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Again the people hurried lo take sand from Die lieails, heads, and limbs of the figures to rub upon themselves. A chant closed the ceremony. Tlie pjinl grind ET w as kepi busy lo supply llie ailish. In Ihe illustration of this painting, PI. CXXIll, Hasjelti will be recognized as ihe leader. He carries a fawn skin filled with sacred meal; the spols on the skin are seven and in Die form of a great bear. The nexl six figures are their wives. The Elhselhle wear leggings of corn pollen and the forearms of the gods are covered with pollen. Their wives have their arms and bodies covered wilh the same.

The gods Rve walking upon black clouds and misl fihe yellow denoling misi , ihe women npon blue clouds and mist. During the ceremony an Apaclie basket conlaining meal was bronght in and placed at ihe feel of the rainbow goddess. The invalid entered the lodge, which had become quile filled with privileged speclalors, and receiving the basket of meal, spnnkled the figures from left lo right; he then removed all his clolhing exceplhis breech clolh and sloodeasi of the painting. Hosljoglion stepped to the head of Ihe rainbow goddess and laking ihe small gourd of medicine water dipped ihecedartwiginto the waler and sprinkled Die figures, Ihen touched ihe twig lo Die feet, hearl, and head of each figure, commencing al the male figure to the noith and passing soulh, then beginning witli Die female figures lo the north and passing south.

The invalid took his seal in Ihe cenler of the painling with his knees drawn to his chin. After reluming ihe gouid and twig to Iheir fonner position he placed the pahns of his hands to the feel and head of each figure and Iheii placed his palms on the corresponding pails of ihe invalid's body, and pressed his head several limes between his hands. After louchingany pari of the invalid, Hostjoghon threw his hands upward and gave one of his characterislic hools. The song-priesi placed coals in front of the invalid and herbs npon them, as he had done Ihe day before, and then rehred.

The coals were aflei"wards thrown out of the fire opening and the crowd rushed to the painting to rub Iheir bodies with the sand. Tlie painting was obliterated in Ihe usual manner and Ihe sand carried out and deposited at the base of apirion tree some yards from the lodge. When any misrake occurred, which was very seldom, it was obliterated by sifting the ground color over iL Each artisi endeavored to finish his special design first, and there was considerable belting as lo wlio would suc- ceed.

Their homes are higli in ihe canyon wall. The black parallelogram to the west of the pain ling designates r red streak in ihe rock in which are llieir homes. The delicale wliile lines indicate their houses, which are in Ihe interior or deplhs of the rock, and can not be seen fiom the surface. This canyon wall is Located north of Ihe Ute Mountain.

These people of the rocks move in the air like birds. The red porlion of the bodies of the Zenichi denole red com; ihe black porlion black clonds. The red half of the face repre sen Is also the red com; the blue of Ihe bodies of the others denote vegetation i n general, and ihe yellow, pollen of all vegetation.

A lighlning bow is held in ihe left hand, Ihe rlglil hokJs a rattle ornamented with feathers. The rainbow goddess is represented al the norlh and south end of the painting. Two of Ihese ears the gods gave lo the yonnger bi'olher of the Tolchini when they commanded him lo return to Ihe Navajo and instruct Ihem how to represent the gods in sand painling and in masks.

T' :'! A buffalo robe was spread al the end of the avenue which extended from the medicine lodge some three hundred yards. The head of the robe was to the easi; al the end of the robe blankets were spread in a kind of semicircle. Most of the children were accompanied by their mothers. Tl is entirely a matler of choice whether or nol a mother accompanies her child or takes any part in the ceremony. The girls also sal like the boys, theii" heads bent forward.

Their heads were beni down thai they miglil not look upon the gods until they had been initialed. Up to this lime Ihey were supposed never to have had a close view of the masks or to have inspected anylhing perlaining to their religious ceremonies. ThechikJren ranged from five to ten years of age.

