liefert Christo eine exakte Topografie. Der Boden bebt, ein Vulkan spuckt, die Welt ist aus den Fugen.

Die Wahrnehmung aus ihrer Alltagsroutine zu locken ist bis heute das Ziel Artschwagers. Bis heute ist er sozial engagiert und auch politisch aktiv. Viele seiner Arbeiten erinnern an Beuys. Der Sohn eines altkatholischen Pfarrers nutzte die expressive, christliche Symbolik, um, wie in den achtziger Jahren wieder aktuell, Kulthaftes darzustellen. Und da fiel mir die Mauer, Starre vom Inhaltlichen her ein und dazu eine bewegte Figur. Und dann kommen einem so Assoziationen. Gemeinsam ist allen versammelten Figuren ihr Bezug zur Ideologie des Dritten Reichs: Sie wurden von der nationalsozialistischen Propaganda vereinnahmt, missbraucht oder aber dienten ihr bewusst.

Der Hermann-Mythos erweist sich hier als prototypisches Beispiel der Dienstbarmachung eines nationalen Mythos zur Legitimation politischer Herrschaft. Versetzen Sie sich in einen Walkabout. Sein Inhalt ist sakral und geheim und nur Initiierten und Wissenden bekannt.

Australien-Roman

Sie verzeichnen Ereignisse aus Vergangenheit und Gegenwart. Ein und derselbe konzentrische Kreis kann eine Quelle, ein Felsloch, oder ein Lager, aber auch Spirituelles bedeuten. Hinter dieser Metapher steckte aber auch die Anspielung auf ausschweifende Lebenslust und figurative Bildzeichen. Nebenbei schrieb er Theater- und Kunstkritiken. Die Sterne bewegten die Menschheit wie selten zuvor. Weder das eine noch das andere ist fabrizierbar.

In der entstandenen Grafik-Mappe fasste Palermo dieses Formenvokabular zusammen und setzte es in Beziehung. Figurativ oder abstrakt? Ich glaube nicht, dass man durch besseres Hinsehen noch bessere Bilder malen kann, als die, die es schon gibt. Experimente sollten das Leben in allen Bereichen — von der Politik bis hinein in die Keimzelle der Gesellschaft: die Familie — auf den Kopf stellen. Uwe Lausen — ein Genie, das am Leben zerbricht. Roehr war seit seiner Ausbildung zum Leuchtreklame- und Schilderhersteller mit der visuellen Sprache der Werbung vertraut.

Auch Ton-und Filmmontagen entstanden in der Folgezeit, doch blieb Roehr unter seinen Zeitgenossen weithin verkannt. Raffiniert manipulierte der Dresdner fotografische Vorlagen aus Zeitschriften, Werbung und eigene Amateuraufnahmen. Wer haftet? Dort hatte der Textilfabrikant F. Erst 34 Jahre alt, starb sie an einem Gehirntumor. Wie es dazu kam? Mir schwebte vor, einen wirklichen Raum zu machen, in dem man sich bewegen und existieren kann.

Der Markt steigt. Die Aktien fallen. Mit neugierigem Blick beobachtete er die Konsumgesellschaft im westlichen Nachkriegsdeutschland. Gemeinsam begannen die Bechers mit der Dokumentation der Ende des Ein Bild mit Geschichte. Immer wieder male ich mein Bild. Das ist meine Aufgabe und meine Freude. It argues that radical shifts in political thought were concealed by apparent continuities in forms of government.

Even though the new Cromwellian upper chamber had the familiar appearance of a House of Lords, the very meaning of the House of Lords was contested and transformed by the experience of the Civil Wars and their aftermath. Provides a full, detailed picture of the life of an aristocratic family in early modern England. The Temples of Stowe were a leading Midland landed family, owning land in, and with strong connections to, Buckinghamshire, Leicestershire, Northamptonshire, Oxfordshire and Warwickshire.

In the seventeenth century they were one of the wealthiest and most prominent local families, building in the eighteenth century a large and beautiful country house, now Stowe School. The family also left voluminous records, housed mainly in the Huntington and the Folger Shakespeare libraries. Based on very extensive research in these records, this book provides a detailed picture of the family life of the early Temples.

It examines household, financial and estate management, discusses social networking and the promotion of family interests, and considers the legal disputes the family were engaged in. It focuses in particular on the happy and effective marriage of Sir Thomas and Lady Hester Temple, exploring their relationship with each other, with their children, and with their siblings.

Lady Hester, who outlived her husband by twenty years, is a good example of a formidable matriarch, who took a strong lead in managing the family and its resources. Overall, the book provides a full and detailed picture of the family life of an aristocratic family in early modern England. London's Waterfront excavations in Thames Street, London, presents and celebrates the mile-long Thames Street in the City of London and the land south of it to the River Thames as an archaeological asset.

Here the findings of the period are presented. Buildings and property development on sixteen properties south of Thames Street, on land reclaimed in many stages since the opening of the 12th century, include part of the parish church of St Botolph Billingsgate. The many units of land reclamation are dated by dendrochronology, coins and documents. They have produced thousands of artefacts and several hundred kilos of native and foreign pottery. Much of this artefactual material has been published, but in catalogue form shoes, knives, horse fittings, dress accessories, textiles, household equipment.

Now the context of these finds, their deposition in groups, is laid out for the first time. Highlights of the publication include the first academic analysis and assessment of a 13th- or 14th-century trumpet from Billingsgate, the earliest surviving straight trumpet in Europe; many pilgrim souvenirs; analysis of two drains of the 17th century from which suggestions can be made about use of rooms and spaces within documented buildings; and the proposal that one of the skeletons excavated from St Botolph's church is John Reynewell, mayor of London in and a notable figure in London's medieval history.

The whole publication encourages students and other researchers of all kinds to conduct further research on any aspect of the sites and their very rich artefactual material, which is held at the Museum of London's Archaeological Archive. This is a significantly large and varied dataset for the archaeology and history of London in the period to which can be continuously interrogated for generations to come.

This edited collection explores how knowledge was preserved and reinvented in the Middle Ages. Rather than focusing on a historical period or specific cultural and historical events, it eschews traditional categories of periodisation and discipline, establishing connections and cross-sections between different departments of knowledge. The essays cover the period from the eighth to the fifteenth centuries, examining the history of science computus, prognostication , the history of art, literature, theology homilies, prayers, hagiography, contemplative texts , music, historiography and geography.

Aspects of knowledge is aimed at an academic readership, including advanced undergraduate and postgraduate students, as well as specialists in medieval literature, history of science, history of knowledge, geography, theology, music, philosophy, intellectual history, history of language and material culture. Catholics and Protestants have disputed the validity and legitimacy of papal plenary indulgences for years without a unitary corpus of the relevant texts documenting the indulgence campaigns which so exercised Luther and his contemporaries.

This volume prints for the first time in a modern edition the full text of all available papal bulls and brevia between and which granted plenary indulgences i. The Regnum Teutonicum provides the geographical framework, since it includes all the areas where the Reformation initially broke out. Claudia Theune: A Shadow of War: Archaeological approaches to uncovering the darker sides of conflict from the 20th century Ny sider, Sidestone Press.

