The second led him to a poetics of frustration and revolt: the artist could rise above material corruption only through the creative act, but the creative act could not occur without the stimulus of a reality that would always be recalcitrant. Whether the Catholic images and doctrines—the language of his age and class—in which he formulated his poems are to be taken literally or whether they are best viewed as the discourse he chose to grapple with in formulating the material and historical specificities of modern life, Baudelaire was a poet deeply concerned with the relationship between humanity, morality, and art.
He located morality for the artist pictured, as in Hugo, as the prophet and representative of his generation in his effort to see and communicate to his contemporaries the truth about themselves. The artist must bring clarity of vision into a world he saw as given over to the fogs and miasmas of hypocrisy, fudging, slothful conformism, and vicious self-seeking.
He was genuinely distressed by the official condemnation of the first edition of Les Fleurs du mal on a charge of obscenity provoked by its supposed erotic realism. The tensions within Baudelaire are depicted at their height in the second edition of Les Fleurs du mal The struggle is presented in a series of experiences that start with the poet himself, move out into the ugly—and yet, he finds, thrilling—urban environment of contemporary Paris, and gradually uncover the black depths of deformation and decay within the men and women who inhabit this modern landscape of masses and markets.
The stylistic antitheses mirror the content.
Toutes les partitions
Within individual poems Baudelaire shifts between the rhetorical, the impressionist, the abstract, and the intensely physical, concrete instance. He balances banality and originality, the prosaic and the melodic, to emphasize the interdependence of opposites, the chaos of forms and experience that he sees as the ground of the human condition.
In the last years of his life, Baudelaire tried to extend the literary means at his disposal by experimenting with prose poetry. The label Realism came to be applied to literature by way of painting as a result of the controversy surrounding the work of Gustave Courbet in the early s. Literary realism, however, was a much less easily definable concept. Even the members of the so-called Realist school were not entirely in agreement.
The practice of those labeled Realists was even more diverse than their theory.
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Germinie Lacerteux. It is easy to see why Gustave Flaubert was so firm in dissociating himself from such writers as Champfleury and Duranty, given that his own work undermined all sense of stability in perceptions and values by emphasizing the idea that any version of reality is relative to the person who perceives it.
Salammbo and La Tentation de Saint-Antoine ; The Temptation of Saint Anthony , in which he portrays exotic subjects in a heightened lyrical fashion. However, his major novels— Madame Bovary ; Eng. Emma Bovary , trapped in the unrelieved dullness of provincial landscape and domesticity, destroys herself by attempting to base her life on the ideas of passion and happiness she has gathered from popular romance.
In her efforts to make the world around her fit her preconceived images, Emma—at best a dreamer, at worst a social climber—is an easy victim for the exploitative men who come her way, and she is inexorably drawn onward to financial ruin and, eventually, suicide. The key to both Madame Bovary and Sentimental Education is the brilliance of a style that manages to mold its contours to the personality, ambitions, and limits of each character it evokes. Over the whole, Flaubert casts his own authorial presence, unobtrusive but visible, drily ironic, and sharply analytic.
His Trois contes ; Three Tales is a stylistic tour de force, evoking the possibilities and limits of three lives, each lived at a distinct and significant moment of historical transition, and telling the tale of each life in the language, artistic forms, and perspectives each moment offers. The society of the Second Empire, and indeed that of the early decades of the Third Republic , did not like to see itself too accurately portrayed on the stage; yet at the same time, in reaction against the escapism and nonconformity of Romantic drama , its members wanted the stage to reflect contemporary values and preoccupations.
Hence the predominance from to of social drama on the one hand and light comedy, farce, and operetta on the other.
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The Franco-German War and the consequent collapse of the empire had little perceptible effect on mainline theatre, though Offenbach lost favour because of his German associations. Attempts by other writers Flaubert, the Goncourts, Zola to establish a more genuinely realistic form of theatre failed, partly because public taste and theatrical commercialism made experiment nearly impossible and partly because the plays written were theatrically incompetent.
