The people of Quito have a feeling for art. The city was alerted and the entire populace turned out to search. The painting was found and restored to its place. The thief was a foreign art dealer. The two culprits confessed. Our artist was of a temperament more easily roiled than the sea when it is suffering from a stomach ache and cramps.
The magistrate appeared and upbraided him for his violent behavior. One of these, the one entitled Milagro del peso de las ceras, 9 deserves special mention. III By the time that Miguel de Santiago could freely breathe once again the air of his native city, the asceticism of his century had taken hold of him. But not for all this did he lose sight of his idea. The fever of his inspiration consumed him, and yet his brush refused to obey his powerful intelligence and his stubborn will. Among the disciples who frequented his study was a young man of striking beauty.
Miguel thought he saw in him the model he needed to fully carry out his idea. He had him undress and placed him on a wooden cross. The position 9 The Miracle of the Weighing of the Candles. But the artist was not seeking an expression of satisfaction or indifference, but one of pain and anguish. Good, master Miguel! Good, very good, master Miguel! Art had caused him to commit murder! His extraordinary merit served as his defense, and after a long trial he was absolved. The painting was taken to Spain. Does it still exist, or can it have been lost because of the well-known carelessness of that country?
We do not know. Miguel de Santiago, who from the day of his crime for the sake of art suffered from frequent hallucinations, died in November of His last resting place is at the foot of the altar of San Miguel in the chapel of El Sagrario. Hence the house, like the attire of those who lived there, revealed from a mile away one of those sorts of poverty that rubs elbows with beggary.
And this was in fact the case. The 12 hidalgos belonged to the number of those vanquished in the battle of Salinas on April 6, The fallen and the upright, the satiated and the starved: that was the colony, and that has been and is the republic. The law of the hammer and the anvil ruling every time the tables turned, or as the song has it: We got out of Guate-mala And entered Guate-peor:2 the tambourine changes hands, but it sounds the same as before. Because of the importance of the role they play in this chronicle, we shall sketch a brief likeness of each one of the noblemen, beginning with the owner of the house.
A tout seigneur tout honneur. The Knights of the Cape 15 had been an extravagant spendthrift; he was valiant, of graceful bearing, and his men were generally devoted to him. He was captain of infantry in the battle of Salinas. There was something of the rogue and the rascal about him. None of them lived to be As is evident, the latter had been an important personage and at the time that we are portraying him he was 46 years old.
In truth they were not related, for don Diego was a poor foundling. It is common knowledge that, just as in our day no man who respects himself would go out on the street in his shirt sleeves, so in bygone days no man who aspired to be considered decent dared appear in public without his cape. Be it cold weather or hot, the Spaniard of old and the cape went together, whether it was out walking, banqueting, or on feast days of the Church.
For this reason I suspect that the decree issued by the minister Monteagudo in forbidding Spaniards to wear the cape had for the independence of Peru the same importance 16 Second Series as a battle won by the insurgents. Once the cape was abolished, Spain disappeared. To make matters even worse for our 12 hidalgos, they had only one cape between them, and when one of them was obliged to go out, the rest of them were kept inside for lack of the indispensable garment.
A brief biographical note on Picado is to the point here. Picado came to Peru in as secretary to the Marshal don Pedro de Alvarado, he of the famous leap in Mexico. The marshal sent troops in pursuit of him, and when they were unsuccessful wrote to don Diego that he would not enter into any agreement whatsoever with him unless he handed over the person of his disloyal secretary.
The Knights of the Cape 17 the investigating magistrate had not arrived as yet in the City of Kings; illness and bad weather at sea were delaying him. Meanwhile Pizarro tried to win friends even among the Knights of the Cape and sent messages to Sotelo, Chaves, and others, offering to extricate them from the sorry state of paupers in which they were living. We must give them some breathing room. They have had enough misfortune without our troubling them further. They are gamblers who have lost and as such they are going to extremes.
The Knights of the Cape immediately summoned Juan de Rada. Pizarro had offered Almagro the Younger, who was left an orphan at the age of 19, to be a second father to him, and to that end had taken him to live at his palace; but when the youth, tired of hearing words demeaning the memory of the marshal and his friends, he broke off with the marquis and became the ward of Juan de Rada. The latter, a lively and respected elderly man who belonged to a noble family of Castile, was held to be a man of great prudence and experience.
Rada swiftly answered the call of the Knights of the Cape. Nonetheless, the marquis ordered no special measures. In the midst of this lack of action on the part of the governor, the latter received letters from the authorities of different cities informing him that the men from Chile were openly paving the way for an uprising throughout the country. These accusations and others obliged him to send for Juan de Rada one morning.
People are also saying that Your Lordship is thinking of killing the magistrate who is being sent by the king. If such is your intention and you decide to kill the men from Chile, do not kill all of them. Let Your Lordship send don Diego into exile on a ship, for he is innocent, and I shall go with him wherever fortune may take us. Such a thought never entered my mind, and I am more anxious than you to see the magistrate arrive, as he already would have had he agreed to board the galleon that I sent to Panama to bring him here.
As for the arms, I will have you know that I went out hunting the other day, and among all of those in our party none of us was carrying a lance, so I sent my servants to buy one, and they bought four. May it please God, Juan de Rada, that the royal envoy should arrive and these matters have an end, and may He uphold the truth!
