They did so, precisely, together. Decades after unification ended, Dominican-Haitian collaborators helped to win Dominican independence, for a second time, in The Dominican constitution changed that same year to jus soli citizenship; a handful of reformers called for dual citizenship across the island. Without much documentation, however, the popular foundation of these struggles was muted even as it unfolded.
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With the U. Even more casual outside observers tend to know about the massive anti-Haitian intellectual production of the Trujillo dictatorship Perhaps the ten concurring Tribunal members were purposely trying to sidestep its shadow when they chose, against all precedent, to extend their ruling to the year before he took power. Haiti and the Dominican Republic were siblings in a struggle for freedom in these new accounts.
Colonial powers, old and new, were the common enemy.
Juan Bosch was one such politician-historian. He managed seven months in office before a coup overthrew him. The contest for nineteenth-century narratives began all over again. The state language of law and order , more generally, is a violent and capricious fiction. The current crisis is not, however, the product of timeless, essential, or isolated conflicts. Haiti and the Dominican Republic face a common international economic and political context and policies. As statelessness, deportation, and violence threatens, those organizing in opposition to the Sentencia have an expansive view of the task at hand.
As MUDHA describes their mission, they are organizing against sexism, racism, and anti-Haitianism and in support of civil, political, economic, social, cultural, and human rights simultaneously. Relentlessly facile and misleading narratives about the past are not useful as they and their allies hope, with great urgency, to reinvent the immediate future. Women have undertaken measures to cope and resist against the backdrop of Anglophone—Francophone tensions in Cameroon.
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Thanks in part to the internet, Black women in Cuba are now able to forge space and create visibility for themselves. The story of Surya Bonaly, and her unwillingness to yield to racist demands and expectations in the sport of figure skating. Africa is apparently hot in Hollywood, but can Hollywood be trusted with African stories? In memory of J. Michael Dash, the Caribbean thinker and literature scholar. Ghana is facing widespread illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing in its coastal waters causing economic hardship in fishing communities.
Soon after Napoleon dispatched an army to subdue the rebellion and reintroduce slavery but these forces were overwhelmed by Haitian revolutionary forces. Even after the French defeat, a small army contingent remained in control on the Spanish side of the island. Slavery was re-established and many Spanish colonists returned. The French held on to the eastern part of the island for nearly two decades more, until they were expelled by the Spanish-speaking inhabitants, many of whom were cattle ranchers. Nine weeks later Haitian forces, led by Jean-Pierre Boyer, entered and united both sides of island.
The year Haitian occupation definitively ended slavery in the eastern part of Hispaniola. However, unification also brought imposition of compulsory military service, restrictions in the use of the Spanish language and large-scale land expropriations.
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Spanish colonial landowners - who as Europeans were forbidden to own property under the Haitian Constitution - were forcibly relieved of their holdings. Furthermore, the Haitian regime associated the Roman Catholic Church with the French slave-owning class and confiscated all Church property, deported all foreign clergy and made the remaining Dominican clergy sever ties with the Vatican.
In an effort to prove that Haiti could be the equal of any other nation and with France demanding reparations for the loss of their plantations before granting diplomatic recognition, Boyer introduced the compulsory production of export crops. However, Afro-Dominicans who had just won their freedom resented being forced to grow cash crops under Boyer's Code Rural. Furthermore, the elimination of some local customs like cockfighting in conjunction with the other reforms contributed to the tendency of Dominicans to see themselves as culturally different from Haitians in language, ethnicity, race, religion and customs.
The payment of reparations to France by Haiti crippled the Haitian economy; consequently, Haiti imposed heavy taxes on the Spanish-speaking part of the island. Furthermore, a diminished national treasury made it difficult to maintain troops on the eastern side.
This made it easier for Dominicans to declare independence from Haiti, on 27 February The first president of the independent state was Pedro Santana, a powerful cattle rancher, who served for three terms between and The fact that between and Haiti launched five unsuccessful invasions to re-conquer the eastern part of the island prompted the clergy and the wealthy elite to seek protection from foreign powers.
However, the return was short lived. In it prompted a national war of 'restoration'. Fearing a Spanish re-imposition of slavery on the eastern side of the island, Haitian President Fabre Geffrard provided the Dominican rebels with arms, sanctuary and a detachment of the best military fighters. The guerrillas triumphed and the country regained its independence in March From to , there were 21 changes of government and at least 50 military uprisings.
In the south, the economy was dominated by cattle-ranchers and mahogany exporters while in the Cibao Valley, on the nation's richest farmland, smallholder peasants grew subsistence crops supplemented by tobacco grown for export, mainly to Germany. He enacted a new Constitution that set a two-year presidential term limit and provided for direct elections.
Under this government the seeds were sown for the eventual deep involvement of Haitian migrant labour in the Dominican Republic. After , Cuban sugar planters moved to the Dominican Republic to escape the turmoil of the anti-colonial war on their island. Together they created the Dominican sugar bourgeoisie and under their management the Dominican Republic became a major sugar exporter.
