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Sorting through all the possibilities posed a new challenge. At first I wrote Perl filters that would weed through the long lists. But then I decided I needed a more interactive solution. I had lots of fun with it, as did others. But the years passed, and Apple eventually let go of HyperCard. What to do? Awaiting confirmation or correction, let me suggest that Mr. Lederer, despite being known as "Conan the Grammarian," may be having trouble with the difference between spelling and sound.

I'm surprised that this got past yourDictionary's eminent " Advisory Council of Experts ". As far as I can see, only one of the five cited examples is actually a genuine mispronunciation -- "Anzar" for "Aznar" -- and this is a mistake that Bush apparently made in ! The rest are either standard American pronunciation variants, or instances of regional variation in the treatment of reduced vowels around liquids.

Taking the last one first: the stressed syllable in Nevada is given in both versions by Merriam-Webster and American Heritage with the vowel of cot or the vowel of cat. Don't the folks at yourDictionary. Two of the remaining three nuclear and jewelry are widespread variant pronunciations, not much more culpable than "Febyuary" for February , which Merriam-Webster gives as the first pronunciation. With respect to the prounciation of nuclear , both M-W and American Heritage cite Bush's pronunciation as one of their variants, with a usage note the American Heritage calls it "generally considered incorrect".

However, as Geoff Nunberg writes , "'nucular' is a choice, not an inadvertent mistake. While censuring the president for perhaps inserting an extra schwa in jewelry , yourDictionary slags him off for leaving one out in America. In the speech of the South Midlands, reduced vowels are often transformed by assimilation into lengthening of adjacent consonants or vowels, as can be heard in this example of speech from a woman from Tennessee waveform and spectrogram below.

Even without getting into sociolinguistic studies of such things, we can be pretty confident that these are stigmatized changes in progress, or long-standing regional or class prejudices, just by reading how upset the language maven Dr. Richard Lederer, "the recipient of the Toastmasters International Golden Gavel Award," gets about the whole business. So, let's sum it up.

The Tide - March by Tide Editors - Issuu

Depending on what Bush actually said for jewelry , one or two of the examples are normal variant pronunciations, two or three of the examples are widespread regionalisms or other socially marked variants , and one is a genuine mistake in pronunciation -- which was made in , well past the statue of limitations for mistakes of ! Chill, yourDictionary guys -- lexicography shouldn't be prostituted to treat stigmatized class or regional speech as "mistaken". If you want to make a list of presidential regionalisms, fine -- but don't call them mispronunciations.

And don't throw in variant pronunciations without checking them, just because they're different from what you say yourself. Mark observes that the "point is a very subtle one for non-linguists," which is certainly true, and that "Bush-haters will grasp at anything", which is also true, though I'm not sure whether it's a defense or a further criticism.

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Steve notes that the yourDictionary site "does He concludes that "I guess it's a bad thing for linguists to be associated with factually incorrect -- and overly normative observations about language, but otherwise I would consider your reaction a bit overwrought But getting "a bit overwrought" is kind of a weblog tradition, after all. It's better than being underwrought, though of course here at Language Log we aspire to being exactly wrought enough. It almost seems like every new African American female of college age or younger that you meet these days has a completely unique invented name.

The New York Times on Saturday, December 27, , carried an article by Leslie Kaufman about changes in what is provided to the poor in food baskets. It was illustrated with a photo of a six-year-old girl named Cquila Singleton. Cquila is definitely unique, getting no Google hits at all as of today.

By tomorrow there may be one hit, but it will be this page. And one can only guess at the intended pronunciation. The invented names that black mothers bestow on their daughters are often rather beautiful phonetically, and generally fashioned to look and sound vaguely African. In the case of Cquila there is a distinct suggestion of the orthographies of Southern Bantu languages like Zulu. But in those orthographies Cquila would be the spelling of something completely unpronounceable. The letters c , q , and x are used for velaric ingressive stop consonants -- clicks, as they are more usually known.

Roughly speaking, c stands for a dental click made by sucking the tongue tip away from the back of the upper front teeth ; q represents a deeper-sounding postalveolar click performed with rounded lip position and tongue pulled away from the front of the roof of the mouth people use it to imitate the sound of a champagne cork coming out of the bottle , and x stands for the lateral one a clicking at the two sides of the tongue used conventionally to gee up horses. The latter occurs in the name of the language Xhosa; Peter Ladefoged has examples of the clicks in this language here , and lots of other fascinating material on the same site.

