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The study was intended to evaluate dose-related tolerability, safety, and activity of WS formulation in normal individuals. The design was prospective, open-labeled, variable doses in volunteers. Muscle activity was measured by hand grip strength, quadriceps strength, and back extensor force.

Exercise tolerance was determined using cycle ergometry. Adverse events were recorded, as volunteered by the subjects.

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All but one volunteer tolerated WS without any adverse event. One volunteer showed increased appetite, libido, and hallucinogenic effects with vertigo at the lowest dose and was withdrawn from study. The current experiment demonstrated that Ca and P retention are significantly modified by the level of dietary Ca. Our results suggest that the deleterious effects of the negative control diets and positive effect of WC on bone strength are mainly related to the structural properties of the tibia.

The administration of 1. The authors wish to express appreciation to Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. Appreciation is also expressed to the staff at the farm of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad for their support during the experiment. Withaferin A production by root cultures of Withania coagulans. AOAC International. Gaithersburg; Effect of the level of cholecalciferol supplementation of broiler breeder hen diets on the performance and bone abnormalities of the progeny fed diets containing various levels of calcium or hydroxycholecalciferol.

Poultry Science ; Withanolides form Withania coagulans. Phytochemistry ; Regional variation in cortical bone properties from broiler fowl-a first look. British Poultry Science ; Mechanical properties of nacre and highly mineralized bone. Indirect regeneration of Withania somnifera and comparative analysis of withanolides in in vitro and greenhouse grown plants. Journal of Plant Biology ; Edwards HM JR.

The effect of dietary cholecalciferol, hydroxycholecalciferol and 1. Journal of Nutrition ; Dietary 1. Farquharson C, Jefferies D. Chondrocytes and longitudinal bone growth: The development of tibial dyschondroplasia. Bone structure and breaking strength in laying hens housed in different husbandry systems. Current methods used in determination and evaluation of tibia strength; a correlation study involving birds fed various levels of cholecalciferol.

Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology - Part A ; Effectiveness of twenty-five-hydroxycholecalciferol in the prevention of tibial dyschondroplasia in Ross cockerels depends on dietary calcium level. Long-term supplementation of various dietary lipids alters bone mineral content, mechanical properties and histological characteristics of japanese quail. The control of chondrocyte differentiation during endochondral bone growth in vivo: changes in TGF-b and the proto-oncogene c-myc. Journal of Cell Science ; Coagulanolide, a withanolide from Withania coagulans fruits and antihyperglycemic activity.

Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters ; The effects of dietary 1. Scientific basis for the therapeutic use of Withania somnifera ashwagandha : A review. Alternative Medicine Review ; Additive effects of 1. Nagareddy PR, Lakshmana M. Withania somnifera improves bone calcification in calciumdeficient ovarectomized rats.

Pharmacy and pharmacology ; Effect of cholecalciferol derivatives on the mechanical properties of chicken bones. Calcified Tissue International ; Norman AW.

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From vitamin D to hormone D: Fundamentals of the vitamin D endocrine system essential for good health. The effect of virginiamycin in diets with adequate or reduced dietary calcium or nonphaytate phosphorus for broilers. Bone densitometry as an indicator of percentage tibia ash in broiler chicks fed varying dietary calcium and phosphorus levels.

Panwar J, Tarafdar JC. Distribution of three endangered medicinal plant species and their colonization with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Journal of Arid Environments ; Interaction of calcium and phytate in broiler diets. Effects on apparent pre-cecal digestibility and retention of phosphorus. Wound healing activity of Withania coagulans in streptozoto-cin-induced diabetic rats.

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Pharmaceutical Biology ; Rasool M, Varalakshmi P. Protective effect of Withania somnifera root powder in relation to lipid peroxidation, antioxidant status, glycoproteins and bone collagen on adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. Comparative differences in the composition and biomechanical properties of tibiae of seven- and seventy-two-week-old male and female broiler breeder chickens. Calcitroic acid, end product of renal metabolism of 1. Biochemistry ; Studies on effects of nutritional factors on bone structure and osteoporosis in laying hens.

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Effects of ascorbic acid and 1. Ross Broiler: nutrition specification [cited May 25]. Scotland; Phosphorus utilization in finishing broiler chickens: effects of dietary calcium and microbial phytase.

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SAS Institute. SAS user's guide: statistics. Cary; Utilization of phytate phosphorus in laying hens as influenced by dietary phosphorus and calcium. Nutrition Reports International ; Shape and scaling. In: Biewener AA, editors. Biomechanics, structures and systems: a practical approach. Oxford: University Press; Soares JH JR. Calcium metabolism and its control.

A review. The effects of phytase and root hydroalcoholic extract of Withania somnifera on productive performance and bone mineralisation of laying hens in the late phase of production. Biological activity of 1. Endocrinology ; Practical enzyme use in poultry diets: phytase and NSP enzymes. Proceedings of the Carolina Poultry Nutrition Conference. Charlotte, Carolina do Norte. Estados Unidos; The determination of chromic oxide in faeces samples by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

Journal of Agricultural Science ; Wilson J H. Bone strength of caged layers as affected by dietary calcium and phosphorus concentrations, reconditioning, and ash content. British Poultry Science , Evaluation of the broilers ability to adapt to an early moderate deficiency of phosphorus and calcium.

Withania somnifera - Wikipedia

Long-term, high-fat sucrose diet alters rat femoral neck and vertebral morphology, bone mineral content, and mechanical properties. Bone ; Box: , Saravan, Sistan and Baluchestan, Iran. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License.

Services on Demand Journal. Articles Effects of 1. Abstract An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Withania coagulans WC fruit and 1. Introduction Dietary and endogenous vitamin D 3 metabolism in the bird is a complex process. Birds, husbandry and treatments Six hundred day-old male Ross broiler chickens were purchased from a commercial hatchery, and randomly allocated to 12 experimental treatments with five replicates 10 birds per replicate. General procedures Feed intake FI and body weight gain BWG were recorded at 11, 24 and 42 days of age to assess growth performance.