This book presents archaeological research from places of war, violence, protest and oppression of the 20th and the 21st century sites where the material relics give a deep insight to fateful events — a shadow of war. The contributors analyse representations of children and their education in Old English, Old Norse and Anglo-Latin writings, including hagiography, heroic poetry, riddles, legal documents, philosophical prose and elegies. Within and across these linguistic and generic boundaries some key themes emerge: the habits and expectations of name-giving, expressions of childhood nostalgia, the role of uneducated parents, and the religious zeal and rebelliousness of youth.

In this robust new account of the Vikings, Tom Shippey explores their mindset, and in particular their fascination with scenes of heroic death. Laughing Shall I Die considers Viking psychology by weighing the evidence of the sagas against the accounts of the Vikings' victims. The book recounts many of the great bravura scenes of Old Norse literature, including the Fall of the House of the Skjoldungs, the clash between the two great longships Ironbeard and Long Serpent, and the death of Thormod the skald.

The most exciting book on Vikings for a generation, Laughing Shall I Die presents them for what they were: not peaceful explorers and traders, but bloodthirsty warriors and marauders. Why did the Vikings sail to England? Were they indiscriminate raiders, motivated solely by bloodlust and plunder? One narrative, the stereotypical one, might have it so. But locked away in the buried history of the British Isles are other, far richer and more nuanced, stories; and these hidden tales paint a picture very different from the ferocious pillagers of popular repute.

Eleanor Parker here unlocks secrets that point to more complex motivations within the marauding army that in the late ninth century voyaged to the shores of eastern England in its sleek, dragon-prowed longships. Exploring legends from forgotten medieval texts, and across the varied Anglo-Saxon regions, she depicts Vikings who came not just to raid but also to settle personal feuds, intervene in English politics and find a place to call home. Each myth shows how the legacy of the newcomers can still be traced in landscape, place-names and local history.

This book uncovers the remarkable degree to which England is Viking to its core. Mapping out emerging areas for global cultural heritage, this book provides an anthropological perspective on the growing field of heritage studies. Taken together, these areas characterize transnational heritage activity and represent channels for working around, negotiating, and pushing back against the traditional authority of nation-states and intergovernmental treaty—based organizations such as UNESCO.

In the context of commodification, material culture has particular properties hitherto considered irrelevant or neglected. First, the market is a spatial structure, assigning special properties to the things offered: the goods and commodities. Secondly, the market defines a principle of dealing with things, including them in some contexts, excluding them from others. The contributions to Market as Place and Space address a variety of aspects of markets within the framework of archaeological and anthropological case studies and with a special focus on the indicators of practices attached to the commodities and their valuation.

Karen A. The first book devoted to medieval life-writing. A rich and varied exploration of the Anglo-Latin lives of missionaries, prelates, princes; the high medieval lives of scholars and visionaries; and the late medieval lives of authors and laypeople. Pays attention to the often undervalued importance of women as authors and subjects of life-writing.

Balances the study of canonical writings with lesser known works. Easily accessible to non-specialists with quotes in modern English. Samuel K. Cohn, Jr. A study of the history of epidemics, stretching from the 5th century BCE to the Ebola crisis. Challenges the dominant hypothesis that epidemics invariably provoke hatred, blaming of the 'other', and victimizing bearers of epidemic diseases.

Offers a new view of the Black Death and how short-lived were its effects of hate, violence, and division. Philipp E. The Gregorian calendar reform of , which provided the basis for the civil and Western ecclesiastical calendars still in use today, has often been seen as a triumph of early modern scientific culture or an expression of papal ambition in the wake of the Counter-Reformation. Much less attention has been paid to reform's intellectual roots in the European Middle Ages, when the reckoning of time by means of calendrical cycles was a topic of central importance to learned culture, as impressively documented by the survival of relevant texts and tables in thousands of manuscripts copied before For centuries prior to the Gregorian reform, astronomers, mathematicians, theologians, and even Church councils had been debating the necessity of improving or emending the existing ecclesiastical calendar, which throughout the Middle Ages kept losing touch with the astronomical phenomena at an alarming pace.

Scandalous Error is the first comprehensive study of the medieval literature devoted to the calendar problem and its cultural and scientific contexts. It examines how the importance of ordering liturgical time by means of a calendar that comprised both solar and lunar components posed a technical-astronomical problem to medieval society and details the often sophisticated ways in which computists and churchmen reacted to this challenge.

By drawing attention to the numerous connecting paths that existed between calendars and mathematical astronomy between the Fall of Rome and the end of the fifteenth century, the volume offers substantial new insights on the place of exact science in medieval culture. Robin Netherton, Gale R. The best new research on medieval clothing and textiles, drawing from a range of disciplines. The essays here continue in the Journal's tradition of drawing on a range of disciplines. A new view of Sweden's relations with the world beyond its borders, from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century.

Sweden's connections to and relationships with the European and wider world is a field of study attracting considerable scholarly attention. The essays here, from archaeologists and historians, offer a new perspective on early modern Sweden as deeply affected by the increasing internationality of the 16thth centuries. Set in the socio-political context of an expanding and changing kingdom, they deal with the character and impact of a wide range of cultural encounters - at home, in the colonies and during overseas travel.

They consider how new fashions, commodities and ideologies were perceived and appropriated, and they discuss how these encounters shaped the discourses of the familiar and the foreign - from curiosity, acceptance and appreciation, to prejudice, rejection and conflict.

Philosophy social aspects

In taking a broad and interdisciplinary approach, and by departing from traditional themes of political history, the volume as a whole offers a different view of the kingdom, its people, and its involvement with the outside world. Sheds light on the skills and techniques of the medieval military engineer, over a thousand year sweep.

The results of medieval engineering still surround us - cathedrals, castles, stone bridges, irrigation systems. However, the siege artillery, siege towers, temporary bridges, earthwork emplacements and underground mines used for war have left little trace behind them; and there is even less of the engineers themselves: the people behind the military engineering achievements.

The evidence for this neglected group is studied here. The author begins by considering the evolution of military technology across centuries, and the impact of new technologies in the context of the economic and social developments which made them possible. He looks at how military engineers obtained their skills, and the possible link with scholastic scientific awareness. With the increased survival of government records from the middle ages, engineers acquire names and individuals can be identified. And the fifteenth century - the age of polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci - saw a new type of literate military engineer, part of a recognized profession, but with its roots in a thousand years of historical development.

Det er en overset sandhed, at kvinder altid har arbejdet. Ofte er kvinders arbejde i husholdningen ikke blevet anerkendt. Andrew C. But this is nothing new. Since the dawn of life on land, large-scale fires have played their part in shaping life on Earth. Scott tells the whole story of fire's impact on our planet's atmosphere, climate, vegetation, ecology, and the evolution of plant and animal life.