The click in Xhosa is apirated, which means it is immediately followed by an h sound. But you can hardly follow a click by a click. It never happens in the Southern African languages that have clicks, any way though Julian Bradfield points out that the earlier version of this post was too strong: producing two clicks in quick succession is phonetically possible ; cq couldn't ever be the beginning of a well-formed Zulu or Xhosa word.

It is possible for a dental click to be immediately followed by a uvular stop like the last sound in the word Iraq when correctly pronounced. That happens in certain Bushman languages spoken in the Kalahari desert area, such as! In more recent proposals a k is prefixed to a voiceless click and g for a voiced one and n for a nasal one.

But it's probably not the intended pronunciation of Cquila's name. There are words ending in cq in at least some Romance languages, English gets a few of them in the form of foreign proper names like Domecq the family name of Pedro Domecq, from Spain. But I don't think there are any languages in which words can begin with cq. Except for post English, of course, if you count the name Cquila as an English word. Little Cquila she is six will have to tell everyone how she wants her name to be pronounced, because I can't even guess.

People will probably make attempts sounding like keela , queela , ka-queela , sa-queela She may end up being nicknamed Tequila. You don't know what you've started when you invent a name whose spelling doesn't indicate a pronunciation in any known human language. Concern is expressed about the side effects of conversations with networked objects.

The top of the surprising rank ordering of languages has not changed since it was discussed here back in October: English, Portuguese, Polish, Farsi, French. I'm still somewhat skeptical about what the TextCat language classification algorithm is doing: it's hard to believe that Russian is nowhere in the top 25, but Breton is And that there are really almost 5 times more Icelandic bloggers than Japanese However, the top of the list seems likely to be right.

See blogcount for more blogospheric information. Blogdex just now has yourDictionary. Fernando Pereira picks up the question of the computational linguistics of smells :. Surprising as it might seem to outsiders, this question is central to modern computational linguistics. One side will argue that without perceptual grounding, anything we glean from texts is a poor, fake proxy. The other feels that the grounding of much of the language we use, especially that pertaining to social and technical topics, is other language.

Current information-extraction techniques based on labeling a bunch of documents and learning pattern matchers from the examples take less advantage than we'd like from co-occurrence statistics. Some research I think that part of the problem is that existing techniques focus on just one kind of entity and very superficial features, while the way we learn that CPEB may denote a kind of protein involves seeing the term used in relation to several other terms, themselves belonging to rich terminological networks of which we have some knowledge.

Read the whole thing , including Fernando's Proustian ruminations on mildew smells across time and space. I conjecture that biomedical text may be the best initial testbed for the kind of research that Fernando describes as he broadly hints in his note , since it's easy to get access not only to billion-word text corpora but also to a rich and varied universe of bioinformatic databases and ontology-attempts. The fact that the results may often be intrinsically worthwhile is another motivation to look in that domain first.

People often write about language as if it were nothing but words, words, words.

Language Log is therefore accepting nominations for X-of-the-year awards at other levels of linguistic analysis:. Allophone of the year. New ways of pronouncing English phonemes in context. This reaches the popular imagination occasionally through discussions of regional, class or other social-group pronunciations, like Valley Speak. Affix of the year. New methods for making new English words out of old ones. An obvious recent example is -izzle.

Construction of the year. New ways of combining English words into phrases. The problem here is to find "new" syntactic usages that don't turn out to go back to the 18th century. The syntactic clock ticks rather slowly. Word sense of the year. New meanings for old English words. For example, the OED's last quarterly update included new meanings for churn " Change to a customer base; esp.

Also: turnover or reorganization of employees. Intonation of the year. New melodies for English utterances.


  1. The Quirky Medium!
  2. Dead Alligator Lizard.
  3. December 30, 2003?
  4. Counter-Piracy Updates: Status Of Seized Vessels And Crews?

This one reached the popular imagination in the early s, via uptalk. Rhetorical trope of the year. New structures or frameworks for arguments. Call the Rockridge Institute! Logical form of the year. Is this one possible? Hilary Putnam once argued that logic is empirically testable and indeed must be revised based on the discoveries of 20th century physics -- but do the logical structures and interpretative principles of natural languages ever change? There could be others -- Discourse marker of the year , Disfluency of the year , etc. The fact is that most linguistic innovations have a pretty long history by the time they are noticed.

