Molto, very, much. Troppo poco, too little. Charles is the first, I. My brother's house is too large. Where is Mary? She is in my sister's room. Is there a man in the street? Yes ; there is a man and a child. Is there a table in our parlour? No ; there are three chairs, but there is no table. There was a small inkstand in my uncle's room.
There is too much ink in this pen. Is there a pencil in my brother's writing-desk? No, there are three pens and some paper. There will be a book for the pupil, and a writing -desk for the master Verbs are of five kinds ; Active, 1 Passive, Neuter, Pronominal, and Impersonal ; besides the two Auxiliaries, " Avere " and " Essere ,"2 3 which have already been given. Verbs are either Regular, Irregular , or Defective. Italian regular verbs are generally classified into three conjugations, which are distinguished by the termination of the Present of the Infinitive Mood.
An Active Transitive Verb is a verb expressing an action which passes to the object in the sentence , without the help of a preposition. In the phrase " Giovanni ha comprato il libro," John bought the book, "Giovanni" is the subject, "ha comprato " is the verb, active transitive, and " il libro " is the object, called direct object.
An Active Intransitive Verb is a verb expressing an action which passes to the object in the sentence through a preposition. In the phrase," Maria ha parlato a Carlo," Mary spoke to Charles, "Maria" is the subject, "ha parlato," the verb, active intransitive, and "a Carlo" is the object, in this case called indirect object. Compr ando, 3 buying. Aver 2 compr ato, to have bought. Compr ato-a-i-e, 4 bought. Avendo compr ato, having bought. In the verb "comprare," " compr " is the root, and " are " the termination. The Pres. Part, of "parlare" is " parlante," of " amare," " amante," and so of all the verbs of the first conjugation.
But when the direct object precedes the past participle, the latter is variable. The Past Participle of active intransitive verbs always remains invariable. Compr a, Compr i ; Compr iamo, Compr ate, Compr ino. The Past of the Imperative is seldom used. Verbs ending in "care," and "gare," as " peccare," to sin, and " pregare," to pray, require an h after the c and g, when followed by e or i, because the c and g are to be pronounced hard throughout the conjugation.
Verbs ending in " iare," as "odiare," to hate, retain the i in the root when the termination is marked by one i only. Verbs ending in " gnare," as " regnare," to reign, omit the i of the termination of the first person plural of the Present Indicative. Alloggiare , to lodge. Licenziare, to dismiss. Amare, to love, to like. Migli orare, to improve. Augurare, 1 to augur, wish. Baciare, to kiss. Mirare, to gaze, to look at Ballare, to dance. Pesare, to weigh. Biasimare, 1 Caricare, 1 to blame. Portare, to carry. Predicare, 1 to preach.
Cercare, to look for. Privare, to deprive. Coniugare, 1 Disprezzare, to conjugate. Raccontare, to relate. Rispettare, to respect. Disputare, 1 to dispute. Rubare, to steal. Evitare, 1 to avoid. Scappare, to escape. Fumare, to smoke. Scherzare, to joke. Giudicare, 1 to judge. Spaventare, to frighten. Guadagnare to earn. Sperare, to hope. Stampare, 42 to print. Guastare, to spoil. Stimare, to esteem. Imparare, to learn. Stracciare, to tear. Ingannare, to deceive. Tagliare, to cut. Mendicare, 1 Meritare, 1 to beg. Trascurare, to neglect to merit. Volare, to fly.
The following verbs, and about thirty more, have two past participles ; a long one, which expresses an action, and an abbreviated one, which is a kind of adjective : Participles adattato, and adatto. Adattare , to adapt. Adornare, to adorn. Avvezzare , to accustom Caricare , to load. Saziare , to satiate , satisfy Svegliare , to wake up.
Ho caricato il mio schi oppo. I have loaded my gun. II mio schi oppo e carico. My gun is loaded. Auguro, auguri, augura ; Auguriamo , augurate , augurano. L' Inghilterra , England. Inglese, Englishman, English. La Francia, France. Francese, Frenchman, 48 French. La Germania, Germany.
L Italia,. Italiano, Italian. La Spagna, Spain. Spagnuolo, Spaniard, Spanish 43 La situazione the situation. La porta, l'uscio, the gate, door. Questa citta, this town, city. La lingua, tongue, the language. Facile, easy, Politico, political, Difficile, difficult. Commerciale, commercial NOTE. In this and the following exercises the verbs are given in the Present of the Infinitive Mood ; it is left to the student to put them in the proper mood, tense , number, and person.
I do not find a the Italian 1 language difficult. William speaks b French, 2 but does not speak German. I am buying 3 some books for my brother. I blame c my sister, because she was listening d at the door. Shall you vote e to- morrow? John found 4 this letter on a chair, in my brother's room. I have sent f Henry's Spanish grammar to my mother. Charles always 5 studies g in our uncle's garden. We admire h the situation of this town. I have left i William's book on my writing-desk. Elizabeth will play, j I , b shall sing, k and Charles will draw 1. La lingua italiana. The Italian language.
I have bought two Italian books, one for Henry, and one for William. You b were dining a , whilst I was studying. Mary will embroider b a waistcoat for my father. The discovery of the America caused c Past Def. When I entered d 3 the room he was working e. Did you speak Past Def. No, I did not speak Past Def. I shall explain f this rule this evening. I shall have built g my house before October Measure h the length and breadth of this room, before 4 buying the pianoforte.
We shall preserve i these cherries with in the brandy. If I had money, I would buy this picture. Last night, meaning the night time, is translated by "Questa notte," or "La notte passata. I entered the theatre at six o'clock. Prima di andare a Parigi. Before going to Paris.
Prima di aver parlato. Before having spoken. The preposition "dopo," after, is always followed by the Past of the Infinitive. Partiro dopo aver parlato. I shall start after having spoken. He, it 2. Essi or Eglino, Ella or Essa, She, it, you Esse or Elleno, They you ' The pronouns "egli," " ella," " eglino," and " elleno," are used only in speaking of persons, whilst "esso," " essa," " essi," and " esse," are often employed with reference to persons, animals, and things, and are used both as the subjects and objects of verbs.
Egli parla francese. He speaks French. Ei non sapeva che fare del pane che gli gettavo. He did not know what to do with the bread I threw him. Essi andarono a Parigi. They went to Paris. Mentre io scrivo questa lettera , voi preparerete i miei bauli. Whilst I write this letter , you will prepare my trunks.
Se i o parlassi , sarei ruinato. If I spoke, I should be ruined. I do speak when it is needful. L' ho scritto io stesso or medesimo , I wrote it myself. Pietro agisce bene ; egli e stimato. Peter acts well ; he is esteemed. In which sentence " Pietro " is the subject of" agisce," and " egli " of " e stimato. When there is only one pronoun used as a direct, 1 or as an indirect 2 object, in the same sentence , the English pronouns me, thee, him, etc.
Mi, me. Mi, to me. Ti, thee. Ti, to thee. Gli, to him. Le, to her, you or it. Si, himself , herself , Si,. Ci or ne, 3 us. Ci or ne, 3 to us. Vi, to you. Egli mi parlo con rispetto. He spoke to me with respect. Non ci hanno mai invitati. They never invited us. Gli parlero domani. Egli chiamo Carlo e me. He called Charles and me.
In the sentence above " Carlo " and " me " are the direct objects of "chiamo. In the sentence above " mi" a me is the indirect complement of " parlo. L amicizia tua ne piace. Your friendship pleases to us. I would not lend them money. If the verb ends with an accented vowel, as " mando," he or she sent, the consonant of the pronoun, except the g of "gli," is doubled, and the accent suppressed. Essa guardavami sovente. She often looked at me. Egli mandommi a Milano. He sent me to Milan. It is much better for the beginner to follow rule Mio padre desidera di mandarmi a Venezia.
My father desires to send me to Venice. Essa lo calmo parlandogli con molta bonta. She calmed him by speaking to him very kindly. Pagatimi used instead ofavendomi pagato i libri, ando via. Having paid me for the book, he went away, Adagiatasi essend osi 3 adagiata sulla sedia , essa narro le sue avventure. Having seated herself on the chair , she narrated her adventures. Parlami ora caro fratello. Speak to me now, dear brother. Mandateci 5 un mazzo di fiori.
Send us a bunch of flowers. Non ti scordar di me. Do not forget me. Non gli piacendo la stanza. As he did not like the room. Comprato avendo comprato il cavallo , ando via. Having bought the horse, he went away. Non mi parlare ora, caro fratello. Do not speak to me now, dear brother.
