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By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and the Privacy Policy. Their program might remove five per cent of my troubles, but might very likely add five per cent; because here is the great point most pupils are almost deaf to these phonetic differences that are as audible to philologists as the loud-sounding sea. If thirty very familiar words are dictated for a spelling lesson, it is nonsense to mark off only five per cent for each wrong word. That would be encouraging carelessness. Ten per cent would hardly afford much discouragement.

Twenty per cent is mild enough for early in the year. Nothing is too strict after several reviews. Suppose you have put a lass through all these common forms by making them copy the lists from the hoard, keep them in a notebook, and review them several times. Then you will do well to begin a campaign of dictating sentences, for the pupil who spells replies in a list of twenty words may spell reply s when his attention is distracted by ideas like this : "It is surprising how he loses his self-control. If his rich uncle asks whether the moon is made of green cheese, he blushes, hangs his head, and replies that he never was there.

Get up little paragraphs that tell an anecdote. Dicta- tion of this sort can be made to review points of idiom and punctuation. Mark the misspelled words and return the paper. The errors must be corrected. Now, here is a small point that counts for much: Don't allow each word to be written out ten times.

That seems not to accomplish anything. I know of a teacher's requir- ing a boy to write out since five hundred times in the afternoon — and finding that in the evening the boy had not learned how to spell since. Require a list of the misspelled words ; require this list to be written ten times. The reason why this is a better method is I am guessing that when the pupil begins his second list his mind has been off on other business, has had to attend to paid, cautious, and extremely; so that when it recurs to luckily it has to notice all over again, has to focus once more on what has been out of sight.

Strange as it may seem, this chapter is not intended to discourage, but to furnish comfort. It is better to know what kind of difficulty we are encountering. Thor was filled with chagrin at his failure to lower a big drinking-horn; he was com- forted when it was explained to him that the horn was attached to the ocean. Spelling is not a mere dish at the feast of learning; it taps the untried deeps of psychology.

Don't grow black in the face and strain frantically when you find it so weirdly impossible to get rid of dissapear. Keep cheerful. You can get fair results with a fair amount of work. If parents or a principal twit you because your pupils spell poorly — show them that " since" story. But observe that my notions have been imposed by a wisdom from above.

The readers of Yale entrance papers used to be instructed to con- dition any candidate — no matter what graces of style and appreciation he showed — if in the course of an hour's writing he had misspelled four words. Those are high authorities on the essentials of an English training. Their voices must touch our trembling ears. They know what they are talking about.

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In the National Com- mittee sent a questionnaire to schools and colleges, as a basis for recommendations about entrance requirements. One topic was : Shall there be a sep- arate test in grammar? Only 45 per cent of the schools favored it, while 60 per cent of the colleges voted aye. This was not " Shall we have a gram- mar requirement V 9 , but " Shall we have a separate test?

If he has anything at all to do with composition, he soon finds out what mischief is caused by ignorance of the ele- mentary anatomy of the mother-tongue. Plenty of secondary teachers are indifferent about grammar, giving only a grudging assent to a review in the first year of the high school ; but the men higher up vote a heartfelt and almost unanimous yes. This sort of contest about living soul-stuff and dead mind-stuff is as old as any art. But the archi- tects and painters and musicians have been wiser than modern teachers of English.

In a volume of criticism of some famous painters, written by a painter, there is little said about charm and emotion and loveliness and depth of feeling. No — what the professional notes is the selecting of boards, the mixing of colors, the deftness in outlining, the study of lighting and Perspective. An art teacher I speak ignorantly, but will take the hazard insists on a foundation of anatomy and mechanical drawing and sketching dull plaster models — dry and soulless exercises.

A good music teacher works with finger exercises — dry and soulless. Your architect must be drilled in stress and strain and shear, which are perfectly arid, unlovely things. It is much more than a comparison to say : A good language teacher must lay a dry and soulless founda- tion. That is, considered in itself it is unlovely; considered with a view to what is to rise above, it is beautiful. Did you ever look at a great pit where an architect was basing a sky-scraper T It is ugly and joyless. But it is the only way to secure those lofty, decorative cornices.

If the teacher of any art desiccates his own soul, or if he loses sight of what lies beyond and above, or if he blinds his pupils to the real goal of endeavor — that is a sad affair. Many enthusiasts about Knglish ixrammar have doubtless! The first chapter speaks about the danger of this artistic conception of English. We can seldom lift our eyes so high. We must teach such plain and fundamental stuff as all can learn. We must instruct in those mechanics which every novelist is keenly conscious of when he forms sentences he may not have a set of names handy , which the orator felt in every period, which no builder of the lofty rhyme can disregard — and which the ordinary high-school pupil has no true perception of.

