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Lektion 1—5. Themen 1 aktuell. Lektion 6— Themen 2 aktuell. Volume 45 Issue 6 Dec , pp. Volume 44 Issue 6 Dec , pp. Volume 43 Issue 6 Dec , pp. Volume 42 Issue 6 Dec , pp. Volume 41 Issue 6 Dec , pp. Volume 40 Issue 6 Dec , pp. Volume 39 Issue 6 Dec , pp. Volume 38 Issue 6 Dec , pp. Volume 37 Issue 6 Dec , pp. Volume 36 Issue 6 Dec , pp. Volume 35 Issue 6 Dec , pp. Here, the dimensional interpretation of a situation is derived from the asymmetries of the human body. The individual that interprets his or her spatial environment occupies the spacedimensoning Origo, which is the basic precondition for cognition of dimensional relations.
Subsequently, instances other than the space-cognizing individual him- or herself can become the Origo through mental translation and rotation processes; these processes generally involve the patterns of anthropomorphous projection. What has been described in previous theoretical approaches by means of classification of seperate systems of spatial reference, can now be derived in a unified way from cognitive-psychological factors; i.
I will report on empirical results that account for the suitability of this descriptive model as an explanative model of the actual use of dimensional prepositions in different situations. Morphology Comparability of adjectives answers to a kind of adjective meaning - scalability, defined as a range, versus a point on a scale. In English, the morphological question of whether comparison in relation to a higher degree is expressed by the inflected forms in - er and - est or their periphrastic equivalents, more and most, depends on numerous variables: length of word, position of stress, form of suffix, if any, etymology, frequency, as well as presumed free variation.
The availability of two ways of expressing higher degree in the quality of an adjective raises the usage question of which form should be used with any particular adjective? BOLINGER claims that the semantic issue of degrees affects the morphological realization of adjective comparison, inhibiting the synthetic - er morpheme even under conditions that would otherwise permit it.
While semantic classification of adjectives does reveal some tendencies in the morphological manifestation of adjective gradation, grammarians contend that the choice between inflectional and periphrastic comparison is largely determined by the length of the adjective QUIRK et al. Although adjective length is cited as the main determinant of morphological variation, a major problem arises with 2-syllable adjectives, many of which permit both forms of comparison.
Thus it readily becomes clear that sheer prosody and phonological structure of an adjective are not sufficient criteria to determine which form should be used with any particular adjective; the syntactic role an adjective plays also warrants consideration. While most adjectives that are inflected for comparison can also take the periphrastic forms with more and most , they assume the periphrastic form more often when they are predicative and are followed by a correlative than -clause.
Additionally, there seem to be fewer restrictions on using the periphrastic forms with adjectives in correlative clauses of proportion. This paper will examine adjective gradation and illustrate how the periphrastic form of comparison is gaining ground in current American English usage, confirming the diachronic tendency for periphrastic forms to replace morphological ones over time, supported by theories of morphological language typology and grammaticalization.
Having spent the last year gathering data and documenting actual usage of comparability in adjectives, it will be shown that the tendency to employ the periphrastic form in adjective gradability is particularly widespread with mono-syllabic adjectives, indicating a 21 st century irreverence for established prescriptive grammar. Zu diesem Zweck wurden ca. Das Computerprogramm "Sprechkarte" erlaubt es, die Antworten 1 , 2 , 3 oder 4 der Sprecher geographisch sichtbar zu machen.
Theory of Linguistics Although coordinate constructions are very common in natural languages, they are among the most difficult phenomena to describe in any linguistic theory. In this paper, I shall try to develop a way of speaking about coordination as a kind of linguistic speed-up device. Since any coordinated structure is intrinsically more complex than its conjoined parts, the formation rules for coordination must have evolved later than the formation rules for non-coordinated structures.
Languages solve the technical problem of coordination by simply repeating formation rules. Thus, coordination as such is the recursive technique of applying sentence formation rules more than once. Conjunctors mark the beginning of a secondary procedure for sentence formation. However, obeying some constraints, a secondary procedure does not have to activate all formation rules actived in a previous procedure. This allows for treating gapping and left-deletion together with other structurally less demanding forms of coordination. The difference between easy and difficult forms of coordination is mainly how general the repeated formation rules are.