Ci mandi un mazzo di fiori. Londra, London. Parigi, Paris. Roma, Rome. Firenze, Florence. Glasgovia, Glasgow. Dublino, Dublin. Venezia, Venice. Genova, Genoa. Federico, Frederick. Giorgio, George. Odoardo, Edward. Giacomo, James. Filippo, Philip. Giuseppe, Joseph.
Luigia, Louisa. Francesca, Frances. II caffe, coffee. II te, tea. II latte, milk. La crema, cream. II butirro, butter. Lolio, oil. Lo zucchero, sugar. L aceto, vinegar. La cioccolata, chocolate. Margherita, Margaret. I bought it , in 1 London. Does Edward speak Italian? Yes, he does. I studied have studied it in France.
Has Louisa sent to-day's newspaper to my father? Yes ; she sent has sent it this morning. Charles always speaks to me when he meets a me. My father taught b us yesterday, and will teach us to-day. My mother never non. I shall not speak to him to-day. Have you bought any sugar? Yes, I have , George has made me a present of c some Italian books. If they had any money, they would send to him some tea and , bread.
Ando a Parigi , in Francia. He went to Paris , in France. Giovanni , parla il tedesco? Si, lo parla. Does John speak German? Avevo promesso di portare il mio oriuolo, e 1' ho portato. I had promised to bring my watch , and I have brought it. When in the same sentence there are more than one direct or more than one indirect objects, relating to different persons or things, or when they desire to lay a particular stress on the object in the sentence, the Italians place the following personal pronouns after the verb, but not joined to it that is why they are called Disjunctive Personal Pronouns.
Me, me. A me, to me. Te, thee. A te, to thee. Se himself , herself ,. To itself or themselves. Noi, us. A noi, to us. Voi, you. A voi, to you. II generale parlo a me, ma non parlo a mio nipote. The general spoke to me, but he did not speak to my nephew. Parlo a Lei, Signore ; perche non mi risponde? I speak to you, Sir ; why do you not answer me?
Full text of "An Italian conversation grammar and guide to Italian composition"
Notice that in the case explained in rule , "gli" and " le " see rule could not be used instead of " a loro. Mandero un libro a lui, e a loro mandero del denaro. I shall send him a book, and some money to them. Carlo parlera per me. Vuol ella venir con me?
Parti con loro. Gli per lui fabbricarono una casa. They built him for him a house. Vuol ella venir meco? Will you come with me? Andai con essoloro D'Azeglio. I went along with them. II marmo , marble. La pietra, stone. II legno, wood. II cristallo, crystal. Paolo, Paul. Andrea, Andrew. Antonio, Anthony.
Carlotta, Charlotte. II vetro, glass. Stefano, Stephen. Maddalena, Madeline. Uno specchio Un leggio, Carta sugante, Ceralacca, Un acquarello, Mio suocero, Mia cognata, 53 the handkerchief, a looking-glass, a reading-desk, blotting-paper, sealing-wax. Vostro genero, your son-in-law. I condemned a Past Def. Paul always speaks of himself Charlotte spoke to me , but she did not speak to my sisters. I speak to you ; why do you not answer? You never pay attention c to me. He always speaks of me, but I never speak of him. They sent Past Def. Stephen will speak for me.
They built him a marble palace. Madeline has sent a gold ring to William, and a small water-colour to my sister-in-law. She sent also a beautiful looking-glass to my sister. I shall place d the picture before her. Badate a me. Pay attention to me. You could not say "Badatemi. Gli ando incontro. He went against him. When two conjunctive pronouns are governed by the same verb, and one is a " direct " and the other an " indirect object," the " indirect" precedes the " direct object," and the i of " mi," " ti," " ci," " vi," is changed into e. When these pronouns come before the verb, they are written separately, but when they are placed after the verb, they are written together, and joined to it.
William lent it to me. Me li ha comprati mio zio. My uncle bought them for me. Egli vuol vendercelo oggi. He will sell it to us to-day. Me lo, or mel 1 disse ieri sera. He told it to me last night. Dammelo , See rule Me lo dia, Give it to me. Datemelo , When the pronoun " gli," to him, is followed by the pronouns " lo," " la," " li," " le," and " ne," instead of changing the final i into e, like the other conjunctive pronouns see rule , it takes an e after the final i, and forms one word with the relative pronoun.
Glielo prestero , ma n on posso darglielo. Mi ha promesso di mandarglieli questa sera. Mandaglielo , 2 See rule Mandateglielo , 2 Notice that, for the sake of euphony, " glie " is also used for the feminine instead of" le," when followed by " lo," " la," "li," " le," and " ne. Maria desiderava i fiori , ed io glieli ho mandati.
In Italian an answer must contain the noun expressed in the question, or a pronoun in its stead, and the verb must be repeated in the answer. Ha ella presola mia ombrella? Have you taken my umbrella? No, non l'ho presa. Dio, Iddio, God. II sole, the sun. II cielo , Heaven : the sky.
La luna, the moon. La terra , the earth. Le stelle , the stars. Mio caro amico , my dear friend , II giorno di nascita , the birthday, Questo pericolo this danger. They are very good at reading body language and have no problem reading the minds of others. They spontaneously hear what you are thinking, but they do not say it and you could, therefore, not even notice it. The empathists are considered excellent listeners and problem solvers, because they can feel the feelings of other people as if they were their own.
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They have a special feature that makes them even more powerful - they are experts in human psychology. It is simply a glance towards a person and they can immediately understand if that person is a liar, hypocritical or evil.
This allows them to protect themselves from early emotional manipulation. So, never try to hide your intentions from an empath: it simply would not work. And if by chance you're thinking of betraying it, you'd better get rid of this idea right away, because you'd immediately get a taste of your own medicine. Here are the 8 reasons why you should never be involved with an empathic person if you can not manage his powerful personality: 1-They are the best lie detectors Whether paying close attention to the "unnecessary" details of a story that a person is revealing or observing his eyes and bodily movements while speaking, empaths are masters of lie detection tactics.
They are born with the gift of identifying liars, cheaters and all kinds of fake people. They feel it with every fiber of their body when someone is trying to lie or manipulate them. So, if you tend to be dishonest or you just have the habit of saying "harmless lies", you should avoid the empathists. Hatred transmits such a powerful negative energy that they can not bear it. The moment they perceive that someone feels hatred of them, they move away, because they do not want to be influenced by negativity. Moreover, the hatred of others does not hurt them and does not undermine their inner security.
They know what they are and negative feelings do not shake them. The fact is that the empathic do not bear superficial people, full of prejudices and hatred towards those who are different from them. If you realize that you are nurturing similar thoughts, they will try to convince you to change the way you see and judge people, but if you continue to keep your prejudices steady, they will distance themselves from you.
When an empathist notices that something bothers you, ask immediately if you're okay. And you're terribly wrong if you believe that a simple answer like "Yes, I'm fine" can convince them that you're "really good". The fact is that you can not hide your feelings and your state from these excellent mind readers. You can tell them you're okay if you do not want to explain why you're worried or sad, but they will feel that what you're saying is not true. They will ask you to share your mood with them, they will offer you an ear and will do their best to help you and support you.
They could behave as if nothing had happened and avoid addressing the topic so as not to make you uncomfortable. They could also behave in a more gentle and humble way than usual in order not to provoke your jealousy. And this is something that they simply hate. Even if they do not react to your false adulation in any way, they decipher your true intentions and know that you are only trying to use them.
Regardless of the reason, an empathist knows when a person acts trying to be someone who is not. And this is something that they do not really like. If you really want to get the attention of an empathic or keep it in your life, make sure you're always yourself and feel confident in your skin. They will welcome you and take care of you for what you are, with all your faults, oddities and insecurities, because there is no one who is more attractive to an empath of someone who proves to be truly himself.
Die Empathisten sind wirklich sehr begabte Leute. Wenn Sie jedoch weiterhin Ihre Vorurteile aufrechterhalten, werden sie sich von Ihnen distanzieren. Und das ist etwas, das sie einfach hassen. Preferisce tenere gli occhi chiusi e la testa per aria.. Io sono responsabile di quello che dico Quali sono le caratteristiche di un individuo intelligente?
Prima di diagnosticarti depressione o bassa autostima, assicurati di non essere semplicemente circondato da stronzi. Una persona nasce o intelligente, o stupido non voglio usare il tono offensivo , poi dipende quanto marcata sia la condizione ci sono i leggermente stupidi, come i grandi intelligenti. Ho conosciuto tantissime persone intelligentissime sotto questo punto di vista "accademico", che tuttavia si rivelavano persone piuttosto lente e beote per tutte le altre sfere della vita.
