Basic sentence types For Monday: Copy basic sentence types , and write at least 1 version of each. Intention for today's class: to distinguish between parataxis and hypotaxis, the cumulative and periodic styles of sentence writing, and to begin to practice identifying features of sentences and how to write within the logical structures present within a given sentence. Hypotactic fun with Chapter 14 of James Joyce's Ulysses. Unit 1 Assignment: Part 2. Intention for today's class: to deepen your ability to attend carefully to the logical relationships that make a sentence a basic sentence, with special emphasis on the four principles of the cumulative sentence.
Cumulative sentences employ: a process of addition; a direction of modification; a downshifting from generality toward specificity; and an amplification to the texture of the sentence. Unwriting Sentences : the central practice of the course. For Wednesday: Copy, unwrite, and compose stylistic sentence types 1 through 6.
Unit 2 Assignment. Intention for today's class: to introduce the central practice of the course, namely, the practice of unwriting a figure as the chief means to discover what makes the figure work as a figure, so that you might better emulate that figure.
What Kind of Reader Are You?
Holcomb and Killingsworth give us a few good places to "look," when we focus on the social interaction schemes can perform. They can:. Signal the level of formality high, middle, low styles Control emotional intensity Display the writer's wit and command of the material and the medium Invite readers to step into a pattern that then compels them to complete it. But a benefit is unwelcome when granted late to one who no longer desires it, since, with the moment of its usefulness having been missed, the desire of the one who is to receive it declines.
Forsyth Chapters: 9, 12, 15, 17, 32, 38, Forsyth Chapter: 13, 36, No class: nevertheless, complete the readings and work through this last set of figures. Figures of thought as figures of speech act. Rather, it suggests that the reading process is an interaction between the ideas in the text in front of us and our own ideas and pre-conceptions about the subject of our reading. We do not always consciously measure what we read according to our existing systems of knowledge and beliefs, but we measure it nevertheless. Reading, according to Brent, is judgment, and, like in life where we do not always consciously examine and analyze the reasons for which we make various decisions, evaluating a text often happens automatically or subconsciously One of the traits of active readers is their willingness to seek out other texts and people who may be able to help them in their research and learning.
Consider a class of students asked to investigate some problem on campus and to propose a solution to it. Conducting secondary research allows a writer to connect a local problem he or she is investigating and a local solution he or she is proposing with a national and even global context, and to see whether the local situation is typical or a-typical.
One student decides to investigate the issue of racial and ethnic diversity on our campus. The student has no trouble designing research questions and finding people to interview and survey. His subjects included students and faculty as well as the university vice-president who was charged with overseeing the work of the diversity task force. But good writing goes beyond the local situation. Good writing tries to connect the local and the national and the global. It tries to look beyond the surface of the problem, beyond simply comparing numbers and other statistics.
It seeks to understand the roots of a problem and propose a solution based on a local and well as a global situation and research. He needed some other type of research sources. At that point, however, the writers hits an obstacle.
- Willie And The Hand Jive.
- Technische Mechanik (German Edition).
- 4.4 Research and Critical Reading.
- AP English Notes.
- A Writer's Repertoire.
Critical readers and researchers understand that it is not enough to look at the research question locally or narrowly. Sometimes, it is hard to understand how external texts which do not seem to talk directly about your specific topic can help you research and write about questions, problems, and issues related to that topic. The emerging theme in that paper was that of discipline and sacrifice required of student athletes. Simultaneously, that student was reading a chapter from the book by the French philosopher Michel Foucault called Discipline and Punish. Martin states that the student was able to see some connection between Foucault and her own life of self-discipline and use the reading for her research and writing 6.
Such reading and research goes beyond simply comparing of facts and numbers and towards relating ideas and concepts with one another. Reading and writing are the two essential tools of learning. Critical reading is not a process of passive consumption, but one of interaction and engagement between the reader and the text. Therefore, when reading critically and actively, it is important not only to take in the words on the page, but also to interpret and to reflect upon what you read through writing and discussing it with others.
As stated earlier, actively responding to difficult texts, posing questions, and analyzing ideas presented in them is the key to successful reading. The goal of an active reader is to engage in a conversation with the text he or she is reading.
A writer's repertoire. 1, Gwendolyn Gong, Sam Dragga.
In order to fulfill this goal, it is important to understand the difference between reacting to the text and responding to it. Reacting to a text is often done on an emotional, rather than on an intellectual, level. It is quick and shallow. For example, if we encounter a text that advances arguments with which we strongly disagree, it is natural to dismiss those ideas out of hand as wrong and not worthy of our attention.
Doing so would be reacting to the text based only on emotions and on our pre-set opinions about its arguments. It is easy to see that reacting in this way does not make the reader any closer to understanding the text. A wall of disagreement that existed between the reader and the text before the reading continues to exist after the reading.
Responding to a text, on the other hand, requires a careful study of the ideas presented and arguments advanced in it. Critical readers who possess this skill are not willing to simply reject or accept the arguments presented in the text after the first reading right away. To continue with our example from the preceding paragraph, a reader who responds to a controversial text rather than reacting to it might apply several of the following strategies before forming and expressing an opinion about that text.
Taking all these steps will help you to move away from simply reacting to a text and towards constructing informed and critical response to it.