The main exception is a new phenomenon or at least a new conceptualization of an old phenomenon that is given a new name like "TSE" or "prion" or assigned a new sense of an old word like "embed" or "churn". Even in most of those cases like "spider hole" , the only real novelty is the new intensity of public interest in the topic. This should be a warning to all Erasmians -- though it seems to have been the magazines that did Mr. Moore in. I'm not usually one to complain about how the language is going to the dogs, but sometimes using words correctly really matters.

A few minutes ago I turned on the TV and watched the final question on Jeopardy. The answer was I paraphrase "A condiment eaten with sushi and also eaten at Passover". Since there is no condiment satisfying both conditions, you might think that the contestants all got it wrong. Two were way off: they responded "nori" and "ginger".

The one who got it "right" responded "horseradish", which Alex Trebek explained is the same thing as wasabi. It isn't. Horseradish and wasabi are different plants. They don't even belong to the same genus. Horseradish is Armoracia rusticana. Anyone who has tasted real wasabi knows that it doesn't taste the same as horseradish. Another subtle clue is that wasabi is green; horseradish isn't. This is a nice example of a Chinese character idiom.

The first character means "mountain". Its native Japanese reading is yama ; its Sino-Japanese reading is san. The second character means "hollyhock" and has the native reading aoi and the Sino-Japanese reading ki. No matter how you try, you can't get wasabi from these components. The fact that these two Chinese characters together are read wasabi is morphologically arbitrary.

Now, to return to the point, why is it that the Jeopardy folks think that wasabi is horseradish? I think that this is an instance of lexical change through consumer fraud. Real wasabi is indigenous only to Japan and Sakhalin and people have succeeded in growing it only in a few other places, such as Oregon. The real thing is expensive, and for it to be any good, it has to be freshly grated from the root.

The result is that as sushi has become more popular, more and more of the "wasabi" served in the United States has been fake. It isn't wasabi: it's horseradish with green dye. Many people don't know the difference between wasabi and horseradish because in their experience there isn't any. One way or the other, it's a new category of political gaffe. Which begs the question, can someone who uses "gaffe" publicly be elected president?

Posted by Geoff Nunberg at PM Words of Columnists at a loss for other topics are beginning to write year-end roundups, rating and ranking the year's contributions in areas from gadgets to celebrity scandals. Those writers who round up the year's words, unlike those who list celebrity scandals, seem cite authorities: this piece in the Philadelphia Inquirer quotes Erin McKean, "senior editor for U. The American Dialect Society will choose its "word or phrase of the year" for in a session starting at p. Oddly, there is no live TV feed.

I haven't seen a list of nominations, but perhaps someone more closely involved with the ADS can supply one. I'll be at the LSA meeting in the same hotel at the same time. I've never been to one of the ADS "word of the year" sessions, but if the Sheraton Boston's "Wireless internet in the Lobby" reaches the meeting room, I'll report from the spot.

As Geoff Pullum has pointed out , the LSA welcomes visitors with open arms or at least benign indifference , and I imagine that the ADS does as well, so stop by if you're around. I suspect that the ADS choices will come too late to get similar uptake, but we'll see. The Calcutta Telegraph has a fascinating piece featuring words of Indian English, mostly humorously invented.

Here 's an article from the SF Chronicle, which asks readers to "[h]elp us choose the Word of the Year". Somehow the lexicographical pundits that I've sampled have missed the new word or phrase FRT for Fast Repetitive Tick , which is a sound made by "bubbles coming out of a herring's anus".

As Dave Barry put it. Isn't modern technology amazing? A hundred years ago, if you had told people that some day there would be a giant network of incredibly sophisticated ''thinking machines'' that would allow virtually anybody, virtually anywhere on Earth, to hear a herring cut the cheese, they would have beaten you to death with sticks.

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For subscribers, here is a note in Science about the same topic, which may possibly exhibit the first use of the word "farting" in that august publication though I haven't checked. In any case, this is certainly another confirmation of the change in linguistic standards that John McWhorter recently described. Here is a page on marine biologist Ben Wilson's site with a link to the.