It has caused mass extinctions, and it has propelled the spread of flowering plants. The exciting evidence we can now draw on has been preserved in fossilized charcoal, found in rocks hundreds of millions of years old, from all over the world. These reveal incredibly fine details of prehistoric plants, and tell us about climates from deep in earth's history. They also give us insight into how early hominids and humans tamed fire and used it. Looking at the impact of wildfires in our own time, Scott also looks forward to how we might better manage them in future, as climate change has an increasing effect on our world.

Nathan J. Critiques and reformulates the scholarly paradigm of Christianization. Offers a reassessment of the spread of Christianity in Western Europe. Examines the prominent Christian feast-Rogationtide—in order to argue that the modern religious borders between Christianity, Judaism, and paganism did not exist in the early Middle ages. This book presents an archaeozoological analysis of the Early Medieval fortified settlement Sand, in Lower Austria. The work describes the exceptional socio-economic organisation of a settlement based on its animal remains, at the border between Slavic and German spheres of influence.

The investigation sheds light on aspects of daily life, the interaction between consumers and providers, and the exploitation of faunal resources. The first part of the book is dedicated to the environmental setting, the site, the material, and the methods applied. The main part presents a species by species analysis of the numerous faunal remains. The final part of the book discusses the archaeozoological results within the archaeological record, as well as the historical sources.

The archaeozoological results show that the study of the faunal remains has played a decisive role in the archaeological interpretation of the site and substantially improved our understanding of historical processes and social dynamics. What buried secret lies beneath the stones of one of England's greatest former churches and shrines? This Suffolk market town is now a quiet place, out of the way, eclipsed by its more famous neighbour Cambridge.

But present obscurity may conceal a find as significant as the emergence from beneath a Leicester car-park of the remains of Richard III. After the king was slain by marauding Vikings in the ninth century, the legend which grew up around his murder led to the foundation in Bury of one of the pre-eminent shrines of Christendom. In showing how Edmund became the pivotal figure around whom Saxons, Danes and Normans all rallied, the author points to the imminent rediscovery of the ruler who created England.

Annotations in modern books are a phenomenon that often causes disapproval: we are not supposed to draw, doodle, underline, or highlight in our books. In many medieval manuscripts, however, the pages are filled with annotations around the text and in-between the lines. Just as footnotes are an approved and standard part of the modern academic book, so the flyleaves, margins, and interlinear spaces of many medieval manuscripts are an invitation to add extra text.

This volume focuses on annotation in the early medieval period. In treating manuscripts as mirrors of the medieval minds who created them — reflecting their interests, their choices, their practices — the essays explore a number of key topics. Are there certain genres in which the making of annotations seems to be more appropriate or common than in others? Are there certain monastic centres in which annotating practices flourish, and from which they spread?

The volume investigates whether early medieval annotators used specific techniques, perhaps identifiable with their scribal communities or schools. It explores what annotators actually sought to accomplish with their annotations, and how the techniques of annotating developed over time and per region. In the middle ages and the early modern period open fields could be found in many if not most countries of Europe. They took a wide variety of forms, but can in essence be defined as areas of cultivated land in which the intermingled plots of different cultivators, without upstanding physical boundaries, were subject to some degree of communal management, in terms of cropping and grazing.

Sometimes such fields occupied a high proportion of the land in a district, but often they formed a relatively minor element in landscapes which also contained enclosed fields, woodland or expanses of pasture. In some areas, open-field agriculture had already been abandoned before the end of the middle ages, but in others it continued to flourish into the nineteenth or even twentieth centuries. Although open fields have long been studied, by geographers, historians and archaeologists, much about their origins, development and rationale remains contentious.

Why, across wide areas of Europe, did such fields sometimes become central to the experience of so many of our ancestors, shaping not only farming practices but also the basic structures of their everyday lives? And why, in contrast, did they fail to develop, or have a less significant role, elsewhere? Over recent decades open fields have been investigated in new, interdisciplinary ways, and as a Europe-wide phenomenon.

In this book, more than ever before, their development and operation are explained in terms of economic, social, agrarian and environmental developments which were shared, to varying degrees, by all parts of the Continent. It contains ten new studies from a wide range of regions, together with important comparative research from south America and Japan. This collection of essays represents a milestone in the study of open-field agriculture, and is a major contribution to the study of the rationale of field systems more generally.

This first modern study of Henry the Young King, eldest son of Henry II but the least known Plantagenet monarch, explores the brief but eventful life of the only English ruler after the Norman Conquest to be created co-ruler in his father's lifetime. Crowned at fifteen to secure an undisputed succession, Henry played a central role in the politics of Henry II's great empire and was hailed as the embodiment of chivalry. Yet, consistently denied direct rule, the Young King was provoked first into heading a major rebellion against his father, then to waging a bitter war against his brother Richard for control of Aquitaine, dying before reaching the age of thirty having never assumed actual power.

In this remarkable history, Matthew Strickland provides a richly colored portrait of an all-but-forgotten royal figure tutored by Thomas Becket, trained in arms by the great knight William Marshal, and incited to rebellion by his mother Eleanor of Aquitaine, while using his career to explore the nature of kingship, succession, dynastic politics, and rebellion in twelfth-century England and France. Irish inhabitants of the 'four obedient shires' - a term commonly used to describe the region at the heart of the English colony in the later Middle Ages - were significantly anglicised, taking on English names, dress, and even legal status.

However, the processes of cultural exchange went both ways. This study examines the nature of interactions between English and Irish neighbours in the four shires, taking into account the complex tensions between assimilation and the preservation of distinct ethnic identities and exploring how the common colonial rhetoric of the Irish as an 'enemy' coexisted with the daily reality of alliance, intermarriage, and accommodation.

Placing Ireland in a broad context, Sparky Booker addresses the strategies the colonial community used to deal with the difficulties posed by extensive assimilation, and the lasting changes this made to understandings of what it meant to be 'English' or 'Irish' in the face of such challenges. When political theorists teach the history of political philosophy, they typically skip from the ancient Greeks and Cicero to Augustine in the fifth century and Thomas Aquinas in the thirteenth, and then on to the origins of modernity with Machiavelli and beyond.

Paul Stern aims to change this settled narrative and makes a powerful case for treating Dante Alighieri, arguably the greatest poet of medieval Christendom, as a political philosopher of the first rank. In Dante's Philosophical Life, Stern argues that Purgatorio's depiction of the ascent to Earthly Paradise, that is, the summit of Mount Purgatory, was intended to give instruction on how to live the philosophic life, understood in its classical form as "love of wisdom.

But before the search can be undertaken, the soul needs to consider from where it begins: its nature and its good. In Stern's interpretation of Purgatorio, Dante's intense concern for political life follows from this need, for it is law that supplies the notions of good that shape the soul's understanding and it is law, especially its limits, that provides the most evident display of the soul's enduring hopes.

