Its importance met with speedy and extensive recognition. English, German and Latin translations were quickly brought out. For long the book was constantly quoted as authority; as picture of Portuguese India at the end of the sixteenth century it still retains interest. IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII XIII XIV XV XVI Prostitution, widespread in Cochin, ulti- mately led to the segregation of Christians from the rest of the population. Buchanan ed.
IV. Les Arméniens dans l'Océan Indien / Armenians in the Indian Ocean
A technological History, Aldershot, Ashgate, , pp. Mathew, Joy Varkey ed. Rego, op. In order to combat the chronic lack of Portuguese personnel and to establish permanent administrative structures, the king offered to marry his soldiers to converted local women. Governor Albuquerque expressly encouraged such bonds with the local elites and propagated the view that Muslims and Hindus of the highest castes were to be regarded as more or less white. They were awarded trading privileges. In this way, the crown hoped to create incentives to develop the slowly growing Luso-Asian private sector.
The Welser agent Hans Schwertzer, one time bixssen schiesser handgunner , entered the diamond trade with the Hindu Vijayanagara Empire and later married a Portuguese noblewoman. Levenson ed. Essays, Washington D. A political and Economic History, London inter alia , Longman, , pp. METZIG addition to delinquent and deficient payment, included greater and greater discrimination as well as religious pressure. With the emerging denominational conflict in Europe, the Germans and Dutchmen fighting for the Portuguese crown came increasingly under the scrutiny of the Inquisition authority existing in the kingdom since Central European ideas of Reformation were gradually arriving in Portugal too, by way of merchants and mercenaries.
He had long attracted attention due to his irreverent comportment in churches. Upon entering a place of worship, he would not take off his hat and made no gesture of respect before saints or the holy sacrament. During mass, Bispo was said to have never kneeled during transubstantiation.
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Instead he was known to stand up and walk around in the church and then sit down with crossed legs in a corner of the German chapel, a vantage point from which he was unable to see the elevation of the consecrated elements. Mostly however they ended with capitulation and a plea for forgiveness. The first published meditations on the matter, such as those of Marques or Cardoso, surprisingly skip the 16th century as the cen- tury of the Reformation, cf.
Gouveia Delille ed. Festschrift in honour of Prof. In contrast, the reactions from the Portuguese colonial authorities were certainly less understanding. On December 7, , a Jesuit priest wrote from the Indian Bassein Vasai , near the present day Mumbai: I believe that some Lutherans come here, under the pretense of being bom- bardiers, in order to spread their heresies, which is very dangerous in these regions due to widespread debauchery and extravagance here.
Therefore we must spare no pains and instruct all those who are responsible for the fact that the Flemish, English, Germans, and also French flock here in undiminished numbers. Many of them maintain, as we know, ties to the Moors; others are infected by the Lutheran sect. After a long disputation, the Jesuit apparently succeeded in converting them and restoring the unity of their church. In the worst, if also rare, cases, the death penalty could be applied.
Because the Fleming Nicolao Mont had absconded and thus evaded the Inquisition, an image of him was burned in effigy. The German artillerist Alberto Homem, accused of Protestantism and sodomy, was executed in without trial.
His compatriot Andre Maldar of Rostock was condemned to ten years in the galleys under the same charges, which amounted to a slow death sentence. The accused were predominantly soldiers and were investigated as alleged Protestants, as blasphemers, or for the possession of banned books. Interest- ingly enough, however, there are also four documented charges of conver- sion to Islam as well as sodomy. The suspicion directed towards Germans and the Dutch was legally formalized in a royal decree on March 18, , arranging for the expulsion of all European foreigners from the Portuguese colonies in India, Brazil, and on the Atlantic islands.
Portugal was already less and less attractive for foreign mercenaries. At this juncture, however, it is appro- priate to observe that long before the missionaries, the first protestants to arrive the overseas territories were German military men on the incoming Portuguese ships.
Summary This attempt of a prosopographical study sheds some light onto the lives of soldiers in the Portuguese Empire who hailed from Germany.
Calaméo - Creolization and Diaspora in the Portuguese Indies,
No new history of German heroes is being written here; instead, this inves- tigation is fundamentally concerned with the importance of the cannoneers and their methods of warfare, as well as their mentalities, living conditions, and everyday lives. Military history is not to be understood here as an end in its own right but instead as a piece of the social history of a German- and Dutch-speaking minority in an environment dominated by the Portuguese. In particular, the first phase of Iberian expansion, in the 15th and 16th centu- ries, is almost unthinkable without the use of Central European arms exper- tise.
For example, in Lisbon and South Indian Cochin, they formed a com- munity of compatriots and enjoyed a remarkable legal and administrative special status. They represented a significant portion of the crews manning Portuguese ships and forts in Europe and overseas. Andrade e Silva, , Vol. In the practice of their vocation, they were not fundamentally different from their comrades: Germans and Dutchmen fought, killed, and took slaves like the other con- quistadors. They strove for social advancement, sought to attain material riches, and, on a case-by-case basis, were ready to desert.
Amburger, Hannah S. Ein Beitrag zur Autobio- graphie des Pedrosa, op. Geburtstag, Schwalbach, Wochenschau-Verlag, Black, Jeremy, War and the World.
Cardoso, Manuel P. Cipolla, Carlo M. Clayton, Lawrence A. Alves Dias, ed. Domingues, Francisco C. Ehingen, Georg von, Reisen nach der Ritterschaft. Felner, Rodrigo J. Lima ed. Ferreira, Ana M. Gennrich, Paul W.
Glete, Jan, Navies and Nations. Khan, Iqtidar A. A technological History, Aldershot, Ashgate, Mathew, Kuzhipalli S. Sixteenth Cen- tury, New Delhi, Manohar, Modelski, George and Thompson, William R. Nemitz, Rolfroderich and Thierse, Dieter, St.
- Mangiare per gli occhi (Italian Edition).
- Publication: Antologia do Conto Abominável;
- Creolization and Diaspora in the Portuguese Indies, 1640-1720..
Nusser, Horst G. Pato, Raymundo A. Pedrosa, Fernando G. Pieris, Paulus E. Kings and Christians , Leipzig, Asia Major, Pinto, Carla A.
Rivara, Joaquim H. Rubim, Nuno J. Andrade e Silva, Smith, Roger C. Spadafora, Francesco and Casanova, Maria L. Franz Obermeier, Vol. A political and Economic History, London inter alia , Longman, Viterbo, Francisco M. Sousa, A Armaria em Portugal. Sousa, Artes e Artistas em Portugal. Fink, Westermann, Ekkehard, Silberrausch und Kanonendonner. Abstract Soon after the Portuguese entered the Indian Ocean , they built a series of forti- fications on the nearby territories. With a superb adaptation to the local environment, such buildings also presented innovative architectural features, shaped as they were by the devel- opment of the new artillery weapons used in siege operations.
Among the foreign mercenaries serving on Portuguese ships and in fortresses in the 15th and 16th century was a remarkable part of German and Flemish gunners and cannoneers. This elite unit of Germans or Dutch received an above-average wage, and a number of privileges. Their number was so large that in the south Indian city of Cochin, the governor established a chapel in the church of St.
Bartholomew for them. What is more, a small number of travel reports, written by these adventurers after their return from Brazil or India, survive. Jesuits report their arrests and the seizure of Lutheran writings, which, in fact, first circulated in America and India among these German mercenaries. Get A Copy. Mass Market Paperback , pages. More Details Other Editions 7.
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