An slump in sugar prices led to a labour shortage. They were often the victims of racism and xenophobia but many remained in the country. By sugar had surpassed tobacco as the leading export and some km of private railway had been built to service the sugar plantations. The emerging sugar interests found an ally in the person of General Ulises Heureaux when he came to power in Given the attitudes to 'blackness' in Dominican society it is significant that Ulises Heureaux was born of a Haitian father and a mother from St Thomas Virgin Islands.
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For over two decades Heureaux brought unprecedented stability to the Dominican Republic. He borrowed heavily from European and US banks to get this done. When sugar prices plunged sharply in the last two decades of the nineteenth century, the government was unable to repay its foreign loans. In Heureaux was assassinated by disgruntled tobacco merchants.
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He left a large national debt. Dominican indebtedness provoked some European nations to threaten gunboat intervention. In , alarmed at the increasing European influence in the region, the United States under Roosevelt assumed responsibility for the Dominican Republic's debt and took control of the country's administration and customs management under a year treaty. As in neighbouring Haiti, the US reorganized the tax system, expanded primary education and built up infrastructure. Problems arose in the , when US authorities enacted a Land Registration Act that dispossessed thousands of Dominican peasants in the south-west, near the border with Haiti, and transferred land ownership to the sugar companies.
Followers of a Dominican Vodu faith healer named Liborio in the San Juan valley resisted the US occupation and aided counterpart rebels cacos in Haiti in their own war against the Americans see Haiti. As in Haiti, a national police force was created and used by US Marines to help fight the various guerrilla groups. Also, as in Haiti, this US-trained militia would later play a major role in local politics.
This police force which was later renamed the Guardia Nacional Dominicana became an important instrument in the rise of General Rafael Trujillo.
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His actions would go a long way towards defining Dominican attitudes toward ethnicity and to the migrant Haitian population. By end of the rise in international sugar production had glutted the world market, causing prices to plummet once again. This bankrupted many local sugar planters, thereby allowing large American conglomerates to enter and dominate the Dominican sugar industry.
By , 12 US companies owned more than 80 per cent of the , acres of land under sugar cultivation. However, unlike the Cuban immigrant planters who preceded them, the US corporations did not invest in the country but repatriated their profits, causing local resentment. As prices declined, the US-owned sugar estates increasingly began to rely on imported Haitian labourers. This was partly brought about by a series of pay-related strikes by the migrant Caribbean-born cane cutters organized by Marcus Garvey's international black worker rights movement, the Universal Negro Improvement Association.
In addition, the land acquired via the Land Registration Act had led to a growth of sugar production in the south-west, near the Haitian border and created an increased demand for labour. The US-run military government greatly facilitated Haitian migrant worker involvement in the Dominican sugar industry by originating the system of regulated contract labour aimed at importing Haitians as sugar cane workers for the US-owned estates.
General Rafael Trujillo was elected president in with 95 per cent of the vote. Trujillo, who was the commander of the Guardia Nacional Dominicana, used this militia to harass and intimidate electoral personnel and potential opponents. Trujillo professed an admiration for European fascist dictators and developed the Guardia Nacional into one of the largest military forces in Latin America. He forcibly eliminated all opposition, repressed human rights and acquired absolute control over the Dominican nation. For 31 years Trujillo and his family established a near-monopoly over the national economy.
By the time of his death the Trujillo family owned per cent of the arable land in the country. He also exploited nationalist sentiment to purchase most of the Dominican Republic's sugar plantations and refineries from US corporations. Moreover, the drastic anti-Haitian population purges were initiated during the Trujillo era. With the sugar estates increasingly needing workers for seasonal labour, many Haitian migrant workers began settling permanently in the Dominican Republic.
During the mids, General Trujillo introduced a policy called the ' Dominicanization of the frontier'. This involved changing place names along the border from Kreyol and French to Spanish, outlawing the practice of Vodou and imposing quotas on the percentage of foreign workers companies could hire. Trujillo ordered the army massacre of between 15, and 30, unarmed Haitians living on the Haitian-Dominican border, justifying the action as a reprisal for Haiti's supposed support for Dominican exiles plotting to overthrow his regime.
These acts drew international criticism but not much more. Despite the massacre, up until the late s successive Haitian governments continued to sign contracts with the Dominican authorities that allowed the recruitment of Haitian cane cutters in return for a per capita fee. Some argue that the massacre of Haitians needs to be viewed in the larger context of Trujillo's and Dominicans', as well as the Haitian mulatto elite's attitudes towards 'blackness', dating back to the colonial period.
While cleansing the dark-skinned Haitians from the frontier, during this same period Trujillo sought to increase the number of light-skinned people in the Republic. Trujillo enthusiastically promoted the policy of blanquismo or whitening which had long been practised in postcolonial South America. This involved inviting immigration from Europe to 'improve' the population mix as a means of stimulating national development.
Trujillo therefore welcomed refugees from European conflicts and promoted the idea of the Dominican Republic as a European-modelled society dedicated to modernization, material progress and continued economic expansion. The Organization of American States OAS finally took action against the regime in but not specifically because of the massacre or general treatment of Haitian migrants. The resolution called for a break in diplomatic relations with the country. Following some years of instability, the Dominican Republic managed in the ensuing decades to establish a relatively stable democratic politics.