According to Stern, Dante places inquiry regarding human nature and its good at the heart of philosophic investigation, thereby rehabilitating the highest form of reasoned judgment or prudence. Philosophy thus understood is neither a body of doctrines easily situated in a Christian framework nor a set of intellectual tools best used for predetermined theological ends, but a way of life. Stern's claim that Dante was arguing for prudence against dogmatisms of every kind addresses a question of contemporary concern: whether reason can guide a life. In Animal Rationality: Later Medieval Theories , Anselm Oelze offers the first comprehensive and systematic exploration of theories of animal rationality in the later Middle Ages.

Traditionally, it was held that medieval thinkers ascribed rationality to humans while denying it to nonhuman animals. As Oelze shows, this narrative fails to capture the depth and diversity of the medieval debate. Although many thinkers, from Albert the Great to John Buridan, did indeed hold that nonhuman animals lack rational faculties, some granted them the ability to engage in certain rational processes such as judging, reasoning, or employing prudence.

There is thus a whole spectrum of positions to be discovered, many of which show interesting parallels with contemporary theories of animal rationality. In this volume, the authors bring fresh approaches to the subject of royal and noble households in medieval and early modern Europe. The essays focus on the people of the highest social rank: the nuclear and extended royal family, their household attendants, noblemen and noblewomen as courtiers, and physicians.

Themes include financial and administrative management, itinerant households, the household of an imprisoned noblewoman, blended households, and cultural influence. The essays are grounded in sources such as records of court ceremonial, economic records, letters, legal records, wills, and inventories. The authors employ a variety of methods, including prosopography, economic history, visual analysis, network analysis, and gift exchange, and the collection is engaged with current political, sociological, anthropological, gender, and feminist theories.

Donna L. In Touching the Passion — Seeing Late Medieval Altarpieces through the Eyes of Faith, Donna Sadler explores the manner in which worshipers responded to the carved and polychromed retables adorning the altars of their parish churches. As in the Imitatio Christi, the worshiper imaginatively projected himself into the story like a child before a dollhouse. The five senses, the sculptural medium, the small scale, and the rhetoric of memory foster this immersion. This volume explores the diverse manifestations and uses of pleasure in medieval culture.

Pleasure is a sensation, an affirmation, a practice, and is at the core of the medieval worldview, no less than pain. Applying a variety of methodological perspectives, the essays collected here analyse the role of pleasure in relation to a variety of subjects such as the human body, love, relationships, education, food, friendship, morality, devotion, and mysticism.

They also integrate a wide range of sources including literature monastic to courtly , medical texts, illuminated prayer books, iconography, and theatrical plays. This collection shows how pleasure in the Middle Ages is at once a coveted feeling and a constant moral concern, both the object and the outcome of a constant negotiation between earthly and divine imperatives. Jeffrey L. Completed in , Johannes Leckuchner's Art of Combat with the "Langes Messer" Messerfechtkunst is among the most important documents on the combat arts of the Middle Ages.

The Messer was a single-edged, one-handed utility sword peculiar to central Europe, but Leckuchner's techniques apply to cut-and-thrust swords in general: not only is this treatise the single most substantial work on the use of one-handed swords to survive from this period, but it is the most detailed explanation of the two-handed sword techniques of the German "Liechtenauer" school dating back to the s.

Leckuchner's lavish manuscript consists of over four hundred illustrations with explanatory text, in which the author, a parish priest, rings the changes on bladework, deceits, and grappling, with techniques ranging from life-or-death escapes from an armed assailant to slapstick moves designed to please the crowd in public fencing matches. This translation, complete with all illustrations from the manuscript, makes the treatise accessible for the first time since the author's untimely death less than a year after its completion left his major work to be lost for generations.

An extensive introduction, notes, and glossary analyze and contextualize the work and clarify its technical content. Thomas A. Responding to the lively resurgence of literary formalism, this volume delivers a timely and fresh exploration of the works of Geoffrey Chaucer. Advancing 'new formalist' approaches, medieval scholars have begun to ask what happens when structure fails to yield meaning, probing the very limits of poetic organization.

While Chaucer is acknowledged as a master of form, his work also foregrounds troubling questions about formal agency: the disparate forces of narrative and poetic practice, readerly reception, intertextuality, genre, scribal attention, patronage, and historical change. This definitive collection of essays offers diverse perspectives on Chaucer and a varied analysis of these problems, asking what happens when form is resisted by author or reader, when it fails by accident or by design, and how it can be misleading, errant, or even dangerous.

In this volume, Antonie Vos offers a comprehensive analysis of the philosophy and theological thought of John Duns Scotus. First, a summary is given of the life and times of John Duns Scotus: his background and years in Oxford , his time in Paris and Cologne and his year in exile in Oxford and Cambridge From there on, Scotus' Trinitarian theology and Christology are introduced. Duns not only embraced the doctrine of the Trinity, he also proved that God must be Trinitarian by connecting the first Person with knowledge to the second One with will.

Further insights of Scotus' are discussed, such as the theory of Creation, ethics, justification and predestination, and the sacraments. The volume concludes with an overview of historical dilemmas in Scotus' theological thought. The crusading movement provoked a vast and diverse mass of reactions in the medieval West. While Latin sources provide official versions of its preaching, organisation and events, the vernacular lyrics of the troubadours and trouveres present a secular perspective, through a cornucopia of on-the-spot responses in France, Occitania, Italy, the Iberian Peninsula, Cyprus, Syria and Greece.

This book constitutes the first comprehensive, modern analysis of Old French and Occitan lyric texts relating to the crusades. It brings out their full range, from propaganda for the crusades, to criticisms of rusading and crusaders through vituperation, humour or cynicism, to their use as a pretext for political or personal wrangling.

It also shows how they shed light on many aspects of medieval life, among them chivalric and courtly values often in tension with clerical ones , regional politics, sexual behaviour, personal experiences of crusading and captivity, the complex interaction of Christians, Greeks and Muslims, and bafflement in the face of failure and God's imponderable purposes.

Among the works considered are those by Marcarbru - and Richard "Lionheart". The ballad genre, and its material, are frequently backward-looking in terms of subject and style: it is ideally suited to the reimagining of past events, both real and fictional. This volume addresses the past of the ballad and the past in the ballad. It challenges existing scholarship by embracing discontinuity rather than continuity, seeing the ballad as belonging to a culture of cheap print and imaginative literature rather than the rarefied construct of a mythical "folk".

It finds a conscious antiquarianism and medievalism reinterpreting the genre at different stages of its literary history, at the same time as the ballad itself is continually adapting to the needs of readers, singers, and audience. The influence of Cooper is very evident in Johannes Scherr s Pilger der Wildness whose subject matter, namely the great struggle between the pilgrims of Connecticut and the Indians under Metacom commonly known as King Philip s War, is identical with that of Cooper s Wept of Wish-ton-Wish Not one of these authors was a disciple of Cooper in the sense that Hauff and Alexis were of Scott.


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For such followers we must turn to the exotic school of novelists, many of whom identified themselves exclusively with the transatlantic novel. These writers were nearly all men whom conditions at home or pure "Auswanderungslust" had brought to the shores of America. In some instances they diverge far from the path of Cooper. Since Cooper s early novels the Far West had been opened, and different conditions, both among the Indians and the frontiersmen, presented themselves to the novelist.