The boy at the head of ihe line was led oul and stood facing Ihe east. Hasjelli, wilh the sacred meal, formed r cross on his breast, at Ihe same hme giving his peculiar hoot. Hostjoboard struck him upon Die bieasi, first willi Die needles held in herriglil hand and ihen with ihose held in the left. Hasjeiti made a cross over Ihe arms and Ihen over ihe knees.

I noliced but one who seemed very nervous, and with great difficulty he kept back the lears. The boys' ceremony over, Ihe gods approached fiie girls, beginning at Die end of the line next to ihe boys. Hasjeltl, with his right hand, then drew a line on Ihe girl's left shoulder, and with his left hand a line on the girl's right shoulder, the corn being pressed lo the shoulders in Ihe manner described. Two lines of meal were run over Ihe foreliead back to ihe lop of the head, and the two ears of corn pressed lo the lop of head.

The boys were nude but Ihe girls were gay ly dressed in blankets, jewelry, etc. At the close of this ceremony the I'epresentatives of the gods removed their masks and called upon Ihe children lo raise their heads. The amazement depicted upon the faces of the children when they discovered their own people and not gods afforded much amusement lo the spectators. The masks were laid upon a blanket and the girls and boys were commanded lo look upon them.

Hostjoboaid placed her mask upon Ihe face of each boy and girl and woman in the line, beginning al Ihe north end of the line, gving a hoot each time the mask was placed upon anyone. Great care was taken thai the mask shoukj be so arranged upon the face that the eyes might look directly ihrougli the eyeholes, for should any blimder occur the siglil of at least one eye would be losl.

It is scarcely on before it is removed. After Ihe masks had been placed on all the faces it was laid beside Hasjelli's. The man personating Hasjelli sprinkled his mask and then Hostjobo aid's with pollen, and Ihe man personating Hostjoboard sprinkled Hasjeltl's mask and then his own with pollen. The boy lo Ihe north end of Ihe line was called out and from Ihe pollen bag took a pinch of pollen and spnnkled first the mask of Hasjeiti and then Hostioboard's. In appioachinglhe masks they always pass back of ihe line around fo the north side and ihen step in front of Ihe masks.

The younger children's hands were guided by the representatives of Ihe gods. It would be a great fata lily to sprinkle adropotmealover Ihe eye holes; the individual com mi tling such an error would become blind at least in one eye. Great care is also taken thai ihe line is run up Ihe cheek, forif il was run down not only would vegelahon be stunted, bul Ihe lives of Ihe people would become so, as all people and Ihings should aim upward not downward.

The line running down ihrougli Ihe cenler of the fece calls upon the gods above to send down rain upon theeaith and health lo all people. Two or ihree children started Ihrough ignorance lo run ihe meal down one of Ihe cheeks; Ihey were inslantly stopped by Hasjelti, bul nol unlil the people looking on ] had expressed greal horror. All in liie line having gone Ihrough this ceremony Ihe crowd of spectators sprinkled ihe masks in the same manner.

I was reqnesled to sprinkle lliem, and al the same lime was specially instrucled to run Ihe lines up Ihe cheeks. This closed Ihe ceremony of iniliation. The boys were Ihen pennilted to go around at will and look al Die masks and enler ihe lodge and view Ihe sand painting.

Hasjelti and Hosljoboard relurned to the lodge, c airy ing Iheir masks in Iheir hands. About an hour after Ihe ceremony of the initial! The theuigisi and invalid were sealed oulside of ihe lodge, south of Die entrance. Hasjeiti ap- proached dancing, and sprinkled meal over the buffalo robe, and the invalid slood upon Ihe robe.

The goddess Yebahdi following, slood wilhin the circle some 20 feel from the robe on Ihe east side and facing west. Hasjelli, amidsl hools and unties, sprinkled meai upon ihe invalid, ihrowing both his hands upward. As eachrepresenlaliveof the gods threw npliis hands slie raised her baskel high above and in froni of hei head. Hasjelli, together with Zaadolljaii and Yebahdi, then passed around wilhin the circle to Ihe olher Ihree poinis of Ihe compass. The invalid ihen entered ihe lodge, followed by the represenlatives of the gods, who were careful to remove Iheir masks before going in.