E' noto come molte persone emotivamente intelligenti riescano ad avere successo in vari ambiti lavorativi e non Stupidity is an increasingly widespread epidemic. There is little intelligence People, it is more and more confused, it stops to discuss on poor phobias Prefers to keep the eyes closed and the head in the air.. I am responsible for what I say What are the characteristics of an intelligent individual? Before diagnosing depression or low self-esteem, make sure you are not simply surrounded by assholes In the meantime, an initial distinction must be made between "acculturated", "intelligent" and "wise", because they are three concepts that, although they may appear similar, have an unbridgeable chasm in front of them: one can certainly be none or all three things, but one does not necessarily include the other two: 1- Acculturated: one of the two qualities obtained with the passing of life and with one's will, always; all of us are born ignorant, and if we have the desire, we can become acculturated with time, of information experiences.
A person is born or intelligent, or stupid I do not want to use the offensive tone , then it depends how marked the condition is there are the slightly stupid, like the big smart. That said, I begin to explain what, in my experience and opinions, is intelligence: a double-edged sword. However, this has a cons: it happens that certain reasonings become a subject of obsession for not being able to understand them, or are knowledge whose learning is not positive for our personality example: if, thanks to your reasoning, discover that God does not exist, how would you react?
Who well, who badly, obviously is a drastic and exaggerated case, however the concept was the following : the intelligent ones make more effort of the ignorant and the stupid to be happy, besides the fact of being able to create difficulties of setting: if all what your friends tell you, their reasoning and thoughts, to your ears seems like a "trivial" thing, when maybe it is not, it is not always positive; moreover, the intelligent ones are much less stupid, and sometimes having a comparison with a similar brain level is not positive, it is NECESSARY.
The second factor is other is very simple, and determines much of the development of culture in the intelligent, as well as a constant neuronal training: the stupid, once they have learned knowledge, I can interrupt their study activity or continue: Intelligent also have this possibility, but their brain often asks the question "Where does this come from? Atoms are bound differently, or are more thermoaccumulators, etc Each new answer then generates a question, which, if examined, will give another answer to which a new question may arise, it is simply a LOOP of curiosity the smart are damn curious, and also I want to point out a myth now became Scientific Theory: do you remember that the children who took off their electronic accessories as adults would become engineers?
Everything in fact comes from greater possibilities, in fact they found that those who dismantle objects as a child, when they grow up, will develop a greater intelligence on average. This loop phenomenon is dictated by made of the synapses mentioned a short while ago: the concepts are memorized because there are more synapses, and therefore many more are connected arguments between them, which will then be fished out during the information: in tests that prove this, you can see how the intelligent are faster to recognize objects rather than to name them the stupid instead are slightly better in the second field, but the difference in the most developed areas it is notable , due to the fact that the brain knows that object knows it, given that many more neurons are stimulated, but it is slightly slower to name it because I have to go through a lot of information, all of which are activated at the same time, among other things the classic phenomenon of "on the tip of the tongue" "I know, I know, I know what it is, but I can not think of what it's called Being intelligent means this: Pro: You get more easily to solve problems, you get a lot more joy when you solve them, hardly falls into common places racism, but also "That politician is a thief a priori" , the desire for knowledge is much broader and more durable over time than other people, the concepts are maintained in the MLT long-term memory significantly longer than the others, it is more resistant to diseases involving the nervous system, the central one in particular scientific theory also this, I keep myself informed: thinking:: roftl:: thumbsup: , you are more trained in the neural activities, the information is assimilated in much less time to make a comparison, if I'm careful in class and the topic affects, I learn in 15 min information that others take from 60 up to minutes by eye, I have not used the stopwatch.
I realize that I often associate the concept of intelligence with characteristics such as maturity, awareness, and understanding. For me, an intelligent person is not the one who has a very high IQ and has a string of excellent marks at school, to say. I have met so many very intelligent people under this "academic" point of view, but they turned out to be rather slow people and beote for all the other spheres of life. For me to be intelligent, therefore, does not mean being able to study and be able to store a lot of cultural information, which for charity, can be absolutely useful and functional, but mainly means to be people with great mental flexibility, readiness, appearances, through a good dose of empathy, intuition Empathy as it is known is the ability to "enter" in the other and perceive the character aspects It is known that many emotionally intelligent people succeed in being successful in various areas of work and not Here, for me, really intelligent people must have the ability to know themselves through good introspection, others through emotions and everything else with a good dose of rationality and reflection!
Your true self is what you are.. Intelligence can manifest also in the ability to predict mistakes and to prevent them This is a true sense of pure intelligence. No scratches it will never shake the star diamond of your splendid heart Universal soul of infinite beauty Like the Gods of Olympus. Ticino mio bel Ticino Avviso per i Politici del Canton Ticino.
Adesso finiamola con la classe politica Ticinese incompetente, attenti solo agli interessi personali e di partito. Lo stato Ticinese si deve vergognare della corruzione subdola di questa nostra classe politica-Istituzionale Infame. A partiti e movimenti — tutti i partiti e tutti i movimenti — sono partiti i neuroni.
Il neurone del buonsenso? Fuggiti, forse perfino per vergogna. I neuroni se ne sono andati dai cervelli di destra, centro, sinistra, centro-sinistra, sinistra-centro ecc. Ma per portare via lo sporco del turlupina mento non basteranno poche gocce.
Servirebbe un diluvio. Un diluvio servirebbe oggi. Un diluvio che renda inagibili gli uffici mediatici dei partiti e dei movimenti. Un diluvio che imponga un uso diverso della carta, stampata : da contenitore di scemenze a mezzo almeno un poco utile. Nemmeno un acquazzone. Forse neanche uno sputo. Per troppi giorni sconteremo la pena. Da innocenti? Probabilmente no. Oppure ignorarli. Ne basterebbero un paio: visibili, misurabili, comprensibili. Ticino my beautiful Ticino Notice for the Politicians of the Canton of Ticino. Now let's stop with the incompetent Ticinese political class, attentive only to personal and party interests.
A country imposes competence, seriousness and sense of the State and certainly not a sense of Mafia as it is here in our Ticinese latitudes both in Politics and in Institutions. I do not accept that this is a country in which the given word is worthless, in which it is no longer distinguished between those who propose the white and the black, all immersed in a primordial soup in which everything is indistinct and indeterminate. The Ticinese state must be ashamed of the subtle corruption of our infamous Political-Institutional class.
Democracy is another thing: there are those who win and there are those who lose, the former govern, the latter make the opposition, this happens in truly evolved countries, and if agreements are made they must be clear, objective, verifiable, established in harmony with what the electoral base has expressed, and instead here we are witnessing a squalid theater in which a farce is being represented.
Neurons have left for parties and movements - all parties and movements. There is no way to fix it. Neurons in freedom. The common sense neuron? What about credibility? Escaped, perhaps even out of shame. Neurons have gone from the right, center, left, center-left, left-center, and so on. In the brain vacuum that unites old and new - the newborn and the resuscitated of a policy with the small "p" that stands for "stinks" - there is only room for any kind of nonsense. The appeal to honesty has always found some space in the political debate, but in Switzerland in the Canton of Ticino it has become a pressing theme, and even pre-eminent, light a systematic corruption plot with at its center the illicit financing of the parties and, collaterally, several private enrichments.
It is interesting to note that, concomitantly with this discoloration of the moralizing push in mere denigration of the 'public', dynamics of widespread corruption, of oblique political financing, of indistinction between private and public interest, have resumed renewed vigor.
However, this concept of honesty is singularly reductive. If we randomly take a few definitions from the most widespread dictionaries, we find that honesty primarily means: The human quality of acting and communicating in a sincere, fair and transparent manner, on the basis of moral principles deemed universally valid. Whose acts with righteousness, with loyalty, with justice, refraining from committing evil; that does not deceive, conscientious, scrupulous.
Every dishonest politician is a tolling funeral for any supra-individual historical ideal, it is a nail on the coffin of the 'community', of 'society', of 'state'. Ultimately, therefore, dishonesty is a marginal problem for political perspectives prone to individualist liberalism and liberalism. On the other hand, it is a catastrophic problem for any political perspective that wants to legitimize a historical and social dimension beyond individuals and their own interests.
Today's politics does not drive anymore. The old model for which democracy is not the government of the people, but of the elites, who propose choices to the people, is jumping. But to take away the dirt from the turlupinain will not be enough few drops. It would serve a flood. We need a selective Noah: away from the Ark all the animals who say they do politics without even imagining what politics really is politics: service to the next rather than to themselves.