Perhaps Pizarro would not have come to his unhappy end if, as the keen-witted Rada advised him, he had exiled Almagro on the spot. With this interview don Francisco thought that he had averted all danger, and he continued to disregard the warnings that he continually received. Sunday June 26 dawned, and the marquis arose somewhat concerned. Despite his 64 years, Pizarro fought with the verve of youth, and the conspirators were unable to get past a door defended by the marquis and his four companions, who emulated his brio and his bravery.
Why do you want to kill me? How shameful! Attacking my house like brigands! At least that is the general belief. The tyrant is dead! Long live Almagro! May justice be done on earth! The Mercedarian friars, who in Lima as in Cuzco were supporters of Almagro, carried their monstrance in procession and hastened to recognize the new government. The friars always played a large role in the quarrels of the conquistadors. From this my camp at Pachamac.
Your servant kisses the hand of Your Paternity. Rada was always the soul of the conspiracy, and Almagro the Younger was ignorant of all the plans of his supporters. He was not consulted regarding the murder of Pizarro, and the young leader played no role in it save to accept it as an accomplished fact. We do not know for certain whether the Church venerates Father Valverde among its martyrs. The Knights of the Cape would not have forgiven him either. My pen declines to comment on such a base act.
III The End of the Twelve Knights of the Cape and Their Leader It is not our intention to go into details concerning the 14 months and a half that Almagro the Younger acted as caudillo, or to write a history of the campaign that Vaca de Castro was obliged to undertake to vanquish him. With few sympathies among the residents of Lima, don Diego found himself forced to abandon the city in order to reinforce his troops in Guamanga and Cuzco, where he had many supporters. Thus ended the life of one of the Knights of the Cape. Juan de Rada, worn out by his years and his tribulations, died in Jauja as the campaign began.
This was a fatal blow to the rebel cause. Such was the death of the second Knight of the Cape. Almagro the Younger would have liked to punish the treacherous murderer immediately, but it was not an easy undertaking. Thus three of the Knights of the Cape left this world before doing battle with the enemy. It was written in the stars that all of them would die a violent death, bathed in their own blood.
Meanwhile, the decisive moment was approaching, and Vaca de Castro made peace overtures to Almagro and declared an amnesty, from which only the nine Knights of the Cape who were still alive, and two or three Spaniards besides, were excepted. On Sunday, September 16, , the civil war ended with the bloody battle of Chupas. Almagro, at the head of men, was almost the victor over the who were following the colors of Vaca de Castro. The number of dead on both sides was over , and the number of wounded was also considerable.
In view of such a small a number of combatants, carnage such as that can be explained only by keeping in mind that the supporters of young Almagro had for their leader the same fanatical devotion that they had professed for his father the marshal, and it is a well-known fact that fanaticism for a cause has always made for heroes and martyrs.
Those were indeed the days when great valor was needed to enter the fray. Battles ended in hand-to-hand combat, and strength, skill, and high morale determined the outcome. Artillery was in its infancy; if stone-throwing mortars or falconets were of any use, it was to make noise as did petards. Their dead bodies were quartered the following day.
They lived there until the end of Almagro was brought to trial and emerged a condemned man. He appealed the verdict to the Royal Tribunal of Panama and to the king, and the appeal was denied. I ask only that I be buried in the same grave, beneath his remains. Thus, with the sad end of their leader and of the Knights of the Cape, the band of men from Chile was annihilated.
The year of grace was drawing to a close, and the municipal magistrate of the town was the bachelor-of-laws don Diego de Esquivel, an irascible and covetous man, who was reputed to be capable of auctioning off justice in exchange for bars of silver. His Honor was also fond of the fruit of paradise, and in the imperial town there was much gossip about his exploits as a philanderer. Hence the magistrate was eager for the chance to take his vengeance on the ungrateful girl who had snubbed him, as well as on the lad who had won her favor. The shouts and the fracas that ensued brought the night watch, and with it the magistrate, armed with his ceremonial sword and staff.
In the name of a pyrotechnic history and a phosphorescent literature I protest against the supression of the bad enemy. A hidalgo! Tell that to me in my other ear. Go with God, and let no one come to me another day with a tale like that, for it displeases me to hear such stories. The world would be the better for it.
Duels, even for ridiculous reasons, were the vogue of the period, and many of them took place with the duelists wearing blood-red tunics. Unfortunately ill health dulled his energetic spirit, and death carried him off in July of , after he had served as viceroy for only ten months.
His Majesty wants soldiers with honor, and I have lost mine. And three months had thus gone by when don Diego received letters summoning him to Lima to take possession of an inheritance, and having obtained permission from the chief magistrate to leave town, he began to make preparations for the trip. I should say so! Seeing as how I must take care of those ears of yours.
Early the next morning don Diego began his trip to Cuzco. Once he had reached the city of the Incas, he was on his way to visit a friend that same day, when on turning a corner he felt a hand on his shoulder. I see that those ears of yours are still in their rightful place, and that pleases me. Three weeks later, after our traveler had arrived in Guamanga and gone to his room at the inn, there was a knock on the door as darkness fell. Have those ears of yours suffered no deterioration? Well then, till we meet again.