He gave Ihree more drafts to the invalid, each lime waving the gourd around the invalid wilh a wave toward ihe easl. This was repealed upon the invalid. Two men personated Naiyenesgony and Tobaidischinni. Tobaidisctiinni had hi? Her mask ft a? The three left ttie lodge carrying ttieir m a? Passing some distance down ihe avenue lo Ihe east Ihey pnl on Iheir masks and relurned lo the lodge.

A buffalo robe hnd been spread in froni of the lodge. Naiyenesgony carried in his riglil hniid a large lava celt which was painted white. Ahsonnutli followed with bow and arrow in Ihe left hand and an arrow in Ihe right with a quiver thrown over Ihe shoulder. This was repeated on the south, west, and norlh sides of Ihe invalid; each time the invahd parhally lumed his arm, shoulder, and back to sprinkle meal upon fhe gods.

The gods Ihen rushed lo Ihe enlrance of the medicine lodge repealing Ihe ceiemony there, when Ihey hnnied lo the south side of ihe lodge the invahd having relumed lo ihe lodge; the buffalo robe was carried in by an alteiidaiil. The gods weni from the soulh side of the lodge lo the west and Ihen to Ihe north perfonning Ihe same ceremony. When they entered Ihe lodge Ihe buffalo i"obe had been spread in from of Ihe song-priest with its head norlh. Upon this robe each god knell on his left knee, Naiyenesgony on the north end of the robe, Ahsonnutli on the soulh end, and Tobaidischinni between them, all facing east.

The song-priest, followed by the invalid, advanced lo the front of Ihe line carrying the basket containing the medicine tubes. He sprinkled Naiyenesgony with corn pollen, passing it up the riglil arm over the head and down the left arm lo the hand. He placed Ihe black lube in the palm, of the left hand of the gc-d, the pnesi chanting all the while a prayer. The red lube was given with the same ceremony lo Tobaidischinni, and the blue lube with Ihe same ceremony to Ahsonnnlli. The quiver was removed from Ahsonnnlli before she knell. The song-priest, kneeling in front of Naiyenesgony, repealed a long litany with responses by Ihe invalid, when the gods left the lodge led by Naiyenesgony who deposited his lube and stick in apiilon tree, Tobaidischinni depositing his in a cedar tree, and Ahsonnnlli hers in Ihe heart of a shrub.

Logs were piled 5 or 6 feet high. In addition lo these eight fires iheie were many olhers near and fai", around which groups of gamblers gathered, all gay and liappy. Unlil this niglil no women but Ihose who carried food to the lodge had been present al any of Ihe ceremonies except al the initiation of ihe children.

To say thai there wei"e ],2CX Navajo would be amoderalecalculalion. This indeed wasapiclure never lo be foigotlen. Many liad been ihe objeclions lo our skelcliing and writing, bul througlioiil llie nine days the song-priest stood steadfastly by us. One chief in particular denounced thelhemgisl for allowing ihe medicine to be put on paper and carried to Washington. Bul his woi"ds availed nolhing. We were Ireated with every considerali on. We were allowed to handle ihe masks and examine ihem closely, and al limes the artists working at the sand painling really inconvenienced Ihemselves and allowed us to crowd llieni thai we mighl observe closely Ihe many minnle delails which otherwise could not have been perceived, as many of their color lines in Ihe skirt and sash decoralions were like threads.

The accompanying sketches show every delail. The green or dressing room was a circular inclosure of pine boughs al Ihe end of ihe avenue. II was about 10 feel high by 20 feet in diameler made of pirion branches with Iheir butts planted in Ihe ground, Iheir tops forming a brush or hedge. Wilhin this inclosure the masks were arranged in a row on Die wesi side. A laige fire burned in Die center affording both lieat and lighl. The different sets, when a change of dress fiom one set of men to another was to be made, repaired lo this green room for thai 70Ceremonialof Hasjelli DailjisandMythical Sand Painling of Ihe Navajo It purpose.