A flood would serve today. A deluge that makes the media offices of parties and movements unusable. A flood that floods the public and private radio-television studios that amplify the void without asking for anything to those who count every night how many people managed to take for a ride. A deluge that imposes a different use of paper, printed : from the container of nonsense to at least a little useful.
If it is wet, the paper dries. If there is a toilet, clean. And finally also a flood of "En" that reduces the ardor of the webs to a finally vegetal sleep. But there will not be a flood. Not even a downpour. Maybe not even a spit. For too many days we will pay the penalty. From innocents? Probably not. If "the lords of the ballot box" have no restraint, it is because too many believe that in order to get them out of the way, just smile. Or ignore them. It is a vicious circle, because the people have already done away with a series of political classes better than the current one.
The elite is wrong, people make them out and what comes next is even worse. Not that you expect a lot of ideas to put in any suitcase. A couple would be enough: visible, measurable, understandable. Nowadays, those who hide the connection between face and back no longer have to win.
Ticino mi hermoso Ticino Tanto que no tienes la excusa para decir Las neuronas se han ido para fiestas y movimientos, todas las partes y movimientos. No hay forma de arreglarlo. Sin embargo, este concepto de honestidad es singularmente reductivo. Un diluvio que inutiliza las oficinas de medios de partidos y movimientos. Ni siquiera un aguacero. Tal vez ni siquiera un escupitajo.
De inocentes? Probablemente no. No es que esperes muchas ideas para poner en una maleta. Neuronen sind zu Parteien und Bewegungen gegangen - alle Parteien und Bewegungen. Neuronen in Freiheit. Das gesunde Menschenverstand-Neuron? Entkommen, vielleicht sogar aus Scham. Neuronen sind von rechts, Mitte, links, Mitte-links, links-Mitte und so weiter gegangen. Dieses Konzept der Ehrlichkeit ist jedoch einzigartig reduktiv. Aber um den Schmutz vom Turlupinain zu entfernen, werden nicht wenige Tropfen ausreichen.
Wenn es nass ist, trocknet das Papier. Wenn es eine Toilette gibt, sauber.
Aber es wird keine Flut geben. Nicht einmal ein Regenguss. Vielleicht nicht einmal eine Spucke. Von Unschuldigen? Wahrscheinlich nicht. Oder ignoriere sie. Es ist ein Teufelskreis, weil die Menschen bereits eine Reihe von politischen Klassen besser abgeschafft haben als die jetzige. Nicht dass Sie erwarten, dass viele Ideen in irgendeinen Koffer passen. Sogno o Profezia Un cielo di tempesta pesa nel cuore di genti. Il gesto impassibile di un cuore congelato la reazione al sopruso di chi non ti rappresenta. Cosa posso io, cuore di poeta? Urlare lo sgomento? Piangere la paura?
Argilla umana le vostre coppe alzate Comprate le vostre vite morte. Porto violenti granelli di sabbia e semi che fanno radici in ogni terreno e trovano humus in ogni emozione. Soltanto la polvere mantiene il ricordo. Rotten heart of Europe. Dream or Prophecy Perhaps it is not of All Fantasy. A heavy storm sky in the heart of people. A war wind is blowing red-hot and dark he has jaws that are oppressed to swallow things sharp teeth for raw morsels. The impassive gesture of a frozen heart the reaction to the abuse of those who do not represent you.
And the pain is certain, and the lives are there, now yes, now no. It is not the Other, it is the absence of me that walks; it is the emptiness from souls that are expected elsewhere; it is the cancer of long ago altered, widespread, the certainty of the consequence. Non-existent houses, images of bodies eyes full of tears, I see only death Now there is desolation on that lawn, and an acrid fog like death, he killed all those daisies. What can I, the heart of a poet? Scream the dismay? Crying the fear? Nobody no one, nothing will survive only the sky will remain motionless to fix the rubble neither pain nor screams or hate only nothingness.
Human clay your cups raised Buy your dead lives. I could stop it! Bring violent grains of sand and seeds that take root in every terrain and find humus in every emotion. The water to wash the sin flows fast and memory often vacillates. Only dust keeps the memory.
But today those who can not guess that the phantom meters traces of the boundaries are followed by the moment that everything can change. The time to scream has come! Time to tell the truth, the time of fine, the choice is yours Faules Herz von Europa. Traum oder Prophezeiung Vielleicht ist es nicht alles Fantasy.
Ein schwerer Sturmhimmel im Herzen der Menschen. Und der Schmerz ist sicher, und die Leben sind da, jetzt ja, jetzt nein. Was kann ich, das Herz eines Dichters? Die Angst weinen? Die Zeit zu schreien ist gekommen! Zeit, die Wahrheit zu sagen, die Zeit der Geldstrafe, die Wahl ist deins Tal vez no es de All Fantasy. Llorando el miedo? Arcilla humana tus tazas levantadas Compra tus vidas muertas. Solo el polvo mantiene la memoria.
Flavio Braga. For the Video of CSR A video very negatively mounted with several clips of other documentaries on my character In all truth and truth I want everything simply to explain how things are good and bad. As there have never been institutions of this canton that have come to meet me giving me help and finding myself alone to face life, for me it was a factor of survival, I had to pay for housing, I had to pay for my apprenticeship studies era that of Tipografo Stampatore , I had to eat Probably someone can tell me that this is not an excuse since I could do a thousand more jobs like the dishwasher to keep me, in fact it is true and I do not want to take it as my justification but, unfortunately here from us, in the Canton of Ticino the context is very different from any other Normal Nation where similar working possibilities exist as well as the same institutional laws.
When I was arrested for right reasons for the crimes I committed, I was placed in a prison cell at the notorious Pretoriali of Bellinzona, where during the day they allowed us to walk for about an hour in the corridor of that prison One day, Gino Riva I trust that the same evening, would be Evaso and asked me if I wanted to go with him, proposed by me naturally not accepted The strange thing in that whole story was that the following morning, when he came out of the cell for the walk in the corridor, peering from the peephole in Gino's cell as to personal curiosity, the bars of the cell were intact but, during the night from my cell that was next to his, I had heard the sound of bolts, those used to open the doors I was a teenager but certainly not an idiot and some questions are asked me, although for my young age I still could not understand When at that time I talked about it to the Juvenile Judge Eggenswiller who was in charge of me, explaining that I had warned the inspectors, He, with the excuse to undergo orme to a psychiatric report which should have lasted a month before my trial I sent them to the asylum of Mendrisio, who had several facilities closed and adequate for minors.
In fact I was transferred to the structure of Motta, closed environment but calm and not dangerous Imagine yourself, the impact on me that environment made up of crazy psychopathic criminals and serial killers, we must not forget that I was simply a teenager Now I want to summarize a little and you, Intelligent Person and Military, surely you will come to understand My father his second wife beat her down like a dog, murdering her by emptying a gun magazine in his head to Magliaso both worked for the underworld earning dirty money When I, I had reported to the police inspector Giorgio Mombelli, bringing elements and facts that largely disproved the thesis of the suicide of Lucina, he immediately went to warn my father who in turn came to me to ask why I had warned the police?
Para el video de CSR Un video montada de forma muy negativa con varios clips de documentales sobre mi personaje De hecho, me trasladaron a la estructura Motta, cerrado, pero la calma y no peligrosos Quante idee di vita, ora stanno cambiando. Chiede aiuto per chi resta qui a pretendere ragioni lo sguardo inorridito di chi cerca con amore. Ed invece hai lasciato ancora una volta che le robuste mani della insipienza che la matrigna Terra ti ha omaggiato — mani della Geenna — ti usurpassero e mente e piedi e cuore per vederti irrompere sulle macerie della vita e godere delle vite morte.
Due promesse, due sfregi onnipresenti della voce in opposte direzioni, appuntano lo stesso meridiano, ai venti assassini. Che la primavera abbia inizio, ha pronunciato il cielo qualche giorno addietro. Eppure i fiori stentano a sbocciare. La terra nutre le ere politiche e i tanti predatori le fantasie marce dei distratti ben pensanti sempre in prima linea e che non indietreggiano mai se non per raccogliere proseliti e corpi soldi e souvenirs. Good evening Friends-Good evening friends. What can they use shoes for the dead? Music: Tosca Braga.
Of pain, everyone already knows. The impassive gesture of a frozen heart the reaction to the abuse who does not represent you. How many life ideas, now they are changing. Who awaits; who advances it's the cancer of a weather altered, widespread, the illusion of the consequence. Talk of prayer a scream in the dark, the pulsing of waiting temples of a bright dawn. It's about a nation and his aspiration to live, because your skies are my heavens every earth a crossroads of souls, how many ungenerous eyes denude our dignity everyday?