There was no avoiding him. In church and on his strolls the man dogged him like his shadow, his eternal nightmare. Esquivel was in a state of constant anxiety, and the slightest noise made him give a start. The image of his relentless pursuer was forever etched on the pupils of his eyes. And thus there arrived the anniversary of the scene in jail. Suddenly a man stole in through a window in the next room, two sinewy arms held Esquivel fast, a gag smothered his cries, and in a moment strong ropes bound his body to the armchair.
The magistrate died a month later, not so much as a consequence of his wounds as on account of his humiliation at hearing himself called The Man with No Ears. In a short time the Augustinians, because of their ascetic customs and their learning and science, gained a sort of supremacy over the other orders.
They acquired very valuable properties, both rural and urban, and their income was so well managed and increased so greatly that for more than a century they were able to distribute 5, pesos in alms each year during Holy Week. The most eminent theologians and the most distinguished preachers belonged to this order, and the cloisters of San Ildefonso, a seminary that the Fathers founded A Heretical Viceroy and a Rascally Bell Ringer 37 in for the education of their novices, turned out truly illustrious men.
But the scalawag found a patron in one of the outstanding Fathers of the order, and the monks charitably agreed to let him stay and gave him the important post of bell ringer. The bell ringers of rich convents had as subordinates two slave boys, who wore the habit of lay brothers. It was a prestigious post much sought after and earned a salary of a peso a day. Philip II, in a royal decree of November 24, , had forbidden the manufacture of carriages or their importation from Spain, giving as his reason for prohibiting the use of such vehicles the fact that, in view of the scarcity of horses, they should be reserved for military purposes.
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The penalties laid down for offenders was severe. This royal decree, which was not rescinded by Philip III, began to be disobeyed in The sound of a carriage was in those days such an event that families, taking it to be the one that precedes earthquakes, rushed helter-skelter to the doors of their houses. And each Father, armed with his scourge, unleashed a penitential lash on the bare back of Jorge Escoiquiz. He was the uncle of the count of Salvatierra, whom he relieved as ruler of Peru. His six years as viceroy were six years of tears, mourning, and public unrest.
The galleon commanded by the marquis of Villarrubia that was carrying almost six million in gold and silver and passengers, was shipwrecked off the cliffs of Chanduy, and only 45 persons were saved. A private company managed to bring up from the sea bottom nearly , pesos, a third of which was handed over to the crown. But for Lima, the worst of the disasters was the earthquake of November 13, And for nothing to be lacking in this gloomy picture, civil war overtook part of the territory.
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The Indian Pedro Bohorques, on escaping from prison in Valdivia, raised his standard after proclaiming himself the descendant of the Incas, and after having himself crowned placed himself at the head of an army. Defeated and taken prisoner, he was taken to Lima, where the gallows awaited him. Jamaica, which until that time had been a Spanish colony, was captured by the English and turned into a center of pirate activity, which for a century and a half kept this territory in a state of continual alarm.
The king put the two of them on a equal footing by ruling that neither the viceroy nor the archbishop should use a sunshade. The count of Alba de Liste was opposed to the consecration of Friar Cipriano Medina as bishop of Guamanga, maintaining that the bulls appointing him were not in order.
But the archbishop went at midnight to the seminary of San Francisco for novices and there consecrated Medina. When the royal magistrates arrested the scribes of the ecclesiastical tribunal for contempt of court, the archbishop excommunicated the magistrates. The viceroy, backed by the Royal Tribunal, obliged His Reverence to rescind the excommunication. The viceroy also had the misfortune of living in open war with the Inquisition, which was then at the height of its power and prestige. The viceroy left the church in great indignation, and sent Philip IV a well-founded complaint.
In August of , after handing over the government to the count of Santisteban, the viceroy returned to Spain, more than happy to leave a land where he risked being turned into a crackling by being burned to death as a heretic. All the inhabitants of Lima were in their beds and sleeping like logs at that hour, and they immediately rushed into streets asking one another what the good news was that the bells were celebrating with their tongues of bronze. He spent a couple of hours in delightful intimacy, and was returning to the palace after midnight with the same caution and secrecy.
On the following day the news spread all over the city that a nocturnal stroll of the viceroy had occasioned the untimely pealing of the bells. Who told you that I was passing by last night? And now tell me: What can I do for you? His Excellency promised to do so, and three or four months later the superior of the Augustinians allowed the bell ringer to return.
According to some, Escoiquiz never got beyond being an ordinary friar; according to others, he became a dignitary of his convent. I cannot say which version is true. The count of Bornos said that the most learned woman is capable of governing only twelve hens and one rooster. I know women capable of governing twenty-four hens. Just as I am telling you, like it or not we Peruvians were governed 46 Second Series by a woman for ten months. She dressed in splendor and was never seen in public when she was not decked with diamonds. Of her disposition it is said that she was extremely haughty and dominating, and that she was inordinately proud of her lineage and titles of nobility.
And the pride of someone like her, when she counted among the saints of the celestial court none other than her grandfather Francisco de Borja, must have been a mere nothing! His Paternity was a chubby little man with wide shoulders, a pot belly, a short neck, bulging eyes, and a reddish Roman nose. Imagine, reader, a candidate for a sudden attack of apoplexy, and you will have a perfect portrait of the Hieronymite friar. The vicereine summoned the judges and submitted the accusation to them. In those days there was no such thing as guarantees of the individual or other such foolishness of the sort that today are customary and give the individual as much protection as does a silken doublet from a clubbing from the back.