Inspiring any young spirit is so dazzling a hope that few can look at it without blinking. It is a hope that sometimes beguiles teachers into the bog of shoddy work. As a matter of fact we are safe if we take Cardinal Newman 's ideal : I hold very strongly that the first step in intellectual training is to impress upon a boy's mind the idea of science, method, order, principle, and system; of rule and exception, of richness and harmony.

This is commonly and excellently done by making him begin with grammar. We discover that two practical demands are made of us. First, that we furnish a simple basis of gram- matical notions on which teachers of other languages can work. This much they have a right to expect. It is a minor consideration and has little to do with determining our aims; but sometimes you will do well to find out what names and classifications are used in Latin and modern-language classes, so as not to have needless differences.

The other demand ought to underlie every plan, every detail that is taken up : Build a fo undation for Composition. So damning is the epithet that some of us hardly dare mention syntax approv- ingly, for fear we shall be considered unfit to commune with those that are of purer fire. We cannot do more than dimly guess what horrors would be revealed if we could gather into one report a five-minute record from every grammar recitation in the United States on a certain day.

Willie in Concord would be rehearsing the quaint truth that "The definite article the points out one or more particular objects as distinct from others of the same kind. How could we expect that these crimes of ped- agogy would not be committed? If, for example, we find twelve pages of shall and would, and one and a half pages of predicate nominative, it is a fair inference that the one subject is eight times as valu- able as the other. Teachers do so understand the emphasis.

They must suppose that a renowned pro- fessor has proportioned his matter according to some well-considered scheme. Indeed, the preface says that the book is "a means for continuous study. The exercises indicate that as much drill ought to be given on indirect questions as on nominative cases. Yet every secondary teacher of experience knows that "continuous study" is fearfully wrong. In the first place, he suspects that such classifications as Abstract Nouns and Ordinal Numerals are of small value in themselves.

He knows, in the second place, that time spent on genders and potential phrases is robbing a class of thorough instruction in funda- mentals. For he realizes, in the third place, how long and hard is the process of making one gram- matical truth take root. Has any grammarian ever realized that years of repetition may not per- suade a pupil to use we shall in the plainest of in- dicative statements?

Not even the writers of our latest rhetoric can say we should. He does not pretend that his wisdom is greater than the author's, is perplexed at finding all authors against him; but the facts of his little campaign are clear before him, and without disputing the Higher Strat- egy he abandons it and develops his own small plans. The criterion by which he abandons or attacks is this: Whatever seems essential in a rational pro- gram of teaching composition is to be taken up thoroughly.

If our combined wisdom should finally decide that nothing grammatical really functions in the art of making good sentences, that a knowl- edge of syntax is not comparable to perspective in painting or to finger-exercises in music, then the Study of grammar shall surely die, because it will have so little excuse for living.

The question is to a certain extent debatable. I have not the least doubt that a great deal of effort as expended now- adays is a dead waste, for we don't frame sentences by grammatical analysis. It is generally believed today — T can see no possible reason for not believ- — that a study of the simpler principles is neces- sary as a basis for rhetoric, that most matters of da Bffl tying forms are of very slight use.

I have never succeeded — that is, with a whole class — except by drill in clauses. A similar drill with verbals is necessary to remove another kind. If every teacher had clearly in mind when he took up personals and relatives that his business was to undermine sentence-errors, he would know how much to skip and where to dwell. He would care nothing for gender, person, and number, for thou wast, for " self -pronouns. He would be interested in nominative and objective, for he would be looking forward to the study of noun clauses, to the time when pupils should see a that clause as subject or object, not to be pointed even by a comma — much less by a period.

His heart could firmly endure all the "formal" drill, because he would know that it was not formal at all, but was living rhetorical substance. Suppose that we find on a theme: "Colonel Sell- ers was a peculiar man, if he happened to make any money, he would immediately give it away. Doubtless a gifted teacher of long experience, who despises "formal" gram- mar, can devise a way of explaining that the condi- tional money-making looks forward to the statement about spending, and that there are two separate statements, and that a semicolon is necessary — thus avoiding the horrid nomenclature.