The novel itself had evolved toward a greater realism. In spite of all this, Cooper s novels remained the dominating factor in the enormous Indian literature which followed upon their introduction into Germany. Charles Sealsfield , commonly known as the father of the exotic novel, was the first to write an Indian novel in German after the manner of Cooper. Monastic life in Prague was too restraining for the impetuous young Austrian monk, Carl Postl. He 1 Cf. Goethes Novelle. Halle a. August Sauer. Uber den EinAuss der nordamerikanischen Literatur auf die deutsche.

Im Jahrbuch der Grillparzer-Gesellschaft. Jahrgang, This novel was later rewritten and appeared in German in as Der Legitime und die Republikaner. In it Sealsfield champions the cause of the red- man. The elegiac note which Cooper had struck in his Last of the Mohicans here becomes a cry of injustice. The author evidently desired to depict in this novel the last struggle of the legitimate heirs to the American soil against the white intruders. In this historical novel we witness the wars of some tribes of Creeks, whose former lands lay in Georgia and Alabama, under their chief Tokeah against the whites under the great Republican General Jackson.

Tokeah finally gives up the land of his ancestors and leaves to find a new home among the Comanches in the Far West. Tokeah dies while still east of the Mississippi, but his remains are brought to the lands beyond the great river where he had hoped to live unmolested with his people. Much as the situation of the American Indian may have inter ested Sealsfield, Der Legitime und die Republikaner is the only novel in which the Indian plays any considerable role. In Der Virey und die Aristokraten, oder Mexico im Jahre i j a tale of the Mexican uprisings against Spanish oppression, Mexican Indians are only incidentally introduced.

In his last novel, Suden und Norden , another Mexican tale, an attack by Indians upon the American party is described. In the humorous tale Christophorus Barenhauter, attached to the second volume of the first edition of the Transatlantische Reiseskizsen , Jemima, the mannish wife of Christophorus is attacked by the Indians and carried to their village on the Miami. After living among the Indians she manages to escape to her old home, only to find her husband remarried.

She returns to the Indian village, gives her hand to the chieftain Toma hawk, whom she domineers and changes into a respectable tiller of the soil. In his other works Sealsfield chose to operate with phases of American society with which he was better acquainted. We have no reason to think that he ever had any opportunity for studying the customs and manners of the Indian. In that respect Cooper was much better equipped and conveys in the course of his novels a great deal more of Indian material to his reader than does Sealsfield.

Balduin Mollhausen, The German Cooper 15 While Cooper and Sealsfield were at the height of their popu larity there rose in Germany a small group of writers who by no means possessed the literary ability of their predecessors, but they had been actual observers and students of Indian life and manners. This group consisted of men who were in a sense adventurers : some had fought against the Indians, some had lived peacefully among them, and all only later took to the writing of fiction.

What their works lack in point of literary quality, they make up in vivid portrayal of Indian life as it existed at a later period, when the red man had lost much of that glory he possessed before he fell a victim to the vices of his conquerors. The first of this group, and Sealsfield s great successor in the field of the exotic novel, was Gerstacker. Friedrich Gerstacker was early seized with an unconquerable "Drang in die Feme. He made three subsequent journeys to America. Upon returning from his first journey to America Gerstacker published his Streif- nnd Jagdziige dnrch die Vereinigten Staaten Nordamerikas , in which he relates in sketches his various experiences in the new world.

Gerstacker was soon looked upon as the foremost writer of the exotic novel which Sealsfield had founded. Endowed with keen powers of observation, a glowing imagination, and a facile way of expressing what he had seen, he knew well how to cater to the prevailing demand and for nearly thirty years main tained an enviable position as a writer of exotic fiction. Between the appearance of his Streif- nnd Jagdziige in , and his death in he published upwards of one hundred and fifty volumes. His best works were his early novels and books of travel. About the same time appeared Mississippi-Bilder, Licht- und Schattenseiten transatlantischcn Lebens The fol lowing year was published Amerikanische W aid- und Strombilder During the gold fever of Gerstacker was in Cali fornia.

WORK|OUT Edition 29 (German)

Calif orniens Gold- und Quecksilber-District. Nach The California Herald , which went through three editions in the same year, and his Gold! Ein Calif orn ische s Lebensbild aus dem Jahre T 8s8 , reflect this interesting period. Yet Gerstacker was by no means ex clusively an "Amerika" writer. After he had used the experiences of his first and second trips to America in his works, he turned to other fields.

For a time he drew upon nearly all the uncivilized portions of the globe for material, later, however, again returning to American sources. Among the later works which would interest us here on account of their American material are Zwei Republiken , Untcr den Penchuenchen, Chilenischer Roman , Die Blaucn und Gelben, Venezuelanisches Characterbild aus der letzten Revolution ron , and Die Pampas-Indianer Gerstacker s works, while not possessing the literary quality of Sealsfield s, were far more effective in spreading knowledge con cerning Indian life.

Sealsfield s works never found their way into the hearts of the common people as did those of Gerstacker. Through the works of the latter the Indian as seen through a German temperament first became common German property. One of the most interesting figures in this group of writers was that of Friedrich Armand Strubberg who, in company with several other Germans, lived a number of adventurous years in a palisaded fortress on the extreme frontier of Texas.

Returning to Germany, he settled again in his native town of Kassel, where he soon became well known as a fascinating narrator of life in America. Induced by his friends to put his interesting adventures into literary form, Strubberg published Amerikanische Jagd- und Reiseabenteuer Encouraged by the reception given his first work, he now entered upon his literary career, although already more than fifty years old.

Between the ages of fifty-two and seventy-two he published more than fifty volumes of novels. In Amerikanische Jagd- und Reiseabenteuer the author describes his own experiences during the years he dwelt on territory of the Comanches on the Leona. Bis in die Wildniss describes his journey to the frontier of Texas. In An der Indianergrenze, oder Treuer Liebe Lohn , the author gives a graphic picture of western frontier life. Against a realistic setting of primitive squatter life and all its dangers he paints a delicate idyl of the Indian maid Owaja and her love for the settler Farnwald.

The material employed in Ralph Norwood bears some similarity to that of Sealsfield s Der Legitime und die Republikaner, being the Balduin Mollhauscu, I he German Cooper 17 story of the struggles of the Seminoles in Florida and the final removal of the small remaining number by the government to the Far West. Fricdrichsburg, die Colonie des dcutschen Fiirsten- yercins in Texas ls m point of historical value the most interesting of Strubberg s works.

It reflects pioneer life in the German colony of Friedrichsburg, which was established in Texas by the "Mainzer Adelsverein" in , and with which Strubberg was connected as Colonial Director soon after its beginnings. The work is exceedingly rich in Indian material. All of Strubberg s works deal, to a greater or less extent, with America, and in a large number of them the Indian plays a conspicuous part.