The procedural approach also claims that representation of coordination procedures are impossible to achieve if no further allowances for certain types of groupings are made. I shall try to show that even complicated coordinated structures can be readily represented if the usual two-dimensional plane for stemmata or dependency trees is expanded into a third dimension. Wir unterscheiden daher drei Bereiche im Lexikon im Unterschied zu, z. Funktion , die Restriktionen auf das lexikalische und syntaktische Umfeld des Diskursmarkers, und die stilistischen Eigenarten.
ROTH Dabei erhebt sich die Frage nach jenen Veranlagungen und anerzogenen resp. Psycholinguistics Since experimentally induced speech errors are often triggered by certain carefully selected tongue twisters, we may rather easily predict what kind of segmental errors subjects will produce in laboratory settings. Nevertheless, there is a handful of factors that have been found to constrain phonological slips of the tongue in naturalistic speech as well. The following constraints have been proposed so far:.
The present paper discusses the effect of the constraints above in naturalistic phonological errors in the Finnish language. It is found that the constraints form a hierarchy in which phonotactics and structural properties play the most important role. The calculations indicate that the power of initialness effect is less than chance and overruled by another structural constraint, namely position similarity.
On the basis of the present data, it is also evident that adjacency constrains phonological errors more strictly than either word class or phrase-internalness and that lexical constraint can be seen in only one fourth of the errors. The results can be interpreted to shed light on both the word-internal cohesion and architecture of the speech production system.
Although we cannot predict when an error will occur, we may expect it to be of certain type. Sociolinguistics This paper will discuss the prospect of using personal letters for the study of linguistic change and variation. This is not a new idea: a number of linguists interested in the history of the English language have been doing just that for a number of years already the Corpus of Early English Correspondence is perhaps the foremost example.
The author's interest here, however, is to point out the possibility of compiling a corpus of correspondence that is not language based, but language-community based. Choosing eighteenth-century Croatia as an exemplary time and place, the author will describe a language situation that was considerably different from that of England at the same time and even for several centuries before: non-native languages e. A corpus of multilingual correspondence would be advantageous for the historical study of language use in Croatia.
First of all, it would allow the linguist to see how one language community used different varieties including different languages to communicate among themselves - and how these patterns of language use changed with time. Secondly, it could shed light on the mechanisms of linguistic change caused by language contact.
Finally, due to its content, such a corpus would be of interest to linguists and non-linguists alike e. Phonology Syllable contraction in Taiwanese Southern Min has long attracted the attention of many Chinese linguists. In the descriptive model syllable contraction results from deletion, and how it occurs remains almost unexplained. First, the association of segments and the skeleton tier begins with both edges, affecting onset and consonantal coda alone.
In addition, V-neutralization applies even when the mid vowel constitutes rime with the preceding vowel. Consider 5. Each of these particles has different discoursal meanings and functions. The privious studies have shown that modal particles are usually unaccented. Thus, accentuation is said to be very important for the functions of particles when they are spoken. On the other hand, prosody such as intonation and accent, itself plays an important role in human speech communication. The speaker can express subtle meanings, intentions, and emotions by means of prosody, while her interlocuter can understand them almost exactly by hearing it.
The problem arises when prosody is used in sentences with modal particles, as is always the case in spoken German. It is suggested the focusing strategy of speakers using modal particles is influenced by the complexity of mutual belief. Finally, these prosodic characteristics of German modal particles concluded by the analysis are compared with those of Japanese modal particles. Psycholinguistics The on-line processing demands of morphological parsers whether human or silicon of morphology include, but are not exhausted by two requirements: morphology has to uncover the lexical identity of the stem for eventual lexical lookup.
Moreover it must reveal the morphosyntactic categories for interface with syntax. Verbs are more problematic still, as a nondefective verb has to forms per lexical entry. Note also that inflectional morphs occur frequently in texts as the ratio of running non-zero inflectional morphs to running words in Finnish is 0. The present series of simple lexical decision and lexical decision with priming will further elaborate on the stem allomorph model of Finnish NIEMI et al. Sociolinguistics At the time of Independence in , Senegal along with most other former French colonies in Africa declared French the sole official language.