And if he turns out to be a priest tonsured by a barber and not by an archbishop, then without more kyries or litanies we can call Gonzalvillo to hang him by the neck on the gallows in the main square. The best birds in the poultry yard, turkey, chicken, and even pig in a blanket were served in profusion.
He did full honor to all the dishes. There was yet another. Spanish cuisine is loaded with spices, and this naturally makes one thirsty. It was fashionable to place on the table large Guadalajara earthenware vessels that have the property of keeping water cool and give it a most agreeeable taste. This was the decisive proof she was waiting for.
If her guest was not what he revealed himself to be by his habit, he would drink the water down sparingly, with a neatness not customary in the refectory. His Paternity immediately passed his hand across his forehead to wipe away the sweat that was pouring out of him, and gave a belch like the snort of a harpooned whale. Let the good priest go in peace. The plot of it is so thorny and delicate that the ink turns to sediment on the tip of my pen.
Never was ham better preserved, not even in Westphalia. As for discretion, I am the keeper of the seal of secrecy. Among them was a robust and attractive mulatto 24 years old, for whom the deceased count had stood as godfather at his baptism, and as his godson he had always been treated with special affection and favor. When the count decided that his godson now knew enough to correct a prescription of Hippocrates himself, he sent him back to the hacienda as doctor and apothecary, assigning him a room outside the quarters occupied by the other slaves, permitting him to dress decently and fashionably, and allowing him to occupy a seat at the table where the steward or administrator, a dimwitted Galician; the head overseer, who was cast in the same mold as the latter; and the chaplain, a chubby Mercedarian friar with a fatter neck than a Bujama deer, took their meals.
Though not without muttering under their breath, the three of them were obliged to accept the doctor with the brand-new medical degree; and to make a long story short, either because of the useful 1 Francisco de Quevedo, a Spanish Golden Age satirist — Juan del Valle Caviedes — was a notable satirist whose most famous work is El diente del parnaso Tooth of Parnassus.
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The idleness and isolation of life on a hacienda, the ever impressionable nerves of the daughters of Eve, the trust that lemon balm water will calm them, especially if the doctor who administers it is young, good looking, and intelligent, the frequency and degree of intimacy of their relations, and—all the rest: what do I know? As the song rightly has it: The sun suffers few eclipses and the moon a thousand; for women are apt to go wrong more often than men.
Unfortunately, his hauteur and the spirit of petty rivalry that he harbored against his predecessor, harassing him despicably in the trial over residence, detract from the name of the archbishop and viceroy in the eyes of history. The Peace of Utrecht put an end to the war, with Portugal obtaining advantageous concessions from Spain. As for the 11 prisoners, they were executed in the main square of Lima. This era was one of great religious controversies.
The rivalry between friars and Jesuit fathers in the missions of Mojos, Carabaya, and Amazonas; a stormy chapter in the history of the nuns of Saint Catherine in Quito, many of whom abandoned the cloister; and the dispute between Bishop Mollinedo and the canons of Cuzco over details of discipline, could be written about at length.
A year after the countess had established herself on the hacienda, she brought to it from a convent of nuns in Lima a little slave girl, 15 or 16 Aprils old, as fresh as a sherbet, as mischievous as an elf, as joyful as a Christmas Mass, and with a pair of black eyes so black that they seemed made of the darkness of night. The Countess Who Was Summoned 55 by learning needlework and other arts in which the good nuns are so skillful, her mistress had paid for her music and dance teachers, and the girl took such good advantage of the lessons that in Lima there was no harpist more expert, no timbre of voice purer and more pliant for singing the arias Bella Aminta and Pastor Feliz, no feet more nimble for tripping a sajuriana, 5 no waist more slender and patriotic for dancing a little dance of this homeland of ours.
The resentful rival then decided to take his vengeance, and went to the 5 A traditional Peruvian dance. A girl of color. Bells are not cast to make people frightened when they ring. The countess had enough strength of will to control herself, thanked the chaplain for his piece of Christian information, and simply said that she would be able to put her house in order.
She, who had deigned to descend from the pedestal of her pride and preoccupations to raise a miserable slave to her own height, could not forgive him for treacherously deceiving her. The countess put a stop to the punishment and questioned him once more. The victim did not back down from his denials, and more exasperated than before, the countess threatened to have him thrown into a cauldron of boiling honey.
To the cauldron with him! And the terrible command was immediately obeyed. The months went by, her illness grew worse, and science declared defeat. The new chaplain, who had replaced the Mercedarian friar, was summoned and heard her confession, pardoning her in the name of Him Who is ever merciful. The priest gave Gertrudis her letter of emancipation and a sum of money from her mistress.
The unfortunate girl of color, whose fatal beauty was the cause of the tragedy, left an hour later for Lima, and took the habit of a lay sister in the convent of the Poor Clares. Names matter little if one takes care not to falsify historical truth, and the reader will readily guess the very powerful reason we had for rebaptizing our fellows.