At 10 o'clock Ihe ceremonies opened by Ihe entrance upon the avenue of the song-priest who came from ihe gieen room. They carried in theii riglil hands gourd rallies painted white. The handles of these may be of any kind of wood, but it must be selecled from some tree near which lightning has slruck,but not of the wood of ihe Iree slriick by lightning. Corn pollen was in ihe palms of Iheir left hands and in the same hand ihev earned also a piiion bougli. Hasjelli wore a suit of velvel ornamented with silver buttons; he never speaks except bv signs.

From below ihe earth my com comes I walk with you. From above waler yoiing comes T walk with you. The first line indicates thai corn is Ihe chief subsislence; the second, Ihat it is necessary to pray to Hasjelli lliat ihe earlh may be watered; Die third, Ihat the carlh must be embraced bv the sun in oi"der lo have vegetahon; the fonrlh, Ihat pollen is essenlial in all religious ceremonies. The Etsethle signify doubling the essential ihings by which names they are known, corn, grain, etc.

After ihe song ihe Invalid with meal basket in hand passed hurriedly down ihe line of gods and sprinkled each one wilh meal, passing il from the right hand up to the right arm, to the head Ihen down the left arm to the hand, placing a pinch in ihe palm of Ihe left hand.

The Invalid Ihen relurned and stood to Ihe norlh side of Hasjelli who was lo the left of Ihe song-priesl. The theuigisi stood facing natan com and offered a prayer which was rej'ieated by the invalid. Continency must be obsei"ved by the Invalid during the nine days ceremonial and for four days thereafter. Come inside of our houses. Your feel are while; come inio our house! Your legs are white; come inIo our house! Your bodies are while; come inIo our house! Your face is while; come inIo our house! Oid in an, Ihis worid is beautiful; Ihe people look upon you and Ihev are happy. This day lei ail Ihings be beauiiful.

After ihe prayer ihe 5ong-priest and invalid took seals by the enlrance of Ihe lodge. He remained standing while ihe four slowly raised Ihe righl fool squarely from the ground, Ihen on the toe of Ihe left foot, which motion shook the ratlle. In a shorl hme Hasjeiti passed down the line hooling. He passed aiound theeaslend, Ihen retnnied up the norlh side to his former posilion, and again liooling, resumed the leadership of Ihe Elselhle, who gave a long shake of Die raftle as soon as Hasjelli slood in froni of them.

They Ihen followed iheir leader to the dressing room. The twelve dancer? Hasjelli led Ihe dancers and Hosljoghon followed in Ihe rear. When Ihey came near Ihe lodge Ihe? The song-priest and invalid Ihen relurned lo Iheir seals in fronI of Ihe lodge. Hasjelli passed down ihe line on Ihe north? Reversing sides by dasliing past each other, Hasjelti points his fawn skin to tlie east while Hostjoghon points his wands to the west. They then retnni to their respective positions as leader and follower. After the dance begins Hasjelti passes down the north side and joins Hostjoghon at the east end of the dancers, Hasjelti keeping to the north side of Hostjoghon.

The men's bodies were pointed while and were nude, excepting the silk scarfs and moinitain lion and other skins worn around the loins. They then turn and face the east, and bending their bodies toward the south perfonn the same motion as before, when they turn to the west 74Cei"emonialof Hasjelli Dailji sand Mythical Sand Painlingofthe Navajo It and repeal it in lliat direclion.

Dancingpromiscuoiisly for afew m omen Is lo song and ratlle, ihemen represenliiig women singing in feminine tones, they form again in two hnes, Ihe women as before on the norlh side. The man al the west end of Ihe male line and the woman al the same end of Ihe female line, meeting each oilier midway between llie lines she passes her rlghl arm through Ihe arm of her parlner, his arm being bent to receive il; they pass belween llie line and are met a short dislance from the olherendof Ihe line by Hasjelli and Hostjoglion, whodanceup to meet them, Ihe movemeni resembling closely ihe old-fashioned Virginia reel.