Many of his Indians are splendidly realistic portraits of the redskin of the Far West in the middle of the nineteenth century. But among these we meet also more romantic types, the descendants of the Indians of Cooper and of Chateaubriand. The majority of Strubberg s Indians are, however, realistic enough. They must of necessity differ from the Indian Cooper had known on the frontier of western New York. The Indian Strubberg had known and faithfully portrayed for us is the Indian who has lived through a century of shame and dishonor, one broken in strength, retreating ever farther to his destiny in the land of the setting sun.

He had studied jurisprudence at the University of Wiirzburg, but later turned to chemistry and the natural sciences. In he entered upon extensive travels in South America. Upon his return he settled in Nuremberg and devoted himself to the writing of fiction. Bibra operates largely with South American material.

His Indian is of course the Indian of South America. In addition to the early publication of translations by Wienbrack in Leipzig and Sauerlander in Frankfort, there had been appearing since the large Stuttgart edition of Cooper s works besides single editions and retranslations without number. Through Cooper attention had been generally drawn to the progress of literature in America and translators were soon occupied with the preparation of other works by American authors for the German market.

Sauerlander was also giving the Germans the works of Washington Irving. Very soon after the introduction of Irving into Germany there followed translations from the works of James K. Paulding , the friend of Irving; of the English novelist Frederick Marryat ; of the once much read American, Dr. Robert M. Bird ; of our Southern novelist W. Gilmore Simms ; of the English writer Sir Charles Augustus Murray whose works on America were much admired by the historian Prescott; of the English novelist Captain Mayne Reid ; as also translations of many isolated works by less known writers.

While these translations from English and American sources were making their way into Germany and finding a ready market there, translators had not been unmindful of parallel French fiction. In France Cooper s works had had a similar influence. The most prominent of the French writers following in the paths of Cooper were Gabriel Ferry, the pen name for Louis de Bellemarre , who met his death at sea while on his way to California; Paul Duplessis ca.

Many of the works of these men were translated into German and extensively read. Two belated writers of Indian fiction, who nevertheless gained an extensive reading public, are Pajeken and May. Friedrich Pa- jeken , after spending a number of years in a mercantile 6 Cf. My article Cooper in Germany.

German American Annals. Balduin Mollhausen, The German Cooper 19 house in his native city of Bremen, went to Venezuela, where he remained four years, during which time he conceived the idea of employing his experiences and observations in literature. Later he went to the western part of North America, where he studied the Indians and gathered material for his future works. Pajeken pur posed, as he himself remarks in the introduction to Im wilden IVesten, to counteract the alluring but evil influence of the sensational Indian novels then flooding the market, and to that end heaps up the hard ships and dangers of western life, and causes his characters to moralize upon their misdeeds.

Karl May , the more popular of the two writers, also wrote at a time when Indian fiction had nearly outlived itself. He employs in his novels the technic of the cheap Nick Carter and Sherlock Holmes stories, in which no situation is too difficult for the hero and no obstacle so great that it cannot be overcome. Yet Karl May won and maintained for a num ber of years a larger reading public than any other writer of Indian fiction, unless we except Cooper. No serious reader will give Karl May an important place in German literature, many have even considered him an impostor, and yet there are few Germans of this generation who have been able to resist his thrilling narrative.

This great stream of Indian fiction whose source lay in Chateau briand, but whose supporting tributary had for three quarters of a century been Cooper, may be said to have spent itself in the works of Karl May. German Emigration Fiction. At the beginning of the nine teenth century the common people of Germany were still feasting on the romances of robbery and chivalry as produced by Spiess, Vulpius, Cramer, and others.

But they were shortly to turn to a species of fiction in which they were to find themselves and their own cause reflected. The more aristocratic note which had been struck in German fiction by the early romanticists was gradually dying out; only a faint sound still lingered in the later works of Tieck and those of Immermann. Der junge Tischlermeister of the former and Der Oberhof in Miinchhausen, eine Geschichte in Arabesken, of the latter had already advanced decidedly toward the presentation of common life.

In a German trans lation of Scott was published. For the next ten years the works of Scott and those of his two great German followers, Hauff and Alexis, may be said to have commanded the literary interest of 20 Balduin Mollhausen, The German Cooper Germany almost exclusively. With the introduction of the lower classes into German fiction was made a decided step toward that realism which was to revivify the German novel. With the works of Cooper came a new stream of realism and a considerable force in the democratizing of German fiction. We have considered Cooper in his relation to German Indian fiction and the great popularity his Indians enjoyed.

But perhaps just as attrac tive to the German reader as the Indian were Cooper s pictures of American life, especially frontier life, which appealed directly to the German at this time. It was the period preceding the reaction commonly known as the "Young German" movement.

Germany was suffering political ignominy. Under the fearful rule of Metter- nich there was little hope that the German s dreams for a united Fatherland could ever be realized. A last resort for the afflicted German lay in the young republic beyond the sea. The word "Amerika! With the great exodus of Germans to the western continent came the most decisive impact which German fiction received toward democracy.

The great migrations of the nineteenth century began with the year In that year twenty thousand Germans were driven to the shores of America. Between , fifteen thousand more Germans had immigrated. The uprisings of and , as a result of the "Bundestags Ordonnanzen" of greatly increased emigration. Between the number of emigrants rose to almost one hundred and fifty thousand.

These circumstances could not help but vitally influence German literature. In the wake of German emi gration to America followed a great and varied mass of fiction which has received little consideration at the hands of literary historians. We have observed above that literary Germany had been not wholly unmindful of the young republic on the western continent, but only after the great migrations of the nineteenth century can we speak of the German Emigration Novel as a distinct species of German fiction.

Hellmuth Mielke: Der deutsche Roman: p. Cincinnati, ; p. His own advanced age, perhaps, hindered him from himself employing such material, but he did not hesitate to point the way to the younger generation. Goethe had actually drawn plans for an emigration novel! Der Bearbeitende miisste den Stolz haben, mit Cooper zu wetteifern, und deshalb die klarste Ein- sicht in jene iiberseeischen Gegenstande zu gewinnen suchen. Von der friihsten Kolonisation an, von der Zeit des Kampfes an, den die Europaer erst mit den Urbewohnern, dann unter sich selbst fiihr- ten, von dem Vollbesitz an des grossen Reiches, das die Englander sich gewonnen, bis zum Abfall der nachher vereinigten Staaten, bis zu dem Freiheitskriege, dessen Resultat und Folgen diese Zu- stande samtlich mussten ihm iiberhaupt gegenwartig und im Be- sonderen klar sein.

In welche Epoche jedoch er seine Handlung setzen wolle, ware mancher Uberlegung wert. Primrose sein, der mit so viel Verstand als gutem Willen, mit so viel Bildung als Thatigkeit bei Allem, was er unternimmt und fordert, doch immer nicht weiss, was er thut, von seiner ruling passion fortgetrieben, dasjenige, was er sich vorsetzte, durchzufiihren genotigt wird und erst am Ende zu Atem kommt. Cottasche Ausg. Goedeke Bd. Die Unzufriedenen beider Weltteile stehen ihm zu Gebot ; er kann sie zum Teil nach und nach zu Grunde gehen, endlich aber, wenn er seine Favoriten giinstig untergebracht hat, die iibrigen stufenweise mit sehr massigen Zustanden sich be- gniigen lassen.