Sergio Waisman, ed. Francine Massiello —Ed. Don Fernando de Vergara, a nobleman from Extremadura and captain of gentleman lancers, stood out from the others thanks to his dashing and martial air, and it is said of him that even in the company of Mexican beauties he had not lost his reputation as an austere Benedictine monk. Evangelina Zamora had, along with her youth and beauty, other qualities that made her the most enviable match of the City of Kings.
The emperor gave him permission to use a don before his name, and a few years later the valuable gifts that he sent the crown secured for him the honor of a habit of the Order of Santiago. The daughter of the count of La Monclova, who was in modest circumstances, and the wealthy young Evangelina soon cemented the most cordial friendship. The 60 Second Series intermediary was the viceroy himself, and a well-bred young lady would never think of saying no to so distinguished a sponsor. His wife and children were his one source of happiness; he was, let us put it thus, an exemplary husband.
But one fateful day the devil caused don Fernando to accompany his spouse to a festive family gathering, and caused there to be a gaming room where not only was the classic card game malilla abarrotada played, but many devotees of the little cubes of the dice box were also gathered round a table covered in green baize. He gambled, with such bad luck that he lost 20, pesos that night. From that time on, the model husband changed his habits completely, and returned to his feverish existence as a gambler.
The gambler and the madman are decidedly one and the same. In vain did Evangelina make every effort to lead the unrestrained gambler away from the precipice. Tears and tenderness, quarrels and reconciliations were useless. The good lady had no more weapons to bring to bear on the heart of the man she loved.
One night the unhappy wife had already retired to her bed when don Fernando awakened her to ask her for her engagement ring, a diamond solitaire of very great value. What had happened in the room where the rival gamblers had been? Bad luck is inexorable. Don Fernando shook with shame and remorse. A horrible vertigo overcame don Fernando, and swift as a tiger he threw himself on the marquis and thrust his dagger in his back three times. II At a very early age the count of La Monclova sent a company he commanded into the fray at Arras in He eventually recovered, though with the loss of his right arm, which it was found necessary to amputate.
It was replaced by a silver one, and this was the source of the nickname he was known by in Mexico and in Lima. The arcades with their 85 arches, which cost 25, pesos to build, the city hall, and the gallery of the palace were constructed in this era. In a freak was born in Lima with two heads and two pretty faces, two hearts, four arms, and two chests joined by cartilege. From its waist to its feet there was little about it that was out of the ordinary, and the erudite scholar and encyclopedist don Pedro de Peralta of Lima wrote a curious book, with the title of Desvios de la naturaleza,2 in which, as well as offering a minute anatomical description of the freak, he endeavors to prove that it was endowed with two souls.
Following the death of Charles the Bewitched in , Philip V, who succeeded him, rewarded the count of La Monclova by making him a grandee of Spain. Confronted with such a frank confession, the tribunal was forced to apply the death penalty. Dressed in mourning she presented herself in the drawing room of the palace, as the viceroy, the count of La Monclova, was conferring with the magistrates.
The wretch had gone mad! A few years later, death folded its wings about the chaste bed of the noble spouse, and an austere priest offered the dying lady the consolations of religion. God, who reads into the crystal of my conscience, knows that I have lost my honor in the eyes of society so that you would not be one day called the children of a father hanged to death. Therefore, and pardon our bold presumption, each time that the feverish desire to write takes possession of us, a demon of temptation that youth can scarcely resist, we evoke in our nocturnal solitude the mysterious genius that watches over the history of the bygone days of a people that lives on, nourished not by memories or hopes but by realities.
We repeat: In America tradition is barely alive. America still enjoys the novelty of a discovery and values a fabulous treasure that has barely begun to be exploited. The early days of the empire of the Incas, after which there follows the bloody trail of the conquest, have come down to us depicted in fabulous and implausible colors. It appears that a similar fate awaits the three centuries of Spanish domination.
Meanwhile, it is up to our young people to do something to keep A Viceroy and an Archbishop 65 tradition from being completely lost. That is therefore the purpose on which our attention is focused by choice, and in order to attract that of the people we believe it useful to adorn every historical narrative with the trappings of romance.
The more intelligent or bold a man, the more his spirit appears to be susceptible of welcoming a superstition. Only the fool is not superstitious. Caesar placed his trust in luck during a storm. Napoleon, who distributed thrones as the booty of war, remembered, on giving battle, the brightness of the sun at Austerlitz, and is even said to have had his future read in the cards by a fortune teller Mademoiselle Lenormand. But this preoccupation is never so obvious as when it is a question of the number It so happened that a number of times when there were 13 guests at a banquet, one of them would die within the year; it is certain that this is the source of the exhaustive care with which Cabalists count how many persons are seated at table.
The devout explain that the bad luck of the number 13 stems from the fact that at the divine Last Supper Judas was the 13th at table. This is the origin of the instinctive horror of marriage that bachelors profess, a horror that we will not deign to say whether or not it is well founded, just as we would not dare to declare ourselves either advocates or enemies of the sacred bonds of matrimony. A close friend complained of having attended a banquet at which the guests at table numbered Did anything unfortunate occur? My reason tells me that the next 13 years do not bode well. And the fact that his heart was a faithful prophet for the viceroy since during his 15 years as viceroy catastrophes abounded is substantiated by a rapid review of the history of those years.