The couple Ihen dance backward belween the lines to their stalling poini, Ihen down again, when they separate, the man taking his place in the rear of the male line and the woman hers in Ihe rear of the female line. This couple starting down the second lime, Ihe man and woman immediately next in hne lock arms and pass down in the same manner, Hasjeiti and Hosljoglion scarcely waiting for the first couple lo separate before dancing up to meet the second couple; the remaining conples following in like order nnlil Ihe first conple find themselves in their former position al Ihe head of the line.

Now a gi'oup dance is indulged in for a minute or two when lines are again formed, and a second figure exactly like the first is danced. This figure was again repealed wilhonl variation, after which Ihe men and women fell into single file, and, led by Hasjelli and followed by Hosljoghon, left Ihe dancing giound. They did nol go to the green, however, but moved off a short distance lorest for amomeni and returned. Upon each relum ihe invalid passed down Ihe line on Ihe north side sprinkhng each dancer with meal, Hasjeiti and Hosljoglion perfonning with Ihe fawn skin and wands.

This dance of four figures was repeated twelve times, each time the dancers resting but a moment. The third series embraced all the dances exactly like Ihe above.

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The fourth series embi"aced nineteen dances. In thiscase two men danced together. Some of ihe dancers dropped out from weariness, which caused diminution in some of Ihe sets. The lasl dance closed at Ihe firsi lighl of day. The song-priesi had preceded thelasldancers to the green room and awailed their airival to obtam Ihe masks, which were his special projierty. The fiisl three worlds were neilher good nor healthful. They moved all ihe lime and made Ihe people dizzy. These Iwo women were sent for by the Navajo, wlio told ihem they wished liglil. The two women on arriving told the people to have patience and iheir prayers would eventually be answered.

This person said, "Send for the youth at the gi"eal falls. The vollUi soon appeared and said, "Ahsonnntli, the ahstjeohlloi hermaphrodite j, has while beads in her right breast and tuiquoise in her left.

We will lell her to by them on darkness and see what she can do wilh her prayers. Tlie vonlli from thegi'eal falls said to Ahsonnulli, "You have carried the while-shell beads and lurquoise a long time; you should know what lo say. Tlie forty- eight men were sent for. After their amval Ahsonnntli sang a song, Ihe men sitting opposite lo her; yeteven with their presence the song failed to secure Die needed light.

Two eagle plumes were placed npon each cheek of the turqnoise and two on the i:Tfi cheeks of ihe white-shell beads and one at each of the cardinal points. The Iwelve men ofihe west placed twelve turquoises at the west. The wish still remained unrealized. Then Ahsonnulli held the crystal over the turquoise face, whereupon it lighted into a bbze.

The people retreated far back on acconnt of the great heat, which continued increasing. The men from the four points found the heat so intense that they arose, but they could hardly stand, as the heavens were so close to them. The heads and feet of Ihe rainbows almost touched the men's heads. The men Ined to raise the great light, bul each time they failed. Finally a man and woman appeared, whence they knew not. The man's name was Atsealsine and the woman's name was Atsealsan. They were asked "How can this snn be got up. Then the people said to Alseatsine and Atseatsan, "Raise the sun higher," and they continued to elevate it, and yet It continued to burn everything.

Thev were then called upon lo "lift it higlier still, as high as possible," bul after at certain height was reached their power failed; it would go no farther. The couple then made fonr poles, two of turquoise and two of white-sliell beads, and each was put under the sun, and with these poles the twelve men at each of Ihe cardinal points raised it. They crawled eveiTwheie lo find shade. Tlien ihe voice of Darkness weul fonr tinier around the world telling ihe men at Ihe cardinal points to go on expanding the world. And Ahsonnutii commanded the twelve men to go to the east, south, west, and north, to hold up the heavens Yiyanitsinni, Ihe holders up of the heavens , which office they are supposed lo perform lo this day.