Ten years later, however, appeared a novel which was in a sense a precursor of the long line of Emigration Fiction. It is Die Europamuden of Ernst Willkomm In this work the discontent of "Jung-Deutschland" reached an hysterical climax. As a novel the work possesses little value. Here it is of interest inasmuch as it directs Germany s discontent and yearnings toward America for relief. Willkomm has employed a Protestant clergyman in his novel, as Goethe suggested, but it is not the modern patriarchal Moses leading his flock to a new home across the sea. He is a dissenting "Europamiider" who with the voice of a scourging prophet declares : "Die Siinden der Welt sind die Folgen der fluch- wiirdigen Verhaltnisse, die geboren wurden aus socialer Unnatur, mystischer Heuchelei weil man den Sinn aller Religiositat von Anfang an misverstancl schwachender Knechtsgesinnung und schlaffer Lebenssitte, die alles mit der Schminke der Etiquette besu- delte.

Daran stirbt Europa, dadurch wird es der Sklave zuerden des Westens, in dem es zwar Siinden gibt und Laster, aber nur Siinden der Kraft und des Ubermuthes Driiben aber iiber den Wogen des atlantischen Oceans liegt das Land der Verheissung im heiligen Schatten des Urwalds gebettet, der es umfangt und mit den Locken der Hoffnung umschmeichelt, wie eine Mutter ihr lachelndes, Kraftvolles Kind! Dorthin hat sich gefliichtet die Natur, als Europa sie vertrieb. In der durchsichtigen Fluth des Ohio bespiegelt sie sich, schuldlos, weil sie stark, und fromm, weil sie frei ist. Die Europamuden was but a forerunner.

For the further de velopment of the emigration novel we must turn to a small group of Germans who had themselves lived in America. They were without exception men who had gone to America either because their political views made a longer stay in Germany uncomfortable, or else because the German "Wanderlust" had taken possession of Balduin Mollhausen, The German Cooper 23 them. Many of them were, so to speak, adventurers, who only later accidently turned to literature. Some of them, such as Sealsfield, Gerstacker, and Strubberg, had identified themselves both with Indian and emigration fiction and must therefore also receive con sideration here.

Since Sealsfield was the first writer in German to gather up the exotic and ethnographic threads of our varied American life and present them in literary form, it is only natural to look for a portrayal of German emigrant life in his works. Yet there are com paratively few Germans among the motley array of Yankees, Eng lishmen, Frenchmen, Creoles, negroes, and Indians. In fact there is reason to believe that Sealsfield, though himself a Teuton, was not kindly disposed towards the German "Michel" seeking his fortune in the new world.

In appeared Sealsfield s Morton oder die grosse Tour, in which the author endeavors to show the power of gold in determin ing the fate of man. Young Morton has put his entire fortune into the schooner "Mary" which is lost at sea. In despair he mounts his horse Cyrus, rides along the Susquehanna, and halts at a precipitous bank above Harrisburg.

Here, while wrapped in the thought of committing suicide, he is approached from one direction by Colonel I sling, the county judge, from the other by a family of wretched German immigrants. Sealsfield, with bitter pen, writes of the latter p. Receiving five dollars from the German Aid Society, the head of the family bought a wheelbarrow on which he loaded his few possessions and proceeded to Ohio. In Colonel Isling Sealsfield portrays a German of the previous generation and compares him with the type of German now coming to America.

Isling, who had come as a Hessian lieu tenant to fight for the English, was taken prisoner at Trenton, and later entered the Colonial army. In his conversation with young 24 Balduin Mollhausen, The German Cooper Morton, with whose uncle, a signer of the Declaration of Independ ence, he had been acquainted, Isling shows himself a staunch patriot, and eulogizes Washington and Baron von Steuben. The old colonel, having spoken words of encouragement to Morton, accompanies him to Bethlehem and there directs him by mail-coach to Philadelphia with a letter to Stephy Girard. Morton presents his letter to Stephy who says of old Isling: "Allen Respekt vor alten Deutschen, sind wie ihre alten Weine; sind aber, hore ich, alle von den Franzosen ausgetrunken worden, ihre alten Weine, und die jungen taugen nichts, oder nicht viel.

Here Sealsfield again ridicules the German for his servile habits and lack of national pride. This story is of further interest for the reason that it was afterwards plagiarized by Fredinand Kiirn- berger in his well known novel Der Amerikamiide In Die Deutsch-amerikanischen Wahlverwandschaften Sealsfield introduces several Germans but does not operate with them as elements of Amerian society.

In the story Christophorus Barenhaufer the author em ploys Pennsylvania-German material with which he had the oppor tunity to become acquainted during his stay in that state. Baren- hauter, whose family had migrated from the Black Forest, is a young farmer living in western Pennsylvania. The author com pares the thrifty habits and well kept farm of the family with those of the slovenly Irish and Scotch settlers, but again emphasizes the stupidity of the German and places Christophorus in a ludicrous light.

In the author s last work Suden und Nor den he de scribes a journey in southern Mexico, calling it "eine befremdende Mischung von Dichtung und Wahrheit". In the expedition is Herr Bohne, a very well informed young German, who, in spite of his knowledge, is the constant butt for the party s jokes. It is evident that Sealsfield was not partial to his own race. In fact his portrayal of the German immigrant rather aggravated the keen injuries he had suffered at the hands of the Anglo-Saxon whose derisive "damn Dutchman" has not yet quite died out. The love and trust which Washington, Franklin and Paine had disseminated among the poor and oppressed of all nations were being turned to hatred by their offspring.

The nativism of the Know-nothings of Balduin Mollhausen, The German Cooper 25 the forties and fifties had developed a bitter antagonism toward the immigrant. Nor was this felt by the immigrant alone ; it was realized as an insult by the intelligent minds in Germany. Otto Ruppius, born in Glauchau, , was a German who had lived and experienced much in America without ever becoming so intensely Americanized as Sealsfield. Ruppius early interested him self for the intellectual improvement of the German working-classes.

In he edited and published Die Burger- und Baiiernzeitung.


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In consequence of an article published in this paper on the dissolu tion of the National Convention in Prussia Nov. He fled to America in where he was active for a number of years as professor of music, orchestral conductor and journalist. The first literary product of this period appears to have been Die Waldspinne. Aus dem IVesten Amerikas Genrebild, Upon these two novels, in which are related the hardships of Helmstadt, a young Prussian revolutionist of , now in exile in America, the fame of the author largely rests.

Their truthful portrayal of American life, a lack of that gaudiness and sensation which characterized so many of the reports of life in the new world, and the favorable attitude toward the German immi grant, made them very popular with the Germans in America as well as among those at home. The Civil War, threatening financial ruin, now began, when fortunately the final amnesty of Prussia was declared in and Ruppius, with his wife and children, re turned to Germany. The years which followed upon his return to his native land proved to be very productive ones.