But he is only doing without names what we average teachers, appealing to literal minds, do with names. Grant that his result is better for the soul of a bright pupil ; we have still to ask : What about the total of good to be obtained by a thousand ordinary teachers who attempt to follow him in dealing with a hundred thousand ordinary pupils? The question is of the greatest moment, yet national councils have hardly begun to ask it, and the answer will be long in doubt. My own guesses are 1 that only a small percentage of teachers make for themselves any complete explanation of what a sentence-error is, 2 that most of them have a horror of a gram- matical treatment, 3 that in avoiding the clause drill they wander amid a tangle of impressionism, imt guiding pupils to clear understanding.

He cannot find a clear, analysis in any grammar. The grammatical surveys in rhetorics are misleading, indicating that the adverbs then and consequently are as subordi- nating as when and so that. One admirable text lumps together yet and indeed as connectives "before which a semicolon is preferable.

Pupils must be taught that indeed is as independent as it, that yet is a conjunction like but, so that they may know assuredly that a semicolon is necessary with one word and is never essential w T ith the other. This is the fact of normal composition in schools, just as it is the fact of a normal pupil's life that he must sleep before morning and may sleep in the afternoon if peculiar circumstances make it advisable. I know by bitter experience how petty, how con- troversial, this appears to artistic minds.

A dozen times since I began this chapter I have thought, " What's the use? You might as well try to interest this inexperienced teacher in the rat-proofing of New Orleans. For diseases that waste our national vigor can be contended against only after some dirty-aproned physician has dissected rattus or stegomyia. Half the college students in the aonntry are debilitated in their sentence-making organ.

Is this a visitation of divine wrath! My test-tubes assure me thai the plague is directly traceable to a bacillus, ignorun tm orammatica. My anti-toxin is not a panacea. It no more produces graceful sentences than any specific remedy causes general bodily vigor. It does no more than rid the system of one malady. I have no recipe for increasing the mental robust- ness of the race. I have never observed the least indication of such after-effects, nor can I conceive that they will occur.

But that point ifl not here at issue. Nor arc we debating whether sentence -errors really signify in the sight of Heaven. To me personally the difference between omma and a semicolon is less than nothing. I note that the colleges and tax-payers demand that such knowledge shall be imparted, and that we are not meeting the demand successfully. An inevitable cry of dismay must be forestalled: "Oh, this is an apotheosis of drugs! This will encourage novices to herd their pupils out of the pleasant pastures and confine them amid antidotes and syringes;' ' Peace!

No medical thesis ever turned a lover of green fields into a worshiper of microbes.

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Anyone who can be turned from the paths of good sense by this chapter is already unfit to teach English. One principle is to be forever in mind: Pupils. X Trrngj Tmnw whflt words dn jn rptiIptipps That "Colonel Sellers was a peculiar man, if he happened to make money ,, will illustrate. What does if do? It joins its clause to ivould give. A pupil who has been taught to find out instantly what if does is pre- pared to understand why the comma before it is the saddest of blunders. Logically the comma is right, because what follows is subordinate in thought, explaining how the Colonel was peculiar.

The Frenchman may indicate this subordination by a comma. We are not allowed to. Another illustra- tion is "A plague upon them, they're rotten. Our pointing in such cases depends upon grammatical dependence or independ- ence. The letters t, h, and e sometimes form an adverb and sometimes an article. To expound "infini- tive clauses' ' or "infinitives as modifiers' f or "intransitive passive" sic is to double on our own tracks, eluding and baffling the pupil. Very few English forms are anything in themselves.

Asked is nothing till you know what it does, but must be seen in action, to sleep is probably not an infinitive — and so on forever. There is hardly such a thing as a n intransitive verb. Then itjs transitive here. Reference to dictionaries is decep- tive because they seem to announce that a verb is hy nature one kind or the other. Such lugged-in Latin notions originally distorted our texts and are still potent causes of misstatement and wrong emphasis. The treatment of mood has been a process of forcing square English facts into round Latin holes.

Think of defining case of English nouns as " variation in form. Since Latin grammars display elaborate schemes of conjugation, our grammars have done the same ; we have paraded principal parts and declensions and all manner of paradigms as if English forms were unknown and our task was to commit them painfully to memory.

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Every pupil has known the forms all his life. What he does not know is how to describe the functions of words. Not all classification of forms is worthless, but learning about kinds is of small value compared with learning about functions, and the difficulties of teach- ing a few necessities of syntax are so great that no ordinary school has time for anything more. Not one of us realizes how hard it is to make a whole class able to distinguish between subject, object, and predicate nominative.