He asks for help for those who stay here to demand horrified eyes for reasons of those looking for love. You thought perhaps that your height it was measured by the stepmother Earth up to your hair, you can be in unreachable pride, and in unsurpassable arrogance, but if you had used the metro to measure you from the sky you would have understood that you are infinite, like Love! And yet you left one more time the robust hands of insipidity that the stepmother Earth has honored you - hands of Gehenna - you will usurpass and mind and feet and heart to see you break into the rubble of life and enjoy the dead lives.
Two promises, two ubiquitous scars of the voice in opposite directions, they point the same meridian, to the twenty murderers. Beethoven's ninth, once so fervid of inspiration, I remain estranged, almost inopportune. A wind is blowing that has no weight or structure: What can my lyric sword if you do not oppose this wind the wind of ancient memory, that of the immense massacres, of the deep pain, of the dark years; that of blood, of the torment, of the wounds May spring start, he pronounced the sky a few days ago.
Yet the flowers are struggling to bloom. Life is offended and it is hard to be praised. Desperation comes from the curtain hits with bow and arrows the unfortunates, they collapse in hatred, blinded. Ignorance is the only one to sprout. Know how to ask what to teach who will come to. What is shot today is dignity. Without supporting the generations of who can not guess that the phantom meters traces of the boundaries are followed by the moment that everything can change. The earth feeds political eras and the many predators the rotten fantasies of well-thought-out districts always on the front line and that they never back away if not to collect proselytes and bodies money and souvenirs.
Face of an angel, where is your heart? De dolor, todos ya lo saben. Pensaste tal vez que tu altura fue medido por la madrastra Tierra hasta tu cabello, puedes estar en un orgullo inalcanzable, y en una arrogancia insuperable pero si hubieras usado el metro para medirlo desde el cielo hubieras entendido que eres infinito, como el amor!
Dos promesas, dos cicatrices ubicuas de la voz en direcciones opuestas, apuntan al mismo meridiano, a los veinte asesinos. Musik: Tosca Braga. Wer wartet? Beethovens Neunter, einst so voller Inspiration, Ich bin entfremdet, fast unpassend. Was kann der Mensch nicht? Das Leben ist beleidigt und es ist schwer, gelobt zu werden.
Wissen, wie man fragt, was man lehren soll Wer wird kommen? Gesicht eines Engels, wo ist dein Herz? A volte hanno la furia di un uragano, a volte sono lievi come brezze. Vecchio oceano della Vita, dalle onde di cristallo, tu somigli proporzionalmente a quei segni azzurrognoli che si vedono sul dorso martoriato dei mozzi; tu sei un livido immenso, applicato sul corpo della terra: mi piace questo paragone. Si dovrebbe trascorrere ogni giorno cercando la bellezza nei fiori e nella poesia e parlando con gli animali.
The winds of fate blow when we least expect it. Sometimes they have the fury of a hurricane, sometimes they are mild as breezes. But they can not be denied, because they often bring an impossible future to ignore. You are the wind that I did not expect, the wind that blew stronger than I could imagine. Old ocean of Life, from crystal waves, you resemble proportionately to those bluish signs that are seen on the battered back of the hubs; you are an immense bruise, applied to the body of the earth: I like this comparison. So, at your first appearance, a long breath of sadness or sweetness that you might believe the murmur of your gentle breeze, passes, leaving indelible traces on the soul deeply distraught, and you recall to the memory of your lovers, without you always realize the rough beginnings of man, when he becomes aware of the pain that will no longer leave him.
And I learned, with humility and effort, but I learned what I had to do, and that it would be obvious to a child: life is nothing but a succession of many small lives, lived one day at a time. You should spend every day looking for beauty in flowers and poetry and talking to animals. And nothing can be better than a day full of dreams and sunsets and light breezes.
The echo of words that we believe forgotten accompanies us throughout our lives and erects in our memory a palace to which — how many things we will learn or forget — sooner or later we will return to them, gently cradled by a slight breeze Marina del Mare more remote where even the wisest among us bends under the formidable weight of his Love; yet it is, in truth, light as the gentle breeze that rests in the soul itself and sings melodie without words where it never ceases, never really to blow … and sweet this Breeze that induces Life, where you lean into the breeze as if looking for his way, and I am bound to the old country on nights where the firs swing gently in the breeze and the gardens echo with the song of crickets.
Die Winde des Schicksals wehen, wenn wir es am wenigsten erwarten. Manchmal haben sie den Zorn eines Hurrikans, manchmal sind sie mild wie Brisen. Marina brisa. Los vientos del destino soplan cuando menos lo esperamos. Pero no pueden ser negados, porque a menudo traen un futuro imposible de ignorar. Essa la restringe e la limita nella differenza di sesso. The human does not like to remain in the solitude of the ego: therefore he loves; therefore he must seek out the object of love outside himself.
He can find it only in beauty, but since he himself is the most beautiful creature shaped by God, it is necessary that he find in himself the model of that beauty that seeks outside. Everyone can discover within themselves the first rays of this beauty and, depending on whether the outside corresponds to it or moves away from it, the ideas of beauty or ugliness are formed on everything.
And yet, although the human seeks to fill the great void produced by him by coming out of himself, he can not however be satisfied by all sorts of objects. His heart is too vast; there must be something that looks like it and is very close to it. Therefore, the beauty that can satisfy the human consists not only in conformity, but also in resemblance. It restricts it and limits it to the difference in sex. The noblest species of beauty is that which does not suddenly drag, which does not unleash stormy and inebriating assaults, but which slowly creeps in, that almost inadvertently takes away with itself and that one day one finds oneself in front of a dream, but which in the end, after a long time with modesty lying in our heart, it completely takes possession of us and fills our eyes with tears and the heart of nostalgia.
Strong people are those who believe in their dreams, they go on without ever looking back, one step at a time, what they dream come true, they believe in themselves, without ever dwelling on the ideas of the non-paying public, who applauds and whistles life others. The path of a human being is marked by tears not plants, strong on his shoulders bears the weight of a pain that no one can understand, only lives understands a pain, in understanding my, gift a smile hoping that life changes, I do not lose hope in seeing the joys of others … Plant a seed in the garden of love, a red rose will be born, with an intense perfume and bright red, your passion will make it grow and sprout again, your tears of joy will fall to spray the land of your story, your smile like a sun it will brighten your rose of love.
The Beauty of the Soul is invisible light. Atroz belleza. Video: Flavio Braga. Lo restringe y lo limita a la diferencia en el sexo. La Belleza del Alma es luz invisible. Ein bisschen "von mir, ein bisschen" von uns, in der kurzen Reise auf dieser Erde Camminando con passo lento, lungo le rive infinite del mio cuore, per asciugare ogni lacrima tua. Il male si nutre di sofferenza umana…. Il Bene rincuora gli Spiriti… I sang to the soul the wishes of all time, prisoners of my human hands, to quench the day that slowly went.
I walked between the paths of the heart to search in the garden of my mind the dawn of my time, going silent and alone, in infinite space of my thoughts … I listen to the song of the night, while in the chest the breath becomes unfinished. I wait again tomorrow, to see the light of this soul of mine that invades of joy every day of life in colorless time walking like the sea that goes towards infinity. Walking with slow pace, along the banks infinite of my heart, to dry every tear of yours. Evil feeds on human suffering….
Ich warte wieder morgen, um das Licht zu sehen von meiner Seele das dringt ein der Freude jeden Tag des Lebens in farbloser Zeit Das geht wie das Meer das geht in die Unendlichkeit. Guter Komfort die Geister Coltiva la Luce nei Tuoi Pensieri. Brooklyn, NY Geoffrey Brock or l. Farabbi Website: www. Payments in U. In this issue we present the work of Simona Stivaletta.
Simona Stivaletta was born in Vasto Italy in Trained as an artist in her youth, she later moved to Florence, where she stud- ied and worked in fields as diverse as puppetry and the restoration of antiques. Over the past decade she has focused exclusively on painting, with shows hosted throughout Italy and Germany. Still, one might ask: where is the originality of Stivaletta? In my opinion, Simona Stivaletta can own traditions past in the very process of honoring them, unconsciously. It is in works like these that familiar territory gets re-envisioned.
Or, as Bollas would have it, forever, yet originally, transubstantiated. Anthony Molino frontmatter. It knows its way among all words, all tones, all attitudes. And it is superbly trained. The intellect of its owner is apparent in nothing so much as his literary skill. Spenditi meno, dunque, e vedi risparmio il fiato della mia povera frase per non farla correr troppo vedi di non [assegnarmi la parte dello sciocco Words without thoughts never to Heaven go 3.