There had ap peared in rapid succession : Geld und Geist. Roman aus dem amer. Roman aus der amer. Article Nativismus und Know-nothings in Atlantische Studicn. Gottingen, Vos- sische Zeitung, n. Erz dhlungen aus dem Dents ch-amer. Leben ; Die drei Vagabonden. Roman aus dem Deutch- amer. Leben appeared in the Sonntagsblatt, ; Zwei Welten But Ruppius was not long to enjoy the fruits of his labors. He died in June, , mourned by the common people as one who had been their champion and labored in their behalf.

The continued popularity of Ruppius can readily be understood. Unlike his contemporaries, Sealsfield and Gerstacker, he did not allow the exotic element to predominate in his works. Uppermost is his portrayal of the German immigrant, his struggles for an existence on foreign soil, his hopes and longings. A favorite theme of the author was the following out of the career of a young German "greenhorn" through all manners of trials and tribulations to a successful end.

Though Ruppius faith in his fellow countrymen in the New World led him to portray his characters in too glow ing colors, these portrayals were instrumental in awakening the downtrodden German to a consciousness of his own rights and possibilities and served as a healthy reaction against the prevailing antipathy toward the German immigrant. Frederich Gerstacker, who was at this time the most popular writer of transatlantic fiction, had found in German emigration to America a rich source for material.

Though in the garb of a novel, this work was for wealth of material concerning the conditions and prospects of German immigrants in America one of the most valuable that had up to that time appeared. The author very graphically relates the ad ventures of a German Emigrant Colony which crosses the Atlantic to find a Paradise in the new world. After a wretched voyage in unsanitary steerage quarters the little colony finally arrives in New York where its members naively entrust themselves to sharp hotel- keepers who grossly overcharge them. Their emigration to Tennes see where they had bought lands and fallen victims to the land-shark, Doctor Normann, and their further tribulations as they later proceed west to the banks of the Colorado, are all skillfully portrayed with a realism that gave very little encouragement to prospective German emigrants.

Indeed it was thought that this work might check emi gration to America. Two years later appeared a work which the author was very well qualified to write, and one which must have had no little influence upon German emigration namely : Wie ist es Balduin Mdllhausen, The German Cooper 27 denn nun eigentlich in Amerikaf Eine kurze Schilderung dessen, zuas der Auswandercr zn thun und dafiir zu hoffen und zu erwarten hat Although it can not be classed as a novel, it shows the interest the novelist had in emigration.

Gerstacker s most popular emigration novel was probably Nach Amerka! Bin Volksbuch , a book for the people in the right sense of the word.

It is a splendid gallery of German emigrant types, drawn from actual life. Gerstacker s continued interest in the progress of German immigrants in America and their part in American affairs is ex pressed in one of the author s last works, written as a sequel to the above many years later, his In Amerika. Amerikanisches Lebensbild aus neuerer Zeit. Im Anschluss an "Nach Amerika" Brasilianisches Lebensbild The above works deal specifically with German emigration.

There are, however, many isolated German characters to be found throughout Ger stacker s other transatlantic novels. Gerstacker knew how to exploit the rich experiences of his ex tensive travels to the best advantage. Further, he was endowed with acute powers of observation, a glowing imagination, and a talent for plastic description and vivid narrative, with which he retained the attention of the reader from beginning to end.

His works lack form, however; they are frequently but a series of sketches. Nor is the author capable of depicting the deep surges of emotion which characterize his predecessor Sealsfield. The importance of Ger stacker for us here lies in his endeavors to portray in fiction an im portant period in the history of German emigration to America.

No writer of exotic novels has more exclusively dealt with North American material than Friedrich Armand Strubberg. In nearly all of his novels Strubberg has introduced German immi grants. To be sure they play only a very minor part in some of his works. In not a few, however, emigration is an important element, and in several it is made the chief feature.

Strubberg had in reality but one great- theme, his own life on the extreme frontier of Texas. It is not surprising then to find a great number of his works auto biographic. Amerikanische Jagd- und Reiseabenteuer is devoted to those years when the author and his three German companions lived on the banks of the Leona.

Bis in die Wildniss depicts Strubberg s life before he settled on the frontier. A us Armands Frontierleben further reflects the author s clays as a frontiersman in Texas. These four works are interesting documents of the west ward course of a great nation. To a lesser degree autobiographic are Ralph Norwood , Sklaverei in Amerika oder Schwarzes Blut , Der Krosus von Philadelphia , Die alte span- ische Urkunde in all of which Strubberg himself appears under an assumed name, though playing very subordinate parts. In Sud-Karolina und auf dem Schlachtfelde von Langensalza we follow the career of Wall- stein, a young German enthusiast for the American republic who crosses the Atlantic to serve in the Civil War.

His unpleasant experiences, and his ideas of the republic and on slavery, form an interesting part of the novel. In the author s last work Vornehm und Burge rlich is described the emigration of a few demo cratic-minded Germans to America, their many hardships, and their final settlement on the Ohio, near Cincinnati, where they plant large vineyards, make wine, prosper, and become prominent citizens biirgerlich und doch vornehm!

Strubberg s greatest contribution to the emigration novel is his portrayal of one of the darkest periods in the history of the state of Texas : the planting of German colonies in Texas by the "Mainzer Adelsverein" through whose misdirected efforts thou sands of Germans suffered untold miseries and hundreds died a wretched death. This period has received the attention of historians but it remained for Strubberg to give the struggles and sufferings of these rugged German pioneers a place in literature.

In ap peared Alte und neue Heimath. As a novel it is one of Strubberg s most readable works. As a cultural document it is invaluable. In November, , the first ship with immigrants sent by the "Verein" had arrived ; soon thereafter came two others, bringing in all about seven hundred people. Late in , f ur thousand three hundred and four more arrived.

The immigrants of could not be con veyed at once to the lands proposed. They were obliged to camp on the coast, and only after some time transported to the interior, where the town of Neu-Braunfels was founded. Those of fared even worse. Transportation was made practically impossible Balduin Mollhausen, The German Cooper 29 through the fact that nearly all vehicles had been called into service by the American army for the Mexican war. They were obliged to camp on the coast in wretched shelter with only the poorest food. The winter was a severe one, disease spread, and hundreds died.

Strubberg has taken for his subject the hardships of the first arrival of immigrants, but he has apparently drawn on the incidents con nected with the combined arrivals of and The author was at this time in all probability living in the interior of Texas. He was only called to Friedrichsburg as colonial director in He was therefore not acquainted with his material at first hand, but he had beyond a doubt abundant opportunity later to hear the immi grants relate their wanderings from the coast to the interior.

That this great mass of emigration fiction found a ready market testifies to the exceeding popularity of this class of fiction. The demand for such literature is easily explained when we remember that there was hardly a family, even in the remoter villages of Germany which did not have a member, friend, or relative seeking his fortune in America.

Nor was the popularity of the trans atlantic novel confined to the lower classes. We need only to look into the newspapers and periodicals of the fifties and sixties to discover the important place such literature occupied.