Scores of times I have seen normally bright pupils in a third year of review trip- ping over "up flew the windows' ' or learning all over again why a gerund is not a participle. What are those few necessities? We might almost reply, "Whatever will explain clauses. You cannot tell a clause from an independent sentence until you have studied per- sonals. Phrases will always be clauses until yon study prepositions. Clauses will never be clauses until you investigate conjunctions. And there you are. Through every inch of the drudgery you can see clauses.

Familiarity with them will breed some ease in writing complex sentences, and so make style less childish. Knowledge o f them will put counter- feit sentences out of c ion. In your toiling with subject and object you have a purpose, a pre- vision of how you are going to destroy such monsters as "What you say, doesn't count, it's what you do. What have you supposed you were going to do?

B ; i i se a dust for no particular purpose! If you know that every motion is going to help the next genera- tion to command a more decent style, shan't you feel that your occupation is less like devilish goose- stepping and more like godly labor! Your year's course begins with recognizing the p arts of speecH. Definitions are merely brief statements of uses: a word used as a name, a word whose business is to modify nouns and pronouns, a word that has power to make a state- ment.

Then you take up each in turn. Disregard- ing such relativities as "cognate object", "obi- rvice," you attend only to real uses — subject, vocative, indirect object, adverbial objective. Verily so can you if your eye is not dim. When Thomas learns that Royal George is not the object of down went, and then for three successive weeks hears that Barbara Frietchie is not the object of sprang, a wonderful conception begins to grow in Thomas's mind: "I needn't begin every sentence of my own with the subject.

Must we hack our way through all these construc- tions f Probably yes — alas! Because unless Thomas is responsible for every use he will not understand you some day when he has written ' ' The Judge was tall, dark-brown hair," or "When a boy is seriously hurt in football, even a broken arm or leg. In "It cost a dollar" the noun might be called adverbial.

And keep in mind always that the analysis which long habit makes obvious to us is essentially hard. Can you present off-hand an irresistible demonstration of the antipodal functions of the two following verbs? All the parade of ' l compound ", " demonstra- tive", "indefinite," is a show of phantoms, only to be glanced at. They are weak by nat u iv, small, parasitic, unable to stand alone.

They can be graphically charted by writing them in very small letters on a line slanting down from a big antecedent. This is not kindergartening; it is a primal fact about sentences. If a child establishes the mental habit of drawing a ring about a relative clause, he can always corral his relative construc- tions ; if he has formed no such habit, he will be for- r turning loose upon society such mavericks as "I have something here that as long as I keep it, I'll be unhappy. It is doubt- ful whether you should touch upon relatives as descriptive and restrictive. The distinction is the most delicate and difficult in the whole field of rhe- toric, the hardest to formulate, the hardest for illit- erate minds to grasp.

It must be mastered before clauses can be properly pointed, but "touching upon ' ' will accomplish nothing. Unless you can pre- sent it fully, you had best not take it up at all. It is a rhetorical distinction. By their functions ye shall know them. And consistency is precious in elementary grammar. We must advance con- sistently to participles.

If you realize that they are the goal, and that a knowledge of them will prevent sentence-errors, you can handle adjectives with zeal. In adverbs a definition will be useful. You will find that occasionally adverbs really modify preposi- tions and conjunctions: "right on that spot, stand- ing just where he told us. They are conjoining words. Interroga- tive adverbs are adverbs.

The ideal text would alternate lessons in verbs x and constructions of nouns, for they are inseparable matters. You must join what the text has sundered. For sequence of tenses in composi- tion will never be influenced by parsings, and sub- junctive mood is not defined alike by any two grammarians. A statement or question of fact is indicative, a command is imperative, a mere condi- tion of mind is s ubjunct ive 1 — more but so. And be willing to leave mood quite untaught until you have made doubly sure of the necessities. You can find them almost inspiring if you anticipate coherent modifiers and the clearer notions of clauses.

A phrase is always a clause to Thomas, and until he can distinguish you have no language by which to explain some matters of arranging, vary- ing, and pointing. So y onr object is to delimit prepositions from adve rbs on the one hand and conjun ctions on the other.