Ahsonnulli placed an ear of while corn and Yolaikaiason an ear of yellow corn on Ihe m on n lain ivheie ihe fog? The corn conceived, ihe while coin giving birlh lo Haajelll and Ihe vellow corn lo Hosljoghon. From here Ihey vi? Hence lliey went lo San Francisco Mounlain fArizonaj and made iwo songs and prayers and dressed thai mounlain in abalone siiells with two eagle plumes npon liie head. This mountain also had Iwo eagle plumes on ils head. They Ihen relurned to Ihe mountain of their nativity to meditate, "We two have made all these songs.

A sufficient number were born so thai two brothers were placed on each of Ihe four mountains, and to these genii of the mountains the clouds come first. All the brothers consulted together as to whal ihey should live upon and they concluded to make game, and so aU game was crealed. Navajo prayers for rain and snow are addressed to Hasjelti and Hosljoghon. These gods sland upon the mounlain tops and call the clouds lo galher around Ihem.

Hasjelti is the mediator belween ihe Navajo and Ihe sun. He prays lo ihe sun, "Falher, give me Ihe llglil of your mind, thai my mind may be strong; give me some of your strength, thai my arm may be sh'ong, and give me your rays that com and other vegetation may grow.

The lesser deilies have shorter prayers and less valuable offerings made lo ihem. Hasjelli communicales wilh the Navajo Ihrough the feathered kingdom, and for this reason the choicest fealhers and j'llumes are placed in ihe cigarettes and altached to the prayer slicks offered lo him. A Jerusalem cros? Hasjelli carried a squirrel skin filled with lobacco from which lo supply ihe gods on Iheir journey. Hostjoghon carried a slaff ornamenled wilh eagle and lurhey plumes and a gaming ring with Iwo humming birds lied lo il wilh while collon cord.

The two Naa? Here they found people like themselves. These peopje, on learning of the song-hunter's wish, gave lo him many songs and they painted pictures on a cotton blanket and said, "These pictures must go with the songs. If we give this blanket lo yon you will tose it. We will give you white earth and black coals The Naasklddl irir biuuc hb ac ks. Ihey hivf clouds upon ihclr b icks, I n ivhich sfcdE of all vfgclBlian aic held. These together will give you blne.

Upon his relurn he separated the logs, placing an end of ihe solid log into the hollow end of Ihe olher and pbnied this great pole in the river, whereto Ihis day il is to be seen by lliose so venturesome as to visit this poinl. In ceremonials the brealh is drawn from slicks which are made lo represent the originals; Ihe sticks are also hekl to wounds as a curative.

LITERATURE CITED

These iwo boys grew from infancy lo manhood in four days and on Ihe fourth day they made bows and arrows; on ihe fifth day they began using ihem. Allhougli Ihey were the children of Ahsonnulli ihev did nol know her as their mother, but supposed her to be their aunl. Frequenllv ihey inquired of her where they could find llieir father. She always lold them to slop their inquiries, for Ihey had no falher.

Finally they said lo her, "We know we have a father and we inlend lo go and look for him. The house was of while shell, and the wife of Ihe sun Yolaikaiasonl was also of while shell. The wife inquired of the yonllis where they were from, and, said she, "Whal do you wani here? The sun? He then pushed them against a sharp stone knife, but they slipped by uninjnred. Four times Ihev weie thrusi againsi ihe knile, bul wilhout injury. The sun finding his attempts unsuccessful said, "II is so, you are my sons. Toneennili made an excavation inside of the sweat house, pul Ihe boys into Ihe hole, and placed a rock over the hole and buill a fire over Ihe rock.