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E non bastano le parole per raggiungere il cielo The pun in 5. Upon what ground? First Clown. Why, here in Denmark. Per quale ragione? In quale regione? Qui in Danimarca Montale shows fine judgment in his translation of 5. Morire, dormire. Morire, dormire; dormire, sognar forse. Although Italian hen- decasyllabic verse is usually a close equivalent of English blank verse, D'epiro.
Toward the end of the soliloquy, however, Montale loses some of the voltage Shakespeare packs into his verse. Notes 1. The translation was originally published as Amleto, principe di Danimarca, tradotto per le scene italiane da Eugenio Montale Milan: Cederna, All citations from Hamlet are from G. Harrison, ed. She is a literary translator from English into Italian and a prize-winning writer of short novels and poems. She has published many papers and two books on literary translation. Her research interests include literary translation, translation history and gender and translation.
The author of Dux, the Italian version, was Margherita Sarfatti, writer and journalist, colleague of Benito Mussolini at the newspaper Avanti and his lover. What makes this a case of special interest is that at the time of the English translation, in , there was no published Italian original. Apparently Sarfatti wrote it in , but the book was first published in English transla- tion and only later in Italian. The analysis of the two texts operated through the manual comparison of the English and Italian versions points out their differ- ences. Changes and differences get evidence of the different project that presided over the publication of the two books.
Particularly I want to argue that changes have been dictated mostly by the dif- ferent needs of propaganda in the two countries. Furthermore, that they are due to what the writers believed to be the different tastes and also expectations of the English and Italian readers. The title is the first thing that catches the eye of the reader and it also offers the first indication of the differences that it is possible to find in the English and Italian version of the book.
In its reassuring banality, it immediately pres- ents the reader with the main topic of the book. Its singularity and so the reason to prefer this particular biography is pointed out by the name of the protagonist only, Benito Mussolini. The Italian title is quite different. It is a Latin word, Dux. In line with the emphatic and concise style of the time, the only one word title of the Italian sounds quite aggressive. The Latin word links Mussolini directly to the Roman Empire and to the glory of Rome whose restoration fascist propaganda boasted about Falasca Zamponi , The very first impression communicated by the titles seems to be confirmed by the opening photographs included inside the texts.
The English book opens in the frontispiece with a smiling photograph of Mussolini with some papers in his hands. The 11 photographs of the English version are taken from the public and private life of the dictator to present the image of a dynamic Prime Minister who rides an horse or caresses his favorite lioness, whose singularity has been balanced by the photographs of his children.
The last photograph of the English text reproduces the greeting to George V visiting Rome. On the contrary the 32 photo- graphs of the Italian text are mostly taken from his public life. Ad- ditional illustrations include pictures of him as a volunteer soldier in the First World War and many images of public ceremonies and of him in uniform or at work as Prime Minister.
The photographs of his children and of the greeting to George V are not present. There is only one smiling picture in the Italian text whose unicity reinforces the Italian myth of the never smiling dictator Sarfatti , The title together with the photographs offer a different image of the Duce, a smiling reassuring one for the English public and an intimidating, aggressive one for the Italian public. As the choice of the title and images are usually based on what the editor or the publish house believes to be the tastes and expectations of the readership Spirk , , it could be argued that two different projects presided over the creation of the English and Italian text and the different projects obeyed to the different needs of the propaganda at home and abroad.
On 30 May , Giacomo Matteotti, a member of the opposition in Parliament, denounced the violence of the fascist paramilitary squads and the results of the elec- tions as illegal. On 10 June Matteotti was kidnapped and murdered by a group of fascists who were members of the Ceka, the political police. Mussolini soon asserted his non-involvement in the murder, but from the beginning public opinion accused him of being its insti- gator.
Attacked by public opinion and by members of the opposition, Mussolini faced the most difficult time of his political career. In the meantime, an aggressive press campaign against Italian fascism was going on in England and the agreements that were to be signed between the Italian government and the American company Sinclair Oil had no little part in it. The English government considered the agree- ments, signed on the 29 April , as an attack on English interests Canali , 66 since the British Petroleum, the Italian branch of the English Apoc, had been cut off from the Italian market.
In April , Matteotti travelled to London and met many members of the Labour party. According to Mauro Canali , 63 — 81; - , Matteotti came to England to get evidence of the corrupt dealings between the Italian government and Sinclair Oil. In fact the periodical English Life published a posthumous article , 73 in which Matteotti declared he had evidence of the corruption that was going on and could name names. The assassination had a great impact on public opinion and cast a shadow over fascism and its leader.
In Italy Mussolini could control the press, but nothing could be done to prevent the British press from speaking against fascism. The publication of a carefully written biography could reassure the public opinion and give sup- Calvani. The text analysis First of all, the Life of Benito Mussolini and Dux are two different books and this is not simply due to the translation process. It could be argued from the very first fast comparison of the two tables of contents: the English translation has got 42 chapters while the Italian one has got 48 chapters.
The existence of a different previous Ital- ian original for the English translation has been confirmed by the leaflet enclosed to the Italian version. The Italian publisher says that due to the extraordinary success of the biography of Mussolini in England the author decided to publish it in Italy as well. Missing the original text sent to the translator by the author, I considered as first hypothesis the possibility that the original had been written by the author, Margherita Sarfatti, directly in English.
This would have been an answer to the question of why rewrit- ing what should have been ready for publication. Morgan of the United Press. Was it possible that Sarfatti wrote Dux in English and sent it to Whyte to give it literary form? The answer seems to be no, it is revealed by the letters that Prezzolini wrote to Sarfatti in order to arrange the publication. He contacted Margherita Sarfatti who had written articles for him in the past.
In particular, in the letter of 7 July , he says he will talk with the publisher about it, but he adds that he fears the publisher could stake claims on her not perfect English knowledge. Furthermore he explains that the publisher could have his transla- tor, probably also a popular writer, who will help in the spreading Calvani. She eventually agreed with him if in the letter 13 may Prezzolini presses Sarfatti to finish the book. As it seems, she sent the chapters to him as soon as they were ready, but Prezzolini says that in this way they could not press the translator to finish his work, while on the contrary they wanted it to be soon finished in order to publish the book in Autumn and sell the foreign rights to other countries.
So, if she had already written the book in Italian, other reasons must have convinced the author of the convenience of rewriting the book for the Italian public. To have a clear idea and a complete account of the changes and differences, I did a manual analysis of the whole English and Italian texts, but due to length limit in this paper I will present the analysis of representative selected extracts.
Furthermore there is a whole chapter, in Italian only, dedicated to the idealization of fascism and transformation of its violence into a sort 1 See Sarfatti , , The ridiculous plaid down the arrogance. It is also interesting to notice the presence of many different passages concerning the alleged powerful fascination that the Ital- ian dictator seems to exert over women of all ages and nationalities since he was a child, slightly exaggerated in the English version. So the Italian text can clearly claim the innocence of Mussolini even Calvani. But the differences do not consist only in cuts or addings in the English or Italian version, they include real manipulations occurred in translation in order to make the original conform with the tastes and expectations of its new readership.
The very same episode has been narrated in the fourth chapter in Italian but it is slightly different. Mussolini is described as leader as usual, but the boys run away at the shouts of the farmer. The wounded boy has not been shot in Italian, but he fell down of the tree breaking his leg.
The farmer has got a shotgun but he does not use it and Mussolini rescues his friend defying the farmer. To conclude the different chapters, the differences in the very narration, the different construction of that narration together with the differences in the pictures and in the presentation of the books testify the different strategies used by the English and the Italian writer in order to adapt their text to the different social and political background of England and Italy. Both versions have been written and published for propaganda, but the very same end seems to be achieved in a slightly different way allegedly according to the different public and its assumed expectations.
References Canali, M. De Grazia, V. Falasca Zamponi, S. Costabissara: Angelo Colla. Translated by Frederic Whyte. Stokes Company, New York. Sarfatti, M. Spirk, J. Whyte, F. She also leads the podcasting faculty program at her college and is coordinator of the First Year Seminar. Brief History of Translation Studies Theories of translation have rapidly developed in the 20th and 21st centuries with the increasing demands for translation in the fast changing world of information and communications.
Many renowned theorists in translation studies including Jakobson, Steiner, Fedorov, and Cary as well as Seleskovitch and Lederer from the Parisian school and other relevant representatives such as Vermeer, Toury, Even-Zohar, Venuti, Lambert, and Derrida, proposed different approaches to the theory of translation. While Jakobson, Steiner, and Fedorov insisted on the necessity of creating a scientific theory of translation, Cary claimed that this discipline Guarnieri.