IAke lH Hot ' ' an adjective used iiKe a preposition"; it is a preposition. YoTT never weary of inquiring what the object is and what the phrase modifies. And you look into the seeds of time and see an epoch when "in which he sat in" will be monstrous, and when a phrase will not be a sentence. It is doubtful whether as must ever be called a relative pronoun. There is in your text a section which ought to be excised by a national board of censorship. Some day it will be. It is that paragraph which asserts that some adverbs are conjunctions. Still is not a conjunction. However is not a conjunction — never in a secondary school.

Nor is nevertheless nor more- over nor then. If this dictum is a flat denial of the whole thesis, then the thesis must go to smash. We face an ugly, illogical fact, a social taboo that is superior to all reason. The fact of custom is that we do not point these words with commas as we do though and unless.

We place a deadly entanglement in the path of progress if we so much as whisper the possibility that these independent, adverbs might in any event ever conceivably be called conjunctions. No, we must shout the contrary. And as we vocifer- ate we may see opening before us a highway of real sentences on which pupils may safely travel to that Promised Land in which there are no sentence- errors.

A verbal used like an adjective is a participle; a verbal used like a noun is an infinitive. TUat ought to be the limit of definition, but unfortunately a National Committee asks us to call ing infinitives gerunds. So be it, then. But assure your class that the difference is purely formal, that you are dissect- ing only adjective uses and noun uses.

Never swerve from that. Never use the confusing " participial infinitive" nor "infinitive clause" nor "infinitive modifiers," nor "complementary" nor "purpose"; spend little time on phrases, tenses, or "pure adjec- tive. What is it? Why, then, is it dangling helpless in your sentence T M There is the program — to deal with no mere forms, to ask what words do, to keep before us the vision of better sentences. A text to put this into effect would have quite a dilTerent appearance from our present grammars.

It would do in form what most experienced teachers do in practice: offer hardly any text, offer a thou- sand sentences to work with. Its few simple defini- tions would be mere titles for colloquial comment on a few principles. The comments would be brief, serving only to introduce the illustrations. And the illustrations would be nothing but introductions to the only part that counts — exercises. Probably nine- tenthfl of the book would be sentences so grouped as to afford easy preliminary drill on one topic, then on two topics mingled, every exercise including some sentences that contain no illustrations of the topic.

This is not a policy of puzzles ; it is insurance against heedlessness — a highly important bit of tactics. The fences would be taken mostly from stories and criptions, so that they should seem human, some- what interesting, and so that their meaning should be obvious at first reading.

We cannot reckon how unreal we have made grammar with our selections from Tennyson and Emerson. And possibly have done something toward making literature odious. It is more profitable to examine a live idiom like "I don't know who did it" than to whirl toward AizraePs outposts with "As night to stars, woe lustre gives to man. It would be quite the contrary. For it is harder to be thorough in a few fundamentals than to hurry through a thousand non-essentials; more complete to know all of something than to know only a little about some things.

Does it sound like a great lot of work for a small result? It is true in one way that a year of drill in syntax does not furnish much useful knowledge; many a skilful writer who in the truest sense under- stands his mother-tongue knows nothing of gram- matical formulas and would not have his skill per- ceptibly increased by a course in syntax.

Grammar drill actually counts for very little in training a pupil to use the language correctly, for there are very few opportunities like "if I'd have known' ' or "between you and I" to appeal to reason. It is a fact that though a man has all knowledge of diagram- ing clauses, so that he can analyze unfalteringly the maziest sentence of Pater or James, he may never- theless be unable to compose one interesting period. In spite of the various hints given above as to how grammar may be applied for obviating careless con- structions, it must be admitted that such applications come only now and then, could be made without all the preparatory analysis.

Grammar probably trains the intellect no better than a dozen other subjects that have greater cultural content. What on earth does grammar do? It prepares a pupil to learn when he has reached the end of a sentence and to be instructed in punctuating that sentence. Is that a small result?

It must look positively tiny to you; it appears insignificant to some experienced educators. That is because you measure size astro- nomically. The child is trained for years, slowly advanced from one simplicity to another, before he can begin algebra. Some day the world will realize that we have been regarding the solution of written-sentence forma- tions from the astronomer's view-point, have been, as it were, taking subtraction for granted and merely glancing at decimals.

Al8 Professor Thomas of Minnesota says about ordinary college freshmen: "They have been left in total ignorance of the nature of a sentence.

