When characters age in the context of film, actors are confronted with the necessity to endure long and sometimes straining make-up processes to be defaced. Paradoxically, this process goes against the series of efforts produced by actors to prolong the appearance of youth. My goal in this presentation is to analyze a body of films where make-up ages as well as rejuvenates the actor. In The Curious Case of Benjamin Button , the make-up process produces wrinkles a leather face but also smoothes Brad Pitt's face to an impossible extent a wax face. A similar process is at work in Tron: Legacy , where Jeff Bridges appears literally and figuratively two-faced, one face offering the spectacle of wrinkles, the other incredibly shiny and preserved.
I shall analyze the meaning of these two bodily incarnations of the masculine face, and will try to comprehend why the face of leather and the face of wax are so often brought together in recent movies, and what this negotiation between extreme age and impossible youth entails. Deleuze, Gilles. L'image mouvement. In the present paper, I shall consider the emergence of the old age as a problematic nexus in the continental philosophy of the twentieth century, and sketch a map of the philosophical discourse on old age, by illustrating who deals with this subject and why.
Most approaches to the subject are related, in a one way or another, with phenomenological thought. I shall then move on to considering the Catholic philosopher and theologian Romano Guardini, whose theory of the life stages had a significant influence on recent German gerontology U. On the other hand, Simone de Beauvoir frames her discussion of old age in a gender-sensitive critique of society, which incorporates Marxist elements.
Key words: Phenomenology of existence, contemporary philosophy, philosophical roots of gerontology. The themes of ageing and mortality have long been predominant in the genres of speculative and science fiction, but have gained a newfound impetus with contemporary innovations in rejuvenation and life extension techniques. Rejuvenation is embraced in the knowledge that a youthful appearance carries with it a social capital withheld from the ageing body: the relevance, desire, and acceptance required to actively participate in society. These attributes are seen as necessary for the fulfillment of potential.
Without them, Kureishi implies, there is only decline, defeat and disappointment. Yet in pursuing the ideal of immutability, the novel questions the true potential of a self trapped in a body which is isolated from its former life, with all its attendant memories and attachments. In doing so, it brings to light the precious nature of what was deemed mundane and distasteful; the ageing body is looked on eventually with nostalgia and affection.
By the end of the novel, the shallow vacuousness of youth holds no promise and the techno-culturally entrenched image of the ageing body as an object of revulsion has been reversed. A Glimpse of Greatness. How did people in the past perceive old age? By which concepts of ageing were they influenced? How did they express their reflections on old age? When considering these questions it is especially interesting to look at the medieval period, as beliefs from antiquity met Christian interpretations and societal structures differed from our own.
Medieval Iceland, for example, lacked an executive branch of government, leading to extraordinary social developments, heavily affecting the attitude towards aged people. Because they are more advanced in years, aged people appear to the younger as living witnesses to the past. At the same time, because ageing is inevitable, old age is also the future of the young. Old people can therefore be seen as a preview of what this development might look like. In literature the presence of older people thus often invites the comparison of what they did achieve in their life and what the younger achieved so far or could still achieve in the future.
Heroes of old are often portrayed as young and vital, almost invincible warriors, that rely. Quite often, they also die at a rather young age,. Yet, when a hero gets older one would normally expect him. I am going to have a closer look at the narratives connected to the figure of the ageing hero in Old Germanic — mainly the Scandinavian — tradition. It will be shown that the idea of the ageing hero, far from being just a conceptual problem, opens for narratives that address and make use of the dichotomy young vs.
In the Old High German Hildebrandlied for example, old age provides a climax as the elderly hero Hildebrand has to fight his own son Hadubrand. Ahead of the fight they engage in a verbal duel in which aspects of youth and old age play a central role. They allow a discussion about different types of heroes, about concepts of heroic behavior, and about different ways self-perception and imagination as hero.
As a literary characters of their respective medieval societies, they provide a narrative for the transition from a heroic to a post-heroic society as well. The use of drawing to explore perceptions of ageing in an intergenerational project. The topic of ageing the process of growing old and becoming elderly or aged is pervasive. However, it is possible that the lack of discussion about our own ageing; the fact that it is taboo and oft avoided facilitates the permeating reported negativity towards ageing, old age and the elderly.
For a PhD research study, participants drew to explore their private perceptions of ageing and the aged self. In this study, the drawing process is foregrounded as a methodology for exploring the hard-to-articulate topic of ageing. The research is built on several disciplines: Contemporary drawing practice, Health, and Education. Drawings were discussed and reflected upon, both as a group and individually. A participant-generated drawing methodology underpinned by a phenomenographic approach informs the research. Data collection has finished and the process of analysis has commenced.