The primary reference is: Wahlberg, M. Westerberg Sounds produced by herring Clupea harengus bubble release. Aquatic Living Resources The abstract is available, for those with the right access, but the full article does not seem to be on line, with or without subscription. Crucial information: The characteristic sound made by herring during gas release is denoted as the pulsed chirp.

John McWhorter writes in the WaPo on changes in standards for speech in broadcasts, in public and in private. All four online dictionaries have BSE.


  • Naughty Knight (The Knight Brothers Book 3)?
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  • Only Encarta has TSE. The number of definite and probable cases is people in the U. The OED is the only dictionary that has both vCJD and nvCJD, and it simply expands the acronyms, without indicating that the two terms are different ways of referring to the same thing. It's a little surprising that on-line lexicography is not more up to date on these terms, since they seem to have been used in the specialist literature since about CWD since the late s , and they refer to various aspects of a matter of major public health and public policy concern.

    As a grown-up version of Bertie Botts' Every Flavor Beans, Demeter offers perfumes in fragrances like dirt , crust of bread , sawdust and laundromat , as well as tobacco , condensed milk , Earl Grey tea and cranberry , and more traditional things like patchouli , honeysuckle and sandalwood. I don't quite get it. Do people buy these as a joke gift, for the incongruity of a fancy bottle of perfume labelled mildew -- that actually smells like mildew? Or do they buy them because they really want to go around emitting wafts of turpentine or lobster? Or is it because they get a proustian rush from privately uncorking their bottle of sticky toffee pudding or stable?

    Anyhow, Demeter's list of currently available fragrances suggests a problem in computational linguistics: devise an automatic algorithm that analyzes a very large text corpus to derive a comparable list of "names of things with evocative smells". In fact one should be able to do better, since Demeter's list is not really very long, systematically omits highly offensive smells like cat piss and rotten eggs , and includes some odorless oddities like holy water This problem in itself is not important, but it's an instance of an interesting class.

    It would be nice, for instance, to be able to process biomedical text so as to derive a list of names of structural proteins, or diseases of domestic pets, or insects implicated as disease vectors, or whatever. Here's some interesting biomedical stuff on prions and mad cow disease. I've added a bit of lexicography for the obligatory language link. Researchers at Columbia and MIT have found a protein in sea slug neurons cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein , or CPEB that appears to use prion-like alternative forms as part of a mechanism for encoding long-term memories NYT article.

    This could be a big deal for two reasons -- it might help explain how memories are formed or more generally, how synapse-specific long-term facilitation works , and it might help explain where prions come from, and why they seem to form spontaneously in pretty much all animals. If true, either of these would be important enough to elevate CPEB or some other nickname for these proteins into the general vocabulary. It's likely -- given nature's thriftiness with basic mechanisms -- that similar tricks are used for lots of cellular switching functions, and thus may also be involved in other disease processes, making the discovery even more important.

    Some more links are here and if you subscribe to Cell here , here and here. A lot of attention has been paid in the media e. I agree with the note from Dr. Weinstein in this posting at ProMED-mail scroll down to item [2] : "it makes me more than a little nervous to find out that obviously sick animals are still sent for slaughter to enter the human food chain. However, the animal is not dead. Depending upon the speed of the slaughter plant the animal remains alive, but unable to comprehend or feel pain, for an average of 2 to 7 minutes before the throat is cut, exsanguinating the animal.

    During that 2 to 7 minutes the neurological tissue that captive bolt compressed into the brain and into the blood stream can circulate throughout the body, as long as the heart beats. The prion is smaller than a red blood cell. Therefore, it would appear that the prion agent can be in muscle tissue.

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    The Lancet, Sep 14, , Letter to the Editor. I had falsely assumed that cuts of meat away from the bone are likely to be safe, based on the earlier regulations in the U. This discussion makes it seem that Kosher or Halal beef would be safer in this respect.

    Of course, testing all slaughtered animals for prions would be even safer. Or becoming a vegetarian. Neither the OED nor Encarta nor Merriam-Webster nor American Heritage has an entry for "captive bolt stunner," and all think that "downers" are only sedative drugs or depressing things, not cows who can't walk. I bet that downer soon makes it into jokes on late-night TV, if it hasn't already.

    I'm not sure about captive bolt stunner -- it depends on how the public discussion develops. I didn't bother looking for cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein -- not even the Enzyme Commission has that one yet. Contrary to what I wrote here earlier, mad cow disease itself makes it into the online verions of the OED, Encarta, American Heritage and Merriam-Webster -- if properly looked up. As many as , infected animals may have entered the British food chain before the disease was recognised and proper precautions taken.