II Regarding an Excommunication, and How because of It the Viceroy and the Archbishop Became Enemies The obligation to motivate the following chapter would doubtless make us run the risk of mentioning facts that might wound touchy sensibilities were we not to adopt the tactic of changing names and telling of the event at a gallop. On a country estate in the Ate valley, near Lima, there lived a poor priest who was acting as chaplain of the estate. The owner, who was no less than a grandee of Castile, owing to matters of little importance that, moreover, are irrelevant here, caused the good chaplain to be paraded through the patio one morning, riding on a donkey and being given a good taste of the lash; he is said to have died shortly thereafter of pain and shame.
This horrifying punishment, suffered by one anointed of the Lord, caused a great commotion among the peaceloving people. The crime was unheard of. The Church issued a decree of total excommunication of the owner of the estate, in which it was ordered that the walls of the patio where the chaplain had been put to shame be torn down and that the land of the estate be sown with salt, not to mention many other rituals concerning which we shall spare the reader.
Our estate owner, who enjoyed great prestige in the mind of the viceroy and who, moreover, was a relative by marriage of his secretary Pedro Bravo, found himself protected by the two aforementioned, who had recourse to every means at their disposal to diminish to some degree the severity of the excommunication. The people, more and more incensed, were demanding the prompt punishment of the author of the sacrilegious act, and the viceroy, convinced that the archbishop was not a man who could be used for his purposes, found himself obliged to give in despite himself.
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Praised be the Lord, those were good days for the Church! The 68 Second Series people, as yet not contaminated by impiety, which according to many, is today taking giant steps forward, believed at the time with simple faith. Wicked society that has succumbed to the accursed fever of combating the concerns and errors of the past! Perverse human race that tends toward freedom and progress, and bears imprinted on its banner the imperative of civilization: Forward! We repeat that we have recorded this curious fact only in embyronic form and with great caution, wanting nothing to do with adorning it with myriad glosses and incidental details concerning it.
Let us leave such people to their mad beliefs and write: period, and da capo. III How the Archbishop of Lima Celebrated Mass after Having Had Lunch It is a well-known fact that for the good inhabitants of the republic of Lima quarrels over privileges and prerogatives between the civil and ecclesiastic powers have always been a source of scandal. Even those of us who were born in these trying times remember many disputes between our presidents and the archbishop or the bishops. But in the era in which, by order of His Majesty Ferdinand VI, His Excellency the count of Superunda governed this viceroyalty of Peru, the two powers nearly counterbalanced each other, and His Excellency was far too timid to have recourse to his authority.
The complaints ended up in the court, which decided against the archbishop. And inasmuch as he acted without experience, he fell out in short order with his council and various tribunals. The paths that many times I induced the archbishop to follow, with an eye to his decorum and the tranquillity of the city, were maxims quite the opposite of those of his advisors, who lost no time in persuading him that his subordination was a snub to his dignity and that he should make it known that he was the archbishop, clearly differentiating his authority from that of the viceroy who so badly humiliated him.
If all of the incidents and obstacles that were later met with by the government in its dealings with the archbishop were recorded, they would constitute a bulky volume or history. Chairs were set out for the Royal Tribunal, and at twelve noon Barroeta headed for the church and made himself comfortable beneath the canopy; but to his great surprise he saw the viceroy enter shortly thereafter, preceded by the various municipal corporations. What had made His Excellency decide to change the ceremony in this way? Something of little moment.
The certainty that His Reverence had just had for his lunch, eaten in the presence of laymen and clerics, either a consumptive or a robust stewed pullet, which of the two the chronicler took no pains to ascertain. His Reverence felt all the more confused the more the smiles and glances of the courtiers were haughty and mocking. Five minutes thus went by and still the ceremony did not begin.
The sword was humiliating the soutane. But the good viceroy had not reckoned with this guest, or what amounts to the same thing, he was forgetting that he who lays down the law lays a trap for himself. And what is notable about this account is that he did just as he said he would. A Viceroy and an Archbishop 71 IV In which the Pullet Begins to Cause Indigestion We leave it to the imagination of our readers to calculate the scandal that the appeararance of the archbishop doubtless caused, a scandal that reached a climax when he was seen to consume the Divine Form.
Meanwhile, the archbishop was not asleep, and even as the viceroy and the Royal Tribunal sent off to the king and his Council of the Indies a well-founded accusation of Barroeta, the latter called the ecclesiastic council together in his palace. In point of fact, minutes of the proceedings were drawn up in which, after citing the holy fathers, turning to the secret papal bulls of Paul II and other pontiffs, and undermining canon law, the conduct of the dignitary, which did not stop at eating pullets or buns, was approved, with the aim of furthering what goes by the name of the code of prerogatives and privileges of the Church of Christ.
The archbishop thereupon appealed to His Holiness, who gave his approval of the step taken. Gentle is manso in Spanish. Among the archbishops that Lima has had, one of the most notable for the morality of his life and for his education and talent was don Pedro Antonio de Barroeta y Angel, born in Rioja in Castilla la Vieja. He had the synodal record of Lobo Guerrero reprinted,2 and during the seven years that, according to Unanue,3 his authority as archbishop lasted, he issued a number of edicts and regulations to reform the manners and morals of the clergy that, according to one writer of the time, were not very evangelical.