The contribution of the theorist Even-Zohar is interesting especially for his take on recipro- cal influences between national systems, and for the relationship between translated literature and literature in general. According to the Israeli theorist, literature is governed by a conglomerate of elements that change and transform while in connection with one another. In his Polysystem Theory, translated literature is not an isolated item, but it is part of a system.
According to Even-Zohar, any foreign literature which is brought in from another country is able to influence the native literature at various degrees. In the s, thanks to Susan Bassnett, Translation Studies became a field that analyzed questions related to translation techniques and systematic approaches to translation were first imple- mented. The translated work would no longer be seen secondary in regards to the original, but instead would be studied as an autono- mous piece of narrative.
Venuti, thus, remarks the difference between an approach that brings the foreign text closer to the target culture, adapting it to its own literary and cultural paradigms; and a system that aims, instead, at a literal translation which leaves the reader free to discover the foreign elements of the original text. According to Lefevere, translators have an important, yet undervalued, role of mediators since they are responsible for the success of another work.
Even recent post- colonial theories have shown interest in the theory of translation. According to this definition, the translation becomes inevitably a process of transculturation. In recent years computer applications of translation studies have greatly increased. Based on this recent interest in automatic translations and of Corpus-based Translation Studies, linguists, mathematicians, and engineers have opened their fields to the study of the disciplines of computational linguistics, translation technology, and theory of information from which new and original approaches to translation studies are now emerging.
Thus the American translator is not merely a professional who seeks a faithful rendition of a text. In the United States, the translations of the works of Italo Calvino were published quite swiftly, and apart from Weaver, the Guarnieri. The only two works translated respectively ten and eight years after the Italian editions were Il Sentiero dei nidi di ragno and Il castello dei destini incrociati. Trilogia was published in a single volume in collecting all of the three short stories under the title, Our Ancestors.
The first is that Americans lacked interest for the historical context of Neo-realist narrative. For the translation of Cosmicomiche, he received a translation award in Unlike Colquhoun, Weaver established a personal rapport with Calvino, which probably helped to speed up the translation process. Weaver frequently spoke to Calvino on the phone to con- firm even minor corrections and revisions.
Weaver reports that he often thought that Calvino wanted to translate his work himself. It was hard, Weaver recalls, to talk to him; he was an extremely reserved person, who did not love gossip and unnecessary confidence. Even though they knew each other for over twenty years, they still used the formal pronoun Lei.
Another curious episode was the case of Sotto il Sole Giaguaro which came out first in the English translation done by Weaver and then in Italian. In Italy the entire work was published only in while in the United States the entire col- Guarnieri. Inside this work one can find an essay that was translated by Weaver in , with the title The Pen in the First Person La penna in prima persona. Weaver also translated the preface of the Sentieri dei nidi di ragno published in Italian in We know that Calvino himself was a translator and an advo- cate of translation research.
When the novel gets to the most interesting part, the Reader decides to go back to the bookstore where he bought it to complain. He meets Ludmilla the female reader with whom he would begin the search for the integral novel, ultimately to find out that all of the existing copies are flawed. These stories leave the reader suspended in determining the endings and give voice to the notion of multiplicity of stories that generate from a single source.
In light of this view, then, a translator is not free from external pressures, from memories of what is read or absorbed. To avoid such inconveniences Calvino endorses the creation of a language composed of precise and concrete linguistic features that would increase its translatability. His vision, though, also establishes that this language maintains the secrete es- sence of the text, an intrinsic truth as defined by Eco. This language dualism, typical in Calvino which characterizes most of his literary style, reveals constant struggle between the crystal nature of his vocabulary and the exuberance and imaginary, chaotic nature of his imagination.
Speaking of his collaboration with Calvino, Weaver, also re- Guarnieri. In another way, he was not easy to translate. Although he was not a scientist, both of his parents were, and he liked to read scientific works. This is particularly true of Calvino. The short story presents different cultural levels, Italian, Japanese, and Anglophone, while these contexts are to be transmitted to the reader in the most accurate way possible.
The simple plot of the narration becomes, however, rather complex with the persistent erotic-visual implications that distinguish the story. The plot begins by intro- ducing the protagonist of the story, a student who is attempting to improve his attention span under the guidance of Mr. To accomplish this, he tries to concentrate his attention on a single Guarnieri. Subsequently, when the student bends over a small pond in order to smell a water nymphaea, he casually comes in contact with the bosom of the daughter, Makiko, and wife of Mr.
Okeda, Mrs. Miyagi, who were kneeling down to pick up flowers. On his way back home, the protagonist asks Makiko out on a date, and she accepts. However, that night, something unexpected hap- pens. While the student plays hide and seek with the daughter, he enters a room where Miss Miyagi was placing flowers into a vase and picking up the leaves that had fell on the floor. Driven by the woman, the two find themselves making love while the daughter who had finally reached in the room looking for her date and Mr.
Okeda secretly watch them in true voyeuristic fashion. The language of the novel in question is sensual and precise, just like Calvino desired. Calvino underlines the importance of using a language which reveals its richness, full- ness and concreteness in order to become a modern language which is highly communicative and ultimately easy translatable. Weaver, before this translation, probably read the Italian version several times to grasp the tone and the atmosphere in order to faithfully reproduce it. The style of which is written in an average Italian, Guarnieri.
In an interview regarding her English translations, she admits that the degree of difficulty of a translation depends on the linguistic style of each author. In addition, this story facilitates the work of the translator since the syntax is made up of short sen- tences which render the work of the translator almost transparent. Yet in this story, the colons remain unaltered. From the comments released by Weaver, it becomes clear that his main preoccupation was to preserve the original structure of the Italian text. We will see how in the short story On the Carpet A clear example is this short paragraph with the original Italian and the English version translated by Weaver: Le foglie del ginkgo cadevano come una pioggia minuta dai rami e punteggiavano di giallo il prato.
Io passeggiavo col signor Okeda sul sentiero di pietre lisce. Il signor Okeda disse che era possibile. Le premesse da cui partivo, e che il signor Okeda trovava ben fondate, erano le seguenti. Se una notte Here is the English version: The ginkgo leaves fell like fine rain from the boughs and dotted the lawn with yellow. I was walking with Mr. Okeda on the path of smooth stones. I said I would like to distinguish the sensation of each single ginkgo leaf from the sensation of all the others, but I was wondering if it would be possible.
Okeda said it was possible. The premises from which I set out, and which Mr. Okeda considered well founded, were the following. It is important to underline that in Italian, these verbs in the past manifest actions that are limited in time. The imperfect is used to describe a habitual action like the falling of the leaves each year in the fall.
The verbs As I was walking camminavo and I was wondering mi domandavo demonstrate undefined lengths of time in English present perfect , while in Italian the imperfect provides an entirely different meaning. The Japanese-themed short story offers different reflexive forms. One of the difficulties in the translation of these verbs is understanding which type of reflexive it is, sometimes one must distinguish between the impersonal form and the passive structure.
In addition, there can be ambiguity in certain verb functions: for example, the verb cambiarsi means two different things: changing clothes but also transforming Nermin Abd El-Hamid Hamdy 1. These examples determine that there is no precise correspon- dence with Italian; if we think of the present indicative in English, it has different connotations. Therefore, it is best to translate them using their actual use in English without trying to find an equivalency Guarnieri. Another translation that can create problems is the word terreno which can be translated with land, country, field, plot or site, and that Weaver, in this case, translated with ground.
Weaver in translating this short story, documents how he approached the final version of his translation and shows all of the challenges, big or small that he encountered. Translating Seduction The strong visual-erotic footprint of this story, is marked by an important verb, guardare, which in the narration acquires different visual nuances and is translated in many different forms, from look to gaze to seeing.
The variety of these verbs is also found in the English language: to follow, to see, gaze, to look, to examine, to stare, to contemplate, to spy, to watch, to appear, to observe, to describe. There are other examples of the translation of the verb guardare in this story which are significant to discuss. However, if one choses to use the verb to watch this corresponds to the verb guardare, osservare, while if one selects the verb to gaze, this would mean to remain in contemplation and to stare at someone.
In the English translation one loses the visual aspect that characterizes instead the Italian sentence. In another passage of the story, the visual aspect is however preserved in the English translation: screditare agli occhi dei docenti; rendered with discrediting in the eyes of the University professors. This shows, once again, that translations do not always follow rigid rules and that every word has to be weighted and translated on a case by case basis.