    Even now, 11 years after the BSE epidemic reached its peak, several new cases a week are reported in British herds. The cumulative death toll from vCJD stands at Although statisticians say it is too early to be sure how many people will die, most expect the eventual total to be about to - assuming that there is no secondary epidemic spread by infected blood supplies. On that basis, even a few hundred cows with BSE in the US would not be likely to cause any human disease.

    In the Atlantic, Cullen Murphy writes that " To start this long-overdue public conversation, I'll propose ten. Notoriety does not denote "famousness," enormity does not denote "bigness," and religiosity does not denote "religiousness. I agree with Murphy about the meaning of these words, personally, but the basis of his strictures in history and present usage is more tenuous than one might like for a standard that we are supposed to uphold "unto the end of days".

    Or to put it more bluntly, sez who? Murphy's column is at best half serious, and much of his new decalogue could be charitably interpreted as playful recycling of mildly un-PC rectitudes -- for instance his 2 and 5 are:. So maybe it's unfair to take him to task for bad judgment in picking linguistic examples. Still, I'm disappointed. I'd expect him to be able to find some obnoxious new usages to playfully pretend to hold the line against. Instead, he picks three cases where he's objecting to the retention of an earlier often original meaning of a word.

    There's no general rule that the development of a more specific meaning must drive out an earlier, more general one. Sometimes it happens and sometimes -- probably more often -- it doesn't. The OED considers that the more general sense is obsolete in only one out of three of Murphy's examples. Was Murphy too lazy to check, too insensitive to see the difference? This is hard for me to believe about someone who has written the comic strip Prince Valiant since the mid 's. Or is this aspect of his piece just a subtle tongue-in-cheek subversion of his own Language Maven schtick?

    The OED's first sense for notorious is "Of facts: Well known; commonly or generally known; forming a matter of common knowledge. Negative connotations don't come in until sense 4: "Used attributively with designations of persons which imply evil or wickedness: Well known, noted as being of this kind. For notoriety , the OED's first sense is "the state or condition of being notorious; the fact of being famous or well known, esp. The OED agrees that the use of enormity to mean "bigness" -- its sense 3, which it glosses as "[e]xcess in magnitude; hugeness, vastness" -- is obsolete, and its citations for that sense are all from the late 18th or early 19th century:.

    But if enormity could mean "enormousness" in , who's to say that we have to hold the line "until the end of time" against the return of that sense? The OED's first meaning for religiosity is "1. Religiousness, religious feeling or sentiment", with citations from to The OED gives no indication that this meaning should be withdrawn in favor of the more specific sense "1. Affected or excessive religiousness", for which its earliest citation is That's because the original, broader sense never died out -- it's easy to find a continuous pattern of uses of religosity in this sense, from to the present day.

    I recently visited a heritage village and found myself inside a reconstructed s house browsing old books. I chanced upon an old grammar of English which contained a discussion of a sentence: "She said that that 'that' that that boy used was wrong. I'll refer to this genre as word soup , to distinguish it from another interesting category called word salad.

    Word salad is the technical term for the result of randomly tossing words into a sentence, e. As Steve Abney and others have pointed out, it is often possible to come up with a plausible interpretation for such sentences. In this particular case, one has to know that an "are" is square metres one hundredth of a hectare , and that "a" and "I" are names.

    On the question of the number of new English words per year , Language Hat writes :. Liberman rightly in my opinion discounts the trademarks, but I think he's too quick to dismiss the scientific terms. As rebarbative as "GDP-L-fucose synthase" may be, I don't see any principled way to distinguish it from the long line of terms that have preceded it, from atmosphere through phlogiston and quark. The OED has from the beginning tried to include scientific terminology, and although it's probably impossible by now to keep up with the details of every specialty, if they're used in the normal course of events by the specialists concerned, they're bona fide English words and deserve to be counted.

    Whether it's possible to do an accurate count, of course, is another matter altogether. There's some truth in this, but for the sake of clarity, let me argue the other side for a while. First, I don't entirely discount the trademarks, any more than dictionary-makers do. The OED's most recent update includes Bluetooth , Nomex , Norplant , Noryl and Swiss Army knife , among other trademarked words, and they were quite right to include these.