Antoine, who aimed at creating a unity between the staging decor and acting style of a play and its content, in the interest of total realism, introduced Paris to the drama of Henrik Ibsen and August Strindberg. Pelleas and Melisande , Monna Vanna ; Eng. The significance of such theatrical innovation was felt more widely in the following century. The Naturalists purported to take a more scientifically analytic approach to the presentation of reality than had their predecessors, treating dissection as a prerequisite for description.
It is difficult to find a coherent statement of the Naturalist theoretical position. However, like Flaubert, the Naturalists did not see reality as capable of any simple objective transcription. Zola and Maupassant accepted as part of literary truth the transposition of reality through the temperament of the individual writer and the role played by form in the construction of the real. The linking of so many novels through a single family and the emphasis on the deterministic effects of heredity and environment confirm the scientific purpose.
Nana , and the ferocious attachment of the peasantry to their land in La Terre ; Earth. But there are countless examples of manipulation of facts, particularly in the chronology of the novels, which show that for Zola documentary accuracy was not paramount. Indeed, his work notes reveal that he saw the scientific principles underlying the novels as a literary device to hold them together and thus strengthen the personal vision of reality that they contained.
The sense of period and family unity is soon submerged, as Zola becomes both poet and moralist in his portrayal of contemporary values. All the major novels are dominated by symbolically anthropomorphized forces that control and destroy both individual and mass. Thus the mine in Germinal is represented as a voracious beast devouring those who work in it. Bel-Ami , to the powerful evocation of the crippling effects of jealousy in Pierre et Jean ; Pierre and Jean. In the last decades of the century, particularly from onward, the opposition intensified between those creative writers who grounded their thinking in the material world and those who rejected physical experience as meaningless without reference to some spiritual dimension or intellectual ideal.
Whereas Baudelaire and Flaubert incorporated elements of both attitudes into their writings, other poets and novelists who followed them tended to take one or the other line to an extreme. The turn of the century saw the rise of a variety of disparate movements: Naturalism, Decadence, Symbolism , and the Roman Catholic revival. It derives from the same determinist philosophy as Naturalism and has much in common aesthetically with Impressionism in that it focuses on subjectively perceived moments of physical experience, held to have no significance beyond themselves.
It is also a form of late Romanticism, looking for inspiration to the strand of Baudelaire that treats of revolt, neurosis, the cult of cruelty, and extreme sensation, cast into novel and highly wrought forms. As Huysmans changed direction yet again, toward a Roman Catholicism characterized by a mixture of right-wing political prejudice , superstition, and antiquarian interest in symbols and doctrine, other writers emerged who were more subtle and experimental in both content and form.
Monsieur de Phocas ] , with their lyrical evocations of the bizarre contradictions of bourgeois fantasy, evoking formations of homosexual as well as heterosexual desire, have also a sharp satiric edge; they criticize their own posturing, and they highlight the unjust class privilege on which it depends. Monsieur Venus , reversing gender roles in the power play of sexual exploitation, or La Marquise de Sade , with its vampiric heroine. Verlaine and Laforgue remain linked in critical memory with the Decadent movement.
In so doing, he used lines with an odd number of syllables vers impair , ambiguous syntax, and unusual collocations of abstract and concrete concepts in a way that radically advanced the technical range of French verse. In his work two impressions predominate: that only the self is important and that the function of poetry is to preserve moments of extreme sensation and unique impression. Paris Floride Bordeaux L'information grammaticale , n o 55, oct.
The Evidential Analysis of Reported Speech. Paris, Hachette et cie Grenoble La Seconde Main ou le travail de la citation. Paris, Seuil Strasbourg, Silberman Hachette et Cie, Paris Human Language Technology. Paris, A. Eymeoud La Fontaine. Paris, Gallimard Promenades philosophiques. Mercure de France, Paris Paris, Mercure de France Paris, Armand Colin Paris, H.
Oudin Paris, Firmin Didot Critique de combat. Paris, Dentu Paris, Perrin Paris-Bruxelles, De Boeck-Duculot Hommes et Dieux.
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