To better understand the key differences between reacting and responding and between binary and nuanced reading, consider the table below. But the world of ideas is complex and, a much more nuanced approach is needed when dealing with complex arguments. Not every text asks for an outright agreement or disagreement. Sometimes, we as readers are not in a position to either simply support an argument or reject it. After you have done all that, it will still be possible to disagree with the arguments presented in the reading, but your opinion about the text will be much more informed and nuanced than if you have taken the binary approach from the start.
To illustrate the principles laid out in this section, consider the following two reading responses. Specifically, what rhetorical strategies is he using to achieve a persuasive effect on his readers? In making your decisions, consider such factors as background information that he gives, ways in which he addresses his immediate audience, and others. At the time when minorities in America were silenced and persecuted, King had the courage to lead his people in the struggle for equality. First of all, he presents himself as a colleague and a spiritual brother of his audience.
King then proceeds to give a brief background of his actions as a civil rights leader. As I read this part of the letter, I was wondering whether his readers would really have not known what he had accomplished as a civil rights leader. Then I realized that perhaps he gives all that background information as a rhetorical move. His immediate goal is to keep reminding his readers about his activities. His ultimate goal is to show to his audience that his actions were non-violent but peaceful. In reading this passage by King, I remembered once again that it is important not to assume that your audience knows anything about the subject of the writing.
I will try to use this strategy more in my own papers. Delaying the thesis and laying out some background information and evidence first helps a writer to prepare his or her audience for the coming argument. That is another strategy I should probably use more often in my own writing, depending on the audience I am facing. However, these two responses allow us to see two dramatically different approaches to reading. After studying both responses, consider the questions below. One of the key principles of critical reading is that active readers do not read silently and by themselves.
They also discuss the texts they are reading with others and compare their own interpretations of those texts with the interpretations constructed by their colleagues. As a college student, you are probably used to taking notes of what you read. After that, the summaries are used, instead of the textbook, to study for the exam.
Genre studies - Wikipedia
But this note taking is not critical reading. Reading for information and trying to extract the main points does not talk back to the texts, did not question them, and did not try to extend the knowledge which they offered in any way. The reading was also done in silence, without exchanging ideas with other readers of the same texts. And the student may have done just fine on the test using this strategy. But critical reading has other goals, one of which is entering an on-going intellectual exchange.
Therefore it demands different reading strategies, approaches, and techniques. One of these new approaches is not reading in silence and alone. Instead, critical readers read with a pen or pencil in hand. They also discuss what they read with others. If you want to become a critical reader, you need to get into a habit of writing as you read.
You also need to understand that complex texts cannot be read just once. Instead, they require multiple readings, the first of which may be a more general one during which you get acquainted with the ideas presented in the text, its structure and style. During the second and any subsequent readings, however, you will need to write, and write a lot. The following are some critical reading and writing techniques which active readers employ as they work to create meanings from texts they read.
Underline words, sentences, and passages that stand out, for whatever reason. Underline the key arguments that you believe the author of the text is making as well as any evidence, examples, and stories that seem interesting or important. The places in the text that you underline may be the same or different from those noticed by your classmates, and this difference of interpretation is the essence of critical reading.
Take notes on the margins. If you do not want to write on your book or journal, attach post-it notes with your comments to the text. Do not be afraid to write too much. This is the stage of the reading process during which you are actively making meaning. Writing about what you read is the best way to make sense of it, especially, if the text is difficult. Writing about what you read will help you not only to remember the argument which the author of the text is trying to advance less important for critical reading , but to create your own interpretations of the text you are reading more important.
Write extended responses to readings. Writing students are often asked to write one or two page exploratory responses to readings, but they are not always clear on the purpose of these responses and on how to approach writing them. By writing reading responses, you are continuing the important work of critical reading which you began when you underlined interesting passages and took notes on the margins. You are extending the meaning of the text by creating your own commentary to it and perhaps even branching off into creating your own argument inspired by your reading.
Your teacher may give you a writing prompt, or ask you to come up with your own topic for a response. In either case, realize that reading responses are supposed to be exploratory, designed to help you delve deeper into the text you are reading than note-taking or underlining will allow. When writing extended responses to the readings, it is important to keep one thing in mind, and that is their purpose. The purpose of these exploratory responses, which are often rather informal, is not to produce a complete argument, with an introduction, thesis, body, and conclusion.
On the contrary, it is to help you understand the text you are working with at a deeper level. Investigators get leads, some of which are fruitful and useful and some of which are dead-ends. As you investigate and create the meaning of the text you are working with, do not be afraid to take different directions with your reading response. In fact, it is important resist the urge to make conclusions or think that you have found out everything about your reading. When it comes to exploratory reading responses, lack of closure and presence of more leads at the end of the piece is usually a good thing.
Of course, you should always check with your teacher for standards and format of reading responses. Use reading and your responses to start your own formal writing projects. Reading is a powerful invention tool. While preparing to start a new writing project, go back to the readings you have completed and your responses to those readings in search for possible topics and ideas. Also look through responses your classmates gave to your ideas about the text. They can provide excellent topic-generating and research leads.
Many writers like double-entry journals because they allow us to make that leap from summary of a source to interpretation and persuasion. To start a double-entry journal, divide a page into two columns. As you read, in the left column write down interesting and important words, sentences, quotations, and passages from the text. In the right column, right your reaction and responses to them.
Be as formal or informal as you want. Record words, passages, and ideas from the text that you find useful for your paper, interesting, or, in any, way striking or unusual. Quote or summarize in full, accurately, and fairly. In the right-hand side column, ask the kinds of questions and provide the kinds of responses that will later enable you to create an original reading of the text you are working with and use that reading to create your own paper.