Almost fourty years later, French is still the language of administration and government, the exclusive medium of public education, and the language of the urban elite. French is spoken as a first language by less than a quarter of one per cent of school-age children. This paper will attempt to describe the well-defined contexts in which French is used in Senegalese society, the contrasting socioeconomic statuses of those who claim to use French and those who do not, and the images of the French language carried in each group.
The paper will demonstrate the correlation in Senegal between socioeconomic status and knowledge of French; the correlation between the perceptions of French and its official status as the de facto only means of economic advancement; the contradiction between the official language policy and the social reality of the country; and the impact of such a policy on development goals.
Phonetics Many studies have indicated that speech slows down immediately before a pause, but very little is known about the influence of a pause on the temporal organization of the utterance as a whole. The present study, using Japanese speech material, examines if the effect of an intra-sentence pause is localized to the segments immediately preceding the pause, or if it affects other parts of the utterance as well.
A Japanese test sentence, with a possible pause location at a major syntactic boundary roughly in the middle of the sentence, was produced by a number of native speakers under two contrasting conditions, i. Based on acoustic measurements, the effects of intra-sentence pause insertion was examined by analyzing the articulation rate obtained for each of the eight demi-phrases that constituted the test sentence. The results showed that the most conspicuous change in the articulation rate due to pause insertion occurred in the demi-phrase immediately preceding the intra-sentence pause.
The results also showed that the insertion of an intra-sentence pause had an additional effect of shifting the overall articulation rate of the rest of the utterance. The shift was found to be realized either as increase or decrease depending on the speaker.
Thus, the effect of an intra-sentence pause was found to manifest itself not only as the decrease in the articulation rate of the segment immediately preceding the pause but also as the shift in the overall articulation rate of the rest of the utterance. Semantics The paper deals with two main issues, namely it considers the status of blends vs.
As far as the first problem is concerned blends are viewed against the concepts of cognitrive metaphor, metonymy and personification. The basic question is whether with the advent of blends there is still place for the other three above concepts in cognitive semantic theory. The result of the inquiry shows that personification can be exhaustively accounted for by blends theory, whereas metonymy cannot be analysed adequately in terms of blends.
Some metaphors can be viewed as blends but some should retain their present status. When cognitive metaphors are viewed not only as nominal, gerundial and prepositional correspondences but also as correspondences of verbs or other predicates with their arguments there seem to be at least two consequences of this stance. Firstly, predicate argument structures can be compared in the source and target domains with respect to invariance hypothesis which deals with preservation of topological structures from source to target domains.
Secondly, it brings the theory of cognitive metaphor closer to other linguistic theories such as classical semantics and even generative grammar.
Sociolinguistics In recent years much progress has been made concerning certain aspects e. From a syntactic point of view, these and several other studies have shown that languages or grammars in contact interact at all levels of linguistic structures e. This interaction is not random, but it is rule-governed. For instance, is codeswitching structure determined by the grammar of one of the participating languages in a given speech situation; or is it the case that it is determined evenly by all the participating languages? This paper examines these issues in the light of CS data involving English with selected African languages and against the backdrop of the diglossic relationship that exists between English and these languages.
In this relationship English is the High language and African languages are the Low languages. Accordingly, in their linguistic behavior African bilingual speakers tend to draw linguistic items from English when speaking an African language. It is argued that structurally the resulting codeswitching speech is almost exclusively governed by the syntactic rules of the matrix language, in this case the participating African language.
(PDF) Literature Cited (in original MSS of my book) | Gabriel Finkelstein - ohyqukecew.cf
Evidence for this argument is provided and include features such as word order within an NP, verbal inflections, subject pronoun copying, and double plural marking. The implications of this argument for the search for universal constraints in codeswitching are examined. Die Stellungnahmen zu diesem Thema sind unterschiedlich. Ziel dieser Studie ist festzustellen, ob der Halbvokal [j] ein im Lexikon der Sprache distinktives Segment ist oder nicht. Syntax It is a familiar observation that in multiple wh constructions where movement could potentially affect a number of wh -phrases, it is the structurally superior wh -phrase that must be chosen for movement.
The familiar minimal pair in 1 illustrates this "Superiority Effect". Who saw what? The general phenomenon of an operation being required to affect the structurally highest member in its set of potential operands is also observed in German Sentence Negation henceforth GSN.