    Margaret Marks lists a small sample from the International Trademark Associaton's list, and many of her examples are plausible candidates for inclusion, if they're not already there as Grand Marnier and Grape-Nuts are. It's just that most of the , new trademarks registered in the U. This legal registration doesn't privilege them lexicographically over the tens or hundreds of millions of new names created in the Anglosphere every year that aren't trademarked like Perl , which also made the OED's most recent update, and has not been registered as a trademark.

    All names are lexical entries, in the sense that they are morphophonological patterns with a conventional if sometimes very local meaning, which is not predictable from the meaning of their parts if any. My brother's childhood imaginary friend was named "Clocktho" rhymes with "block know" ; our current cat is named "Tickle"; I'm co-director of an outfit whose acronym is "IRCS" often pronounced "irks" ; I often eat at the "Class of commons" often abbreviated as " commons" or just "".

    These are all part of my mental lexicon, and I share each of them with some other people as well; but none of them are in any general dictionaries of the English language, nor should they be. The OED's most recent update includes Nipmuc , referring to "several Algonquian-speaking North American Indian peoples formerly inhabiting parts of central Massachusetts and adjacent Connecticut and Rhode Island," who gave their name to several landmarks of my childhood such as the Nipmuc Trail.

    The difference between Nipmuc which was long overdue to be included and Clocktho which never will be is not narrowly linguistic but rather historical, sociological, and quantitative. Second, there is a difference worth noting between scientific terms like quark and those like trimethylamine-N-oxide reductase. The latter is a kind of a phrase, composed according to a certain grammar or at least pattern, which lends itself to the construction of a very large number of additional strings that are not necessarily part of the scientific lexicon. In principle we could have dimethylamine or monobutylamine at the start, etc.

    The choice among instantiations of these linguistic patterns is then a matter of what chemical configurations are possible and which of them biology uses. Scientists need standard databases for what is known about these facts of chemistry and biology, and also for the associated linguistic choices, such as the acronyms, abbreviations and other nicknames for the chosen entities.

    The Enzyme Commission provides such a standard. But only a few of the names that it catalogues -- whether the full phrasal names or the nicknames -- belong in a dictionary. This is not specific to scientific vocabulary -- in fact, it's a lot like the problem of street addresses. Three years ago, it was officially at Spruce Street ; and then for a couple of years, it was officially Hamilton Walk. By "officially" I mean that the address was registered in those changing ways with the U. Postal Service though the buildings have been in the same place since There are many similar strings -- e.

    These facts -- that Spruce Street isn't a valid address in Philadelphia, but Spruce Street is, and furthermore that as of it is the address of Ware College House -- are not facts about the English language, exactly. They're facts about the U. Postal Service's official view of the way we've decided to use the English language to talk about Philadelphia.

    You can look such facts up in an appropriate reference, but except perhaps for a few like B Baker St. Streets and buildings exist independently of how we choose to address them, but the question of which streets in which cities have which numbering schemes, and which institutions and buildings are officially designated with which street addresses, is to a large extent a question about linguistic convention I understand that street numbers in some Japanese cities are assigned in the order of building construction!

    However, the kind of linguistic convention involved is not one that we usually regard as being part of the responsibility of dictionary makers. The same thing can be said about the question of how to form complex chemical names, how to abbreviate these names or otherwise form shorter and more convenient versions, etc.

    It's a good thing that we have efforts like the Enzyme Commission to keep track of specific areas of scientific terminology, just as it's a good thing that the U.


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    Postal Service keeps track of U. Both are lexicographical enterprises, in some sense; but My only real conclusion here is that the terms "new", "English" and "word" are too vague in ordinary use for the question "how many new English words are there each year" to have a well-defined answer.

    And in fact we've only scratched the surface of the kinds of vagueness that would have to be remedied in order to give a meaningful answer Little did I realize, when I wrote a scholarly reflection on the semiotics of clothing and the transitivity of identity , that I was about to turn Language Log into a player in the Holiday Porn Industry. Links Website: Personal Website. All Credits Narration. Later, I lived in Tokyo, Japan, studying Japanese. Living abroad enriched my voice so that it has various accents. Often times, complete strangers have asked me if I am American.

    Throughout my life, people have suggested I use my voice in the speaking part of an animated character.