Miyagi appear to be more precise in the English version. Guardava fissamente, ma non sua moglie e me, ma sua figlia che ci guardava. Okeda had been there. He was staring hard, not at his wife and me but at his daughter watching us. The peculiarity of the English translation resides in the fact that Weaver interpreted the word spasimo like a precise act, without leaving the Anglophone reader any other possibility; while in Italian the meaning of this word offers several other implications.
One must also notice that in English, Mrs. Miyagi gains the title of Madame, since, as Weaver explained, it is a term usually attributed to foreign people. If he used Mrs. Miyagi, her sensual appeal would weaken. Other verbs that more or less pertain to the sight in the story On the Carpet… convey erotic tones. Although the character of Mrs. Miyagi ap- pears in a captivating role, in reality, according to Frasson-Marin, this is no other than a hoax used to diminish her role.
The description of the narrating voice of the story seems to be the sacrificial victim, forced to engage in involuntary sexual acts. In addition, the woman always attracts the man with the art of seduction rather than her intelligence, culture or dialogue. Moreover, according to the French critic, when the women exercise these qualities, these are strongly criticized and diminished by Calvino. A related approach proposed by Frasson-Marin, is the topic of gender in translation which deserves attention.
The determination of gender in Weaver is a recurrent problem in his translations, however, he opted for solutions that obscured female characters. In this case, the American translator makes a particular ideological choice and he is now at the same level of the author, and becomes a co-writer of the original text.
During the s, a new approach for translation studies surfaced, mostly in North America and in France, which focused on analyzing gender in translation. Several sociologists explored this innovative field, commonly known as Sex and Language since it is known that in constructing gender identity, language has a defining role. Thus, it becomes important to recognize the different approach that a writer and the translator has in relation to gender difference since it can create problems in the translation of the text.
In Italian there is no gender neutral and all words have a spe- cific gender attribution; in English this distinction does not exist; and there are no few words that point to the gender of nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and articles. In another instance, Weaver managed with difficulties the challenge posed by the feminine gender in the story of Marcovaldo. For example, to translate the word for female rabbit coniglia he chooses to eliminate the word and only use the generic terms of male e female.
This can also be seen in the collection of short stories entitled Gli idilli difficili, where un impiegato and una impiegata clerk become a man and a woman in the translation. Features of the Technical Translation To understand the process of translation, it is important to showcase a few examples that indicate the challenges faced by translators, but also to disclose the ones tackled by William Weaver.
Among the selected ones, there is the issue of the morphosyntactic Guarnieri. In the following paragraph taken from On the Carpet, we notice how the Italian syntax follows a predictable pattern: a subject, a verb and object. However, the order can change if one wishes to emphasize a certain word or element. In fact, the whole first page of the short story written by Calvino creates an atmosphere of delayed sensuality, one that recalls the movements of classical ballet. We find the same verb at the end of the story, but this time Weaver, translates it with twirling, a verb that in English has differ- ent meanings such as twisting, curling, bending, winding.
In English, Weaver was able to recreate the same effect with the use of the following words: losing, pleasant, sensations, distinct, others, confusing, comes, blades, grass, perse- vere, purpose, perhaps, edges, times, silence, served, as, conjectures, series, stages, lesson, tiniest, sheaf, diffused, impressions. All of these words appear in the English text according to a clear strategy on the part of the translator to convey the sensuality and eroticism chosen by Calvino for this story.
Weaver shows his mastership in being able Guarnieri. This is, in part, due to the verbal richness of the English language. Another relevant aspect to underline in the translation of the vocabulary is the so-called lexical equivalence according to Bruno Osimo 83 ; something very important to preserve in order to achieve textual accuracy. In this story, there are words that are translated in a rather generic way, something that goes under the name of under- translation.
For example, the word scrutare, which in Italian means to look at intently is translated with to examine. To translate it with the verb scrutinize would have seemed more appropriate since to inves- tigate as a synonym is closer to the original meaning. We also have an example of an over-translation with turbare translated with upset which indicates a type of disruption that conveys sadness. In Italian, the verb instead offers more interpretative solutions: it does not only imply sadness but it can be a synonym of confusion, trouble, disorder, agitation and anxiety.
One can be worried but not necessarily sad. Obviously an error that Weaver does not commit is to confuse the so called false-friends; words that formally appear similar to Ital- ian, but instead mean something different. Another word is biblioteca, which is translated with library, since libreria in Italian is the bookstore.
Pavimento should not be translated with pavement but with floor since pavement means sidewalk and concrete. Furthermore, the word gentile could be translated with genteel, but kind is its correct equivalent. The American translator instead chooses its Latin equivalent which creates an awkward outcome — an erudite word which generates a different atmosphere. What is needed in a good translation is not just the equiva- lence, but finding words can be associated with a word in a particular context.
Both times when Guarnieri. The first one refers to hard labor unskilled , always remunerated, while the second term usually refers more to a profession, an activity where personal ability is at stake. The phrase tavolo da lavoro is translated with you are at your desk, omitting completely the verb linked to work. The word lavoro can be found in Palomar and Marcovaldo. In the first one, the expression per un lavoro delicato is translated with a delicate job; while in the Marcovaldo this word is often translated with work.
In many dictionaries the word is translated with flower-bed. A close reading of the story in Marcovaldo, we notice how the translation differs, given the fact that aiuola usually refers to a piece of land in which one can grow flowers, vegetables, or seeds. It appears an exaggeration to choose bed of dirt, while path seems a clear example of an under-translation. These numerous translation examples are presented to dem- onstrate in concrete terms what it means to be a skillful translator.
Nonetheless this also shows how Weaver used his creativity and artistic talent for his translations. Weaver demonstrates that his practice is a combination of creativity, training and inspiration. A translation cannot be considered only like a second-hand copy of the original, born out of a mechanical process, but instead it should be considered as a creative act and as a work of re-interpretation.
From dialect, ways of sayings which in Italian are plenty, every novel has had its own main dif- ficulties. Palomar, The Cosmicomics, and in The Castle, it was the syntactical aspect. Every word is intentional and calibrated. The translator has to grasp his whole essence in order to return it to the public in its full integrity. Many translators of Calvino chose to make the integrity and essence of his poetics a priority respecting both form and content.
Colquhoun Boston: Beacon Press, Of the Fiabe italiane we have three different translations, the one by Louis Brigante Italian Fables. The book, Ultimo viene il corvo was translated by Archibald Colquhoun and Peggy Wright, with the title, One afternoon and other stories London: Collins, The story, La speculazione edilizia, was translated with the title, Plunge into real estate by S. Carne-Ross in by Pocket Books. New York: Vintage International, , and the collection of essays, Prima che tu dica pronto Numbers in the dark and other stories.
London: Jonathan Cape, NY: HBJ, Invece temo non sia altro che un bol en plastique, una scodella come esempio di prodotto in serie. Ho ripiegato su un gioco dassonanze salvando solo il ritmo del verso. Ho capito bene il pistone e il cilindro? Penso che sarai in vacanza e non so quando vedrai questa lettera. Ti ringrazio per tutto quello che potrai dirmi e ti auguro un buon agosto, tuo Italo Calvino. He then collaborated with Quadri and Solmi in translating Queneau. Works Cited Anselmi, G. M, Fenocchio, G. Tempi e immagini della letteratura, vol.
Bruno Mondadori. Milano, Bondi, M. Fortunati V. La cultura italiana e le letterature straniere Guarnieri. Third Volume. Ravenna: Longo editore, Bowker, L. Computer-Aided Translation Technology. A Practical Introduction. University of Ottawa Press, Ottawa. Calvino, I. Barenghi, M. Milano: Mondadori, I Meridiani, Print Calvino. Milano: Mondadori, II. Torino: Einaudi, New York: Harcourt Brace, Una pietra sopra.
The Uses of Literature. Patrick Creagh. Harcourt Brace, Marcovaldo, or The Seasons in the City. Derrida, J. Derek Attridge. London: Routledge, Eco, U. Dire quasi la stessa cosa. Milano: Bompiani, Even-Zohar, I. Federici, F. Amsterdam: Rodopi: Frasson-Marin, A. Geneva-Paris: Editions Slatkine: Glissant, E. Poetica del diverso. Roma: Meltemi. Guarnieri, G. Summer- Fall Holmes, J. Papers on Literary Translation and Translation Studies. Amsterdam: Rodopi, Monaco, R. Newmark, P.
A Textbook of Translation. NY: Prentice Hall, Nida, E. The Theory and Practice of Translation. Leiden: Brill, Osimo, B.