In German sentences containing indefinite noun phrases, prefixing one of the indefinites with the morpheme k - as shown in 3 marks sentence negation. When multiple indefinites are present, it is the structurally superior one that must be k -marked. Sentences that violate this pattern simply do not express neutral sentence negation 2c. Eine Frau sah einen Mann. A woman saw a man. K eine Frau sah einen Mann. Neg-a woman saw a man. Eine Frau sah k einen Mann. A woman saw Neg-a man.! That is, I argue that both constructions involve movement and that the sentence negation structure for 2c is ruled on the same grounds as 1b.
Further I show the compatibility of my proposal with GSN involving definite noun phrases. I also demonstrate that apparent counterexamples to the generalization above can be attributed to the presence of a tripartite structure induced by focus or a generic operator. My proposal, if correct, has important consequences for the analysis of negation, and also suggests that superiority is a general phenomenon, extending beyond wh -movement. HORNSTEIN presents a Minimalist reinterpretation of this phenomenon, suggesting that a locally bound reflexive is a trace, created by A-movement of the antecedent, in a Case position reflexivization henceforth.
Although it derives the long-noted distributional similarity of A-traces and reflexives, and is thus quite attractive, Hornstein's suggestion is not tenable. This study presents a re-examination of binding phenomena within the Minimalist framework, and concludes that anaphors undergo A-movement, thus becoming A-traces, in LF; hence, their distributional similarity follows.
Instead, this study adopts Lasnik's forthcoming suggestion that A-movement does not leave a trace. Without A-traces, reflexivization does not hold, favoring a more traditional treatment of reflexives viz. Language and politics have rarely been more fatefully intertwined than at present. All of these developments place insistent new demands on linguists to rededicate themselves to public linguistics in the next century.
Lexicography In der modernen Phraseologieforschung treten semantische Aspekte und die phraseologischen Komponenten immer mehr in den Vordergrund. Dementsprechend werden onomasiologische bzw. Die Studie diskutiert bzw. Bei der praktischen lexikographischen Untersuchung kommen z. Zur Illustration dieser Formen des Sprachkontakts und ihrer Auswirkungen auf die Herausbildung einer Norm, konzentriere ich mich auf Beispiele aus dem Bereich der Aussprache. Mein Vortrag ist in vier Teile gegliedert: 1 Was sagt der Markt? Wer Vorschriften, Anweisungen, Anleitungen befolgen soll, der will eindeutig erfahren: was soll ich - der Leser - wann, wo und wie machen?
Verleitet ein Text zum Weiterlesen, dann ist es dem Verfasser gelungen, interessant zu schreiben.
Wie kann man technische Dokumentation interessant schreiben? Psycholinguistics Conceptualizations of productivity and creativity as one versus two basic processes underlying novel verbal output lie at the heart of restrictive cognitive versus functional semantic theories of linguistics. I argue for a semantic, non-syntactic, explanation of the data.
Indeed, syntactically similar items behave differently i. Moreover, we observe very strong similarities across languages. Other pairs of divergent quasi-synomyms i. The possibility of subcategorizing a NP object proves only to be a sufficient condition for NCA but not a necessary one i. Likewise, the form "le", "en", "y" of the pronominalisation of the missing infinitival VP complement is not in itself a reliable criteria, but basically locative matrix verbs requiring a "y" VP proform i.
Other semantically orientated parameteers intentionality and aspect are currently investigated. However, I confess that my still tentative preliminary results do not yet provide a single explanation if any of the lexical phenomenon at hand. Computational Linguistics Augmentative und alternative Kommunikation ist das Forschungsgebiet, auf dem Methoden und Systeme entwickelt werden, die z. Morphology Phonetic criteria are the basis of the division of Modern Chinese languages into Mandarin and Southern Chinese.
According to these principles Wu languages Lower Yangzi belong to the socond group. In word-formation Modern Chinese languages are using either prepositional or postpositional models. This may be shown in male and female animal names. Word-formative isoglosses divide Chinese Languages into Northern postpositional Mandarin and Wu and Southern prepositional.