The process of drawing offered a stark and startling insight that went beyond what was able to be articulated in speech alone. In most West-European cultures old age and its embodiment have long become a theme in popular culture. Margareth Atwood, in her dystopian novel, Oryx and Crake , e. In Poland it seems that old taboos concerning body and old age, illness and death still prevail. In my contribution I will first discuss whether the newer commonplaces medicalization of old age, old body as a scandal, etc.
Sieniewicz, Rebelia , J. Dehnel, Lala , I. Kuczok, Fetor ; K. Lupa, Labirynt ; L. Dementia is an illness that has consequences for a person's ability to remember, communicate and general orientation in life. How is the demented person descripted in the narrative text? What kinds of narrative techniques are used to explore and express the demented life experience?
What can a literary portrait of an illness add to the medical understanding of that same condition? Drawing upon affective theory, memory theory and narrative theory, I am going to discuss how dementia and demented life are put to play in some contemporary novels. The literary examples are from contemporary Scandinavian literature. From the thematizing of these notions as states of mind in his earlier literary works, Svevo, in his later production, tends to focus on old age in societies characterized by the cult of youth.
The protagonists in these texts are often old men who rebel against mortality and ageing, and the rebellion manifests itself in an, apparently, invigorated sexual desire, or at least the need to show that they still are capable of having a sexual relationship with a younger woman. How is the old man depicted in these texts, and how does the old woman fit into these representations of old age? In what way are the differences between youth and old age understood in the later writing of Italo Svevo?
The criminal law is one social context where it on occasions becomes imperative to assess the meaning of age: Are people of all ages capable of committing crime? Most attention has been directed towards the young transgressors, and the problem of minimal age. But lawbreakers of old age also pose a challenge to criminal law: Does an act stop being a crime at a certain age? Historically, this question has been addressed by lawyers and psychiatrists in collaboration.
My paper explores how the problem of age has been addressed in the context of criminal law and psychiatry, paying special attention to the problem of criminal responsibility. A concrete starting point will be the case of Knut Hamsun, the ageing novelist who in the aftermath of world war two was put on trial for his support of the occupation forces. The criminal case was however dismissed, after a prolonged observation in a psychiatric facility.
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According to the psychiatrist, the old man was only partially responsible for his actions. The psychiatric report, which was published verbatim two decades later, offers a rare occasion for studying different views of the human and agency, where the neo-romantic views of the young Hamsun are juxtaposed with scientific modernism of the psychiatric experts. Special attention is also paid to the way the psychiatrists are narrativising the life of the author, and the special psychiatric significance of this narrativisation.
This paper will attempt to answer several questions related to the aging actress figure through its representations in cinema and especially in Hollywood movies. Today these representations remain marginal in visual culture, having emerged during the golden age of Hollywood studios and fallen with its decline. This figure of the actress most often ages before her time, that is to say, artificially and heavily, constituting a narrative of the ritual passage of one age of film history to another.
My research focuses on the appearance and disappearance of the aging actress in Hollywood and how this particular problem elicit the very human issue of loss and disfigurement. An aesthetic analysis will aim to deepen the question of demythologizing the aging female body and her re-mythologizing when cinema takes on a cynical, yet nostalgic view of time stretched onto the body of the aging star. The almost unrecognizable face of the aging stars acting out their fall from grace thus confirms the passage and work of time.
This dialectical phenomenon will therefore be addressed in terms of an ontological study on memory and its temporality in Hollywood movies. In such cases the memories brought to life in Hollywood are revived by the trivial and involuntary gesture of a woman whose studio career is just about to fall apart. This paper will demonstrate how Hollywood has portrayed women on the threshold of reminiscence as a means to avert the disappearance of the figure they once embodied.
In a decisive change of direction, Hardy abandoned novel writing for poetry, a second career that occupied the last thirty years of his long life Here, his resistance to old age was accompanied if never succeeded by a willingness to exploit his experience and independence to offer markedly more radical and anti-realist readings of the world. Secondly, a sense of his own freedom from narrow matters of taste enabled him to engage at length with his own emerging philosophy of life.
Thus, the work of old age merged with his work about old age, providing a dazzling second life, like that of in his own words a 'phoenix Verdi'. From The Invention of Solitude to Winter Journal , the New York author Paul Auster presents an authentic walk through life in his autobiographical and autofictional works which feature characters who grow older at the same rhythm as the author does. In two of his more recent novels, the theme of old age is explicitly evoked.
Travels in the Scriptorium and Man in the Dark both describe and analyse the physical and mental decline which the two elderly characters, two authors approaching the end of their life, have to endure. Handicapped by his old age and his illness, Mr. Blank finds it immensely difficult to move around. Furthermore, he