When tlie rock became very hoi Ihe sun ordered Toneennili to sprinkle it four times wilh water, being careful to keep the enlrance lo the sweal house closely covered. After a lime he uncovered the enlrance and removing Ihe rock ihe snn commanded the boys locomeoul. He did nol expect lo be obeyed, as he thought and hoped ihe boys iveredead, but they came oul unharmed. The sun Ihen said, "Yon are indeed my own children; I have tried in vain lo destroy you.

Some of Ihese people are greal giants and some are as small as flies; we wish to kill Ihem with hghtning. They then went over ihe world. Naivenesgony killed with Ihe h gh mi ng arrows and Tobaidischinni scalped wilh his knife.


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Tobaidischinni is the parent of all waters. One of Ihf bralhfrs became crazy and he wfnl off a long way, and on his return brought wllh him 3 pine buugh; 3 second lime he relurned M'ilh corn, and fiom each trip he brought something new and had 3 story ]o tell aboul il. His brothers would not believe bim, and said, "He is crazy; he does not know whal he is laltmg about.

They had nothing lo eat bul a kind of seed gras?. The eldest brother said, "Let us go hunt," and told the crazy brother nol lo leave the camp. Bul after five days and nights and 2si no word coming from ihe brolhers he delermined lo follow them and help tliem, bring liome the game; lie thought thev had killed more deer than they could carry. Gossen ed. Studies on Culture and Society, Vol.

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Hibben, Frank C. Kiva Art of the Anasazi. Las Vegas: KC Publications. Hieb, Louis A. In Kachinas in the Pueblo World , P. Schaafsma ed. Hill, W. Howard, Julie, and Joel C. Human scalps from Eastern Utah. Utah Archaeology 5 1 — Hurst, Winston B. Turner II. Kidder, A. The Artifacts of Pecos. New Haven: Yale University Press. Kidder, Alfred V. Archaeological Explorations in Northeastern Arizona. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin Washington DC: U. Government Printing Office. Knab, T. Metaphors, concepts, and coherence in Aztec. Kohler, Timothy A. The calculus of self-interest in the development of cooperation: sociopolitical development and risk among the Northern Anasazi.

Tainter and Bonnie Bagley Tainter eds. Kuckelman, Kristin A. Lightfoot, and Debra L. American Antiquity 67 3 — Ladd, Edmund J. The Zuni ceremonial system: the kiva. Lange, Charles H. Austin: University of Texas Press. Reprinted by University of New Mexico Press, LeBlanc, Steven A. Prehistoric Warfare in the American Southwest. Lockett, H. Clairborne, and Lyndon L. Harold S. Colton and Robert C. Euler eds. Flagstaff: Museum of Northern Arizona, Bulletin Malotki, Ekkehart. Flagstaff: Museum of Northern Arizona Press.

Malotki, Ekkehart, and Donald E. Weaver, Jr. Walnut, CA: Kiva Publishing. Marwitt, John P. Fremont cultures. In Great Basin. The Handbook of North American Indians , vol. D'A;zevedo ed. Mason, J. The Ancient Civilizations of Peru. Revised edition. New York: Penguin Books. Matson, R. Anasazi origins: recent research on the Basketmaker II. McCreery, Patricia, and Ekkehart Malotki. Miller, Mary, and Karl Taube. Morris, Ann A. Digging in the Southwest. Chicago: Cadmus Books, E. Morris, Earl H. Exploring the Canyon of Death.

National Geographic Magazine , vol. Morris, Earl A. Pachack, Joe. Early rock art on the San Juan River. Blue Mountain Shadows , vol. Parsons, Elsie Clews. Tewa Tales. Menasha: American Anthropological Association Memoirs, vol. Isleta, New Mexico.

Pueblo Indian Religion , 2 vols. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Taos Tales. Memoirs of the American Folklore Society, vol. New York: J.

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Peckham, Stewart. In Highway Salvage Archaeology , vol 4, assembled by S. Reagan, A. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science , vol. Reichard, Gladys A. Navaho Religion: A Study of Symbolism. New York: Pantheon Books. Reiter, P. More Details Original Title. Other Editions 4. Friend Reviews. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up.

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