Thus Wu languages appear to be rather transistional between North and South than purely Southern ones. Dies wird besonders deutlich an einem bislang kaum beachteten Teilgebiet der Reform, der Variantenschreibung. Bekanntlich wird unterschieden zwischen gleichberechtigten Varianten z.
Pragmatisch sind Argumentationen deshalb komplexe Sprechhandlungen, die sich von anderen Sprechhandlungen wie z. Verben des Meinens evozieren z. Texte und Textsorten lassen sich u. Computational Linguistics In this paper we present an approach, conceptual cartography, which accelerates and facilitates substantially accessing the contents of textual documents.
Conceptual cartography consists of graphical mapping of concepts in a document using a list of complex terms classed in order of importance and arranged according to two semantical relationships: proximity , which includes different sense relationships such as hyponymy between concepts, and association , which uses the combinational properties of concepts to retrieve terms in semantical association.
Each one of these relationships creates a network of concepts that can be expanded and explored. For example, after extracting the complex terms of a text BECKTON by Termplus , a multilingual and modular complex-term extraction unit developed at CIRAL, Laval University a network of relationships may be generated for each of the terms extracted, as we have done here with Canadian law :. These networks are generated at great speeds providing an efficient environment for accessing the contents of documents.
A user can get a bird's eye view of the contents of a document by simply browsing through the list of terms extracted by Termplus , or create and navigate through the semantical networks to obtain very precise information from a document for divers applications such as construction of thesauri and lexicological databases, alignment of complex terms, information retrieval, document classification, etc. From a text input the system gives back rich syntactic structures containing lexical, phrasal, grammatical, and thematic information. The IPS system focuses on a robustness, b genericity, and c deep linguistic analyses.
Robustness is required for efficient and reliable NLP tools. Thus, when a complete analysis fails, partial structures are still exploitable for NLP applications. In speech synthesis, for instance, the need for disambiguation in some French liaison contexts requires more than a surface analysis of the sentence. In addition, the use of such detailed analyses is essential to get satisfactory translation results as well as effective linguistic tools for language tutoring. Z fz fa, fb etc being grammatical function labels like subject and object. In their imp lementation in logic programming using PATR formalism with due modifications.
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In this paper, we discuss the treatment of variation of subcategorization properties of words as in: 7a They give John a book. Different usage patterns are accounted for derived subcategorization frames. Anstelle des alveodentalen bulgarischen l-Lautes wird in bestimmten Positionen vor allem von jungen Sprechern ein bilabialer Laut artikuliert.
Im vorliegenden Beitrag stellt man sich an erster Stelle die Aufgabe, die Positionen festzustellen, in denen der alveodentale bulgarische l-Laut durch einen bilabialen Laut ersetzt wird. Vor einem Vorderzungenvokal artikuliert der Bulgare immer ein alveodentales l. Wenn ja, in welchen Regionen kommt sie vor? This paper will argue that a single mechanism in a speech production model should be used to generate sublexical slips and the superficially quite distinct type of error known as word blends.
This paper argues that word blends are better seen as sublexical substitutions. A single syllabic constituent in a target word is replaced by the identical constituent - viewing these as segmental rather than syllabic constituent errors does not affect the argument being made here - from an intruding competing word. This approach allows a principled distinction between target and intruder, and explains why only one word, the target, provides the blend's metrical structure, foot and syllable structure and its segmental makeup.
The intruder supplies only one subsyllabic element. The errors in 1 provide details. Constituent Error pity shame onset - "sh" shitty husky hefty nucleus - "e" hesky snickering chuckling coda - "l" snickeling This view has a number of advantages: a it explains why blends and slips have so many characteristics in common; b it eliminates the problems inherent in the splice approach; c it explains otherwise inexplicable features of blends; d it allows one to compare targets and intruders to determine whether word frequency effects are present LAUBSTEIN ; e it allows production models to employ a single mechanism to produce both blends and slips.
Lexicography This paper presents an overview of attempts in recent years to ease the process of producing accurate, up-to-date bilingual dictionaries. Various approaches have been made in translating existing dictionaries, "bilingualising" dictionaries, developing dictionary databases, and the like. One particular approach will then be focussed on, namely the "Bridge" series of dictionaries which has identified and addressed the gap between conventional bilingual and monolingual dictionaries, and which build on existing information in the COBUILD philosophy of lexicography. Although they use the strategies of monolingual lexicography, the fact that the definitions are in the user's native language makes them much more accessible to the language learner.