Part of Bourbon news (Paris, Ky. : 1895)

The whole theory of punctuation still remains in worlds beyond their ken. And punctuation cannot be taught without a knowledge of clauses. If quadratics is a "small" result in mathematics, so is a knowledge of clauses "small" in English. Not otherwise. A marvelous collection could be made of untruths that have been solemnly rehearsed from one genera- tion to another. One example is Dr. Johnson's guess that "had rather" is a vulgarism — an absolute fals- ity that lived unresisted for a century and a quarter, has been thirty years a-dying, and is not dead yet. Only five years ago an Atlantic contrib- utor inveighed against the ignorance of an age which had no more feeling for grammatical propriety than to use ' ' no one but me.

All such things-that-aren't-so arise from logical brains that argue. Grammar admits of no argument — at least Professor Whitney convinced most thinking Americans that it doesn't; and since his time a host of thinking professors have been beating into us the notion that reasoning about grammar is an utterly fatuous futility. The only way to know about respectability is to know the facts of usage — has it been, or is it now, commonly employed by educated people f English grammar is always furnishing surprises, things you never thought of before. But the great body of usual explana- tions is not hard to acquire.

It is clear, sensible in its methods, remarkably complete, and always sound. The most thorough and reliable text is Whitney's Essentials of English Grammar, which, though designed as a textbook, is really a manual crammed full of information for the teacher. Kittredge and Farley's Advanced English Grammar, though mis- leading in some of its statements, records some facts of idiom that other authors have been too timorous to include.

Armed with these three volumes you can bag almost any idiom that rears its fearsome head. Should you by any strange chance ever wish to go further in quest of facts from our literature, use Matzner's three- volume Grammatik. Even if the German comment is hard to read, the great stores of quotations are easy — and they are what o units.

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Otto Jespersen's volumes of syntax in Knirlish will he another tremendous collection of quotations, very originally and entertainingly grouped. It may be many years before this is completed; the first volume does not cover mueh of the field. English constructions are hard to reduce to an orderly scheme.

They are specially numerous in common idioms and colloquial language. It is fatal to pr tend knowledge, because you may make a pronoun e ment that will later be disastrous. I want to make , sure. I '11 teJLyjajJg mojpgow. Get straight again. There is no other way to keep the respect of the class. But of course you must dis- play as little ignorance as possible. Often you can see the trouble coming and can avoid the encounter; Often the puzzle is of no value to the class, and you can say that you are omitting the oddities. Try to have it understood from the beginning that English syntax is not like arithmetic: a teacher of other subjects knows an answer to every question that can arise ; in every elementary grammar there are ques- tions that lexicographers cannot agree about.

At many points in the course there will be options as to how you classify or explain. Make it clear to the class that some of the schemes are arbitrary, that the matter is handled otherwise in other books or other schools, but that for the sake of uniformity it is necessary to require some one scheme with any one class.

Always try to give credit for, or at least to excuse, a recitation that shows an analysis which might have been taught somewhere in the world. Sensible headwork, even if the result is laughable, is better than mere devotion to an arbitrary standard. If a pupil says that trotting in "he went trotting along the sidewalk' ' is a modifier of went, this is a notion that has reality in it; it is not to be con- demned unless it conflicts with a standing, invariable ruling that participles never modify verbs. It does not narrow you or your subject or the pupil ; it is simply the skeleton of the Generally True; it is the support for gram- matical concepts.

When it is mastered — and not before — a pupil is entitled to debate of might-bes and in-realities. You and the pupils will keep in a much happier frame of mind if you recognize that the stiff outline is a useful device, not a subject or an end in itself. The actual work with miscellaneous sentences all that really counts. You need hundreds of them. Sometimes you will be driven to the use of other books for material, such as a history or even an algebra or the Bible. Copious exercises is the word.

A natural approach is to take a preliminary sur- vey of the different parts of speech in this order: nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, preposi- tions, conjunctions. It may be well to leave infini- tives and participles till later. This kind of work goes swimmingly. When the lesson is all about adjectives it is easy to select thorn. Even long verb phrases can be picked out handily when the lesson is all about verbs. Be warned that this is mere seem- ing, and that when you mix things up the class will seem to have got nowhere at all. Very well.

Then the italicized words in the follow- ing are pronouns: "Each had his knapsack", "One never knows his own faults. But now we review a mix-up of pro- nouns and adjectives, encountering: "Each one had thought the others were lying about that other boat. How is one used? It doesn't modify some understood noun, does it? So it stands for a noun, then? And what is a pronoun? Then one must be a pronoun? What does each do? Modifies one.