Judging from the portrait of him in the sacristy of the cathedral, his eyes reveal his energetic nature and his broad forehead shows clear signs of intelligence. He succeeded in making himself loved by the people, but not by the canons, whom he frequently had cause to bring into line, and he vigorously supported those whose awareness of their century and their education he regarded as privileges of the Church. A Viceroy and an Archbishop 73 V Episcopal Witticisms And in case the opportunity to speak of Archbishop Barroeta does not present itself again, I shall take advantage of this one and bring up a few witticisms of his.
When radishes come your way, buy them. As His Reverence was visiting the cloisters of Lima, he arrived at one in which he found the friars in a turmoil directed at their provincial or superior.
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The community complained that the latter was tyrannizing his inferiors to the point of forbidding anyone to cross the threshold and go outside without permission. When the provincial recovered from his stupefaction, he went to the palace of the archbishop and respectfully complained to him that in the presence of the community His Reverence had forced him to hold his tongue. What were my words? What were the friars asking for?
Complaining about being shut up? Well then, let Your Reverence allow them out for a stroll along the street and they will leave you in peace. Barroeta, who had little idea of the purity and morality of the candidate, turned the marquise down. Chile owes to him the founding of its most important cities, and history, ever just, devotes honorable pages to him. The people are never ungrateful toward those who dedicate themselves to its good, a pleasing truth that, unfortunately, frequently causes public men in South America to be forgotten.
While he exercised the presidency of Chile, he governed uprightly, was conciliatory toward the conquered and conquering races, tireless in promoting material improvements, tenacious in awakening in the common people the habit of work. With such worthy antecedents he went on to the viceroyalty, where he did battle with base, creeping intrigues that hindered the advance of his rule and made his disposition of his troops useless. His predecessor, moreover, had handed the country over to him in a state of violent upheaval.
Manso marshaled all his vigor and energy and within a short time managed to imprison and kill the caudillo, whose head was placed on the arch of the Lima bridge. Do not tax us with lacking in love for the American cause because we call Apu Inca a rebel.
His pretensions were those of the ambitious man without talent, who, by usurping a name, becomes the leader of a horde. He proclaimed the extermination of the white race without offering the native his political rehabilitation. His cause was that of barbarism against civilization. Growing weary of the hazards that surrounded him in Peru, Manso was returning to Europe via Costa Firme when, to his misfortune, the boat that was transporting him put in at the island of Cuba, under siege at the time by the English.
His Reverence halted and looked with a fatherly smile at that happy crowd of young scholars enjoying the day off from school that the preceptors of those days gave their pupils. The dominy was a venerable old man with bold and noble features who, despite his poverty, wore his threadbare gown with a certain air A Viceroy and an Archbishop 77 of distinction. Having settled in Granada a short time before, he was head of a school, going under the name of Master Velazco, with nothing of his life story being known. The Archbishop had scarcely set eyes on him when he recognized him to be the count of Superunda and embraced him.
Down with the proud! Suddenly the sound of a horse galloping up to the door was heard, and the horseman, without removing his spurs, strode into the dining room. And as a crowning touch to his disrepute, the vicar general and the canons of Cuzco had solemnly excommunicated him for certain infringements upon the authority of the Church. All the guests stood up as the corregidor came in. Paying no attention to the cacique, the corregidor thereupon sat himself down in the seat that the latter had been occupying, and the noble Indian went to sit down at the other end of the table, disregarding the lack of courtesy on the part of the vainglorious Spaniard.
So long 3 An Indian leader. And without giving the wretched corregidor time to put up the slightest resistance, they clapped a pair of irons on him and took him to Tungasuca. Indian couriers left immediately with messages for Upper Peru and other locations, and Tupac raised his colors in rebellion against Spain. Give me sanctuary! The Church will not give sanctuary to a scoundrel who has been excommunicated!
III Our Tradition should end here, but the plan for our work requires that we devote a few lines by way of an epilogue to the viceroy under whose rule this incident took place. The knight commander arrived in Lima on June 21, , and to be frank, none of his predecessors took command under less favorable omens than he. On the one hand, the savages of Chanchamayo had just razed and sacked a number of civilized settlements, and on the other, the increased taxes and the steps taken by the tyrannical royal inspector Areche had given rise to serious disturbances, in which many corregidors and tax collectors fell victim to the wrath of the people.
This is not the place to give an account of this tremendous revolution that, as is well known, put the colonial government in grave danger. Independence came close to being achieved at that point. On April 6, Good Friday of the year , the Inca and his principal vassals were taken prisoner and the most barbarous atrocities practiced on them.
There were tongues cut off and hands severed, bodies quartered, the gallows, and the garrote, for Areche permitted every sort of savagery imaginable. Nonetheless the spark of revolt was not put out until July of , when there took place in Lima the execution of don Felipe Tupac, the brother of the unfortunate Inca and chieftain of the Indians of Huarochiri. He has died! Thus did the Indians avenge the death of Tupac-Amaru.
The latter willingly agreed, and the Inca and his 40, warriors were cordially and splendidly received by the Icans. As Pachacutec was visiting the unruly territory that he had just subjected to his domination, he stopped for a week in the pago 1 called Tate. The owner of Tate was an elderly woman who lived with beautiful young girl, her daughter. But she loved a handsome young man of the region and had the strength, which only true love inspires, to resist the lovesmitten pleas of the prestigious and all-powerful sovereign.
Ask a favor of 1 Country property or estate. Your nobility would have won my heart had my soul not already been the slave of another master. I shall ask you for nothing, since the one who receives gifts is placed under an obligation. Reign, Your Lordship, over grateful hearts rather than over men who timidly bow before you, dazzled by your splendor. Farewell, illusory dream of my life! Wait ten days, and you will see that what you seek has come about. Farewell, and do not forget your king!
For ten days the 40, men of the army were occupied in opening the bed of the river that takes its rise on the estates of El Molino and El Trapiche and ends at Tate, the country property on which there lived the beautiful young lady with whom Pachacutec had fallen passionately in love. And this said, enough of beating about the bush and on to the main concern. Around the year don Antonio Solar was one of the richest inhabitants of the City of Kings. The mita was a system of enforced Indian labor; mitayos were the Indian laborers of the mita.
More than a century later, under the rule of the viceroy and duke of La Palata, an edict was published that priests read to their parishioners after Sunday Mass, forbidding the Indians to eat cucumbers, a vegetable known as mataserrano 5 for its fatal effects. His steward chose ten of the best melons, carefully setting them in a couple of crates, and put them on the shoulders of two mitayos, giving them a letter for their master.
When the melon bearers had covered several leagues, they sat down to rest next to a wall. As was only natural, the perfume of the fruit awakened the curiosity of the mitayos, and there began within them a hard-fought battle between appetite and fear. They believed, not that the letters were conventional signs, but spirits, that not only functioned as messengers but also as lookouts or spies. This must have seemed right to the other mitayo, for without a word he put the letter behind the wall, placing a stone on top of it, and this done, the two of them set themselves to devouring, not eating, the inviting and delectable fruit.
Well then! Have a drubbing be given these rogues. Also taitay. You know now that a letter sings. For the moment, the Basques were winning because the corregidor1 of the imperial town, don Rafael Ortiz de Sotomayor, was altogether on their side. Of the 24 town councilors, half were Basques, and even the two magistrates were of that nationality, despite the fact that this was expressly forbidden by royal decree.
The Creoles, Castilians, and Andalusians formed an alliance to destroy or at least counterbalance this predominance of the Basques. The hour has come for the harshest of measures to be taken to put an end to them, for mild measures would prove to be a disservice to His Majesty, an offense to Our Lord God, and a discredit to these realms. Ortiz de Sotomayor was not one to embrace a conciliatory policy. Along with his dashing demeanor, his martial bearing, and his urbanity, he enjoyed the vigor of a man in the prime of life, for the prince of Esquilache was barely An Adventure of the Poet-Viceroy 97 pany of Jesus, canonized by Rome, would necessarily share the prejudices of his kind.
If he sinned thereby, the blame lay with his era, and it is folly to demand that men be superior to the times in which they live. In the other six churches he visited, the viceroy kept meeting the same lady, and the same exchange of smiles and glances ensued. Follow the trail. Like all the poets of his century, he was fond of references to mythology.
My cape, and give me the address on Olympus of this godess. This circumstance, together with the frequent sound of male footsteps in the courtyard and the interior of the house, was a cause for alarm in the mind of the adventurous gallant. But the shrewd prince skirted the subject and chose to follow instead the winding path of amorous artfulness. The moment came to proceed to the dining room to partake of the promised refreshments. The only thing in the bedroom closet was a pair of pistols 6 Sweet buns. But on the same night that they left Lima, a patrol found the body of don Rafael Ortiz de Sotomayor in an alleyway with a dagger buried in his chest.
To emphasize the importance of the friar, we need only point to the fact that he was addressed as Your Excellency, as paper and parchment documents testify. The Visitor then dressed in vestments and, attended by an altar boy, said Mass at the high altar. He turned every shade of red, for to tell the whole truth the fault was largely his because it had not occurred to him to assign the celebrant a chapel of his own.
In high dudgeon the canons brought up rules and briefs and other foolishness, and after a long controversy it was agreed that if the Visitor took it into his head to say Mass in the cathedral again, he would do so at a portable altar. Everyone the Master in His Own House II And several weeks went by, and when there was no longer anyone who remembered what had happened, a Sunday morning came round, and the Visitor arose in a cheerful mood, saying that he had taken a notion to put a reform into effect in his church immediately.
And secretly summoning a dozen carpenters, he ordered that the altar of Our Lady of Antigua, located near the door, be partitioned off with planks from the central nave and the remainder of the church.
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Let us continue this Tradition. The workers had labored all night. That Monday it was the turn of the church of La Merced. With all the friars of his convent, His Excellency went to the door of the church to solemnly receive the visit. Everyone is master in his own house. Choose your country's store to see books available for purchase. See if you have enough points for this item. Sign in. Eleanor Hamer. Laura K Lawless. Mobile Library. Joe Hayes. Huguette Castaneda. Learn Spanish: Spanish for Kids. Bilingual Stories in Spanish and English.
It Looks a Lot Like Christmas. Peg Augustine. Janice Levy. Reverendo Michael Keane. MaryAnn F. Randy Jurado Ertll. How to write a great review.
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