To date, bilingual dictionaries have tended to provide only equivalents in the target language, with no contextual information or example sentences. It is therefore hardly surprising that many language learners, when faced with several senses and translation equivalents couched in unfamiliar terminology, pick an equivalent without really knowing whether it is accurate. Monolingual L2 dictionaries are often off-putting for the learner because of the abbreviated language and terminology used, the lack of precision and lack of examples. The definitions in COBUILD dictionaries are full sentences and thus are more amenable to translation than the traditional abbreviated style of defining.
Several years ago, the first translation of the small Students Dictionary into Brazilian Portuguese, was published, identifying and addressing a gap in the market between conventional bilingual and monolingual dictionaries. Although it uses the strategies of monolingual lexicography, the fact that the definitions are in the user's native language makes them much more accessible. Other parallel projects have been launched since. A major publisher in Thailand is preparing a Bridge Dictionary. Lithuanian and Czech versions are already prepared and in publication.
When these translations are available for two languages, e. When ten translations are available which is a reasonable first target on present evidence , the eleventh will make it possible to compile ten new dictionaries. There is likely to be a large range of marketable products incorporating such a multilingual lexical core.
This paper will examine the way that information contained within the individual language versions can best be combined. Computational Linguistics Since last summer term we offer a web-based course in Computational Linguistics which is part of the regular curriculum. The course modules are built around the prototype of an intelligent dictionary look-up programme. Parts of the programme as well as the prototype itself are made available for exploration and a deeper insight into the architecture and functionality of the modules.
Students are encouraged to present their solutions to single tasks within the prototype. The Web seems to be particularly well suited for exploration and communication. In the first stage we used several communication tools for evaluation purposes. In my talk, I will present design issues of the course which have been drawn with the intention to make learning more attractive and hence more effective. Sie kann verstanden werden als eine besondere Art des Referierens vgl.
Diese Relationen spielen sich auf verschiedenen konzeptuellen Dimensionen ab, die wie die deiktische Relation selbst sowohl von lexikalischen als auch grammatischen Mitteln signalisiert werden. LENZ Vor allem am Beispiel der Temporaldeixis soll aufgezeigt werden, wie im Englischen lexikalische mit grammatischen Mitteln interagieren und so zum deiktischen Refererieren beitragen. Neben Nomina und Nominalkomposita bilden im Deutschen idiomatische Bigramme, d.
Kookkurenzen zweier aufeinanderfolgender Wortformen, zentrale inhaltliche Begriffe. Beispiele sind "katholische Kirche" oder "absolute Mehrheit". Als mathematisches Modell erzeugt die log-likelihood-Methode die brauchbarsten Resultate. In einem Experiment wird die Kookkurenz innerhalb von Nominalphrasen betrachtet; dabei zeigen sich Hinweise auf vielversprechende Ergebnisse. Pragmatics All languages in the world as far as we know make frequent use of idiomatic expressions. Although many similar expressions can be found across languages, many more do not coincide exactly in their linguistic or semantic meaning and use.
Thus, second language SL students should not translate these colorful expressions of the language word-for-word. They must realize that "to kick the bucket" or "to suddenly find oneself in hot water" must not be taken literally. At the same time they are often a stumble block to students of German. The goal of this presentation is to help instructors of German design better ways of approaching sociocultural idiomatic expressions in the teaching of Foreign and Second Languages. More specifically, the focus is on the variables that govern the comprehension processes of idiomatic phrases that occur during listening, speaking, reading, writing, and viewing.
Based on research of four different studies carried out since at the University of Arizona, the session presents an interactive classroom-based methodology that analyzes the cognitive-psycholinguistic processes by which learners of SL attach meaning and come to understand idiomatic expressions. Founded on the two hypotheses - the Lexical Level Hypothesis and the Post-Lexical Level Hypothesis - the newly-developed, student-friendly methodology shows how context affects words and idiomatic-expression recognition and how idiomatic interpretation during input of sentences is taking place.
This quick-paced, hand-on session demonstrates in detailed steps how instructors of German can investigate inferences about predictable and unpredictable idiomatic expressions and the conditions under which these inferences can be observed and integrated successfully in the SL classroom. Practical in nature, participants will learn how to teach idiomatic expressions regardless of personal method using interactive multimedia and video presentations, what the effects of familiarity, literalness, and usage are, the role of context and familiarity, and lastly, how to promote in their students semantic productivity and idiom comprehension as it relates to the effects of different tasks on the comprehension and production of idioms.
The session guides participants through the general principles and procedures involved in designing, developing, and integrating idioms at the basal and more advanced levels of German instruction. Using "hard-to-crack" idiomatic expressions as a stimulus for student participation, the session addresses all necessary prerequisite information and key elements to scaffold teacher success with guided listening, speaking, reading, writing, and viewing language tasks.
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Beyond that, it offers a multisensory approach to all those who for too long have wished to make the teaching and learning of idioms fun and reflective in nature. Expressed more precisely, it explores strategies that provide students with authentic opportunities to talk, write, read, and think about their own idioms while engaging all intelligences and real life language skills and experiences in the process.
Prototypes activities are used for hands-on experimentation in both small and large group activities. Finally participants discuss and develop samples appropriate for their own students. Handout and audiovisual material available. Diese Auffassung setzt eine radikale Trennung zwischen phonologischer Form und semantischer Planung.
Theory of Linguistics The checking theory in its present form is not explanatorily adequate as it does not shed light on such questions as why certain formal features, i. It follows that the objects in question must be as local in their relations as possible. The locality of relations as such, which is due to economy considerations, results in some kind of bare phrase structure with pooled features located in the tree as nodes dominating the syntactic objects.
Pooled features, in a sense, are structurally interpreted. Other features, i. Im Deutschen ist die individuelle Frau durch die Verwendung movierter Formen in der Sprache sichtbarer gemacht worden. Sociolinguistics The recent political and social changes in Albania have provoked a large scale migratory trend towards Italy, as is well known. To be honest, I am still not entirely sure, but here is my best guess:. Many designers are in love with the aesthetic of monospaced typefaces i.
The appeal of these typefaces may stem from some kind of nostalgic association with typewriters or from their use in technical environments computer terminals, programming etc. In any case, the fascination is there. But this feature keeps on having an impact, mainly on the experience of the reader. In monospaced typefaces, glyphs have to be wider or narrower than in typefaces without the fixed-width constraint in order to fit everything in the space that is available while keeping the spacing optically balanced.
Actually, anything beyond a short stretch of text is a pain to read in a monospaced typeface, however nice things may look at first blush. Type designers have found a solution to this problem. Type designers have created typefaces that look like monospaced typefaces, but actually use proportional spacing.
It is a balancing act for type designers to keep enough elements of typical typewriter fonts in order to avoid losing the appearance, while at the same time making substantial improvements to reading ease. The first typeface that fits this description was apparently one called Bulletin Typewriter : Released in metal as a monospaced font, it became available with proportional spacing in phototype and transfer lettering formats.
The earliest in-use example of the proportionally spaced Bulletin Typewriter I am aware of is from American Typewriter was released not much later. For a change, the sorting will be chronological rather than alphabetical to emphasise developments in this genre. This list started on Twitter. If you know of any additional typefaces that may qualify, please get in touch. With digital type, we can use any font at whatever size we desire. But more often than not, we should not.
Typefaces that work well at a certain size usually do not work equally well at other sizes. A typeface with pronounced contrast, sharp details and tight spacing that looks great on a billboard will fail at typical body copy sizes. Conversely, a typeface with coarser details and sturdier proportions, optimised for small sizes, is likely to look clunky when set large.
But what if you would like to use the same typeface for headings and text? Many such typefaces exist Identifont has an alphabetical list. Tim Ahrens and Shoko Mugikura have written about some of them and provide a list of all typefaces covered in their book on their website. Browsing through these lists, I noticed that few are script typefaces i. That surprised me, given that handwriting is also markedly size-specific. The release of a new typeface in that category was the reason for me to compile the following list:.
Browsing through my collection, I decided that I would like to share pictures from it more regularly. A collection is not worth much when nobody looks at the items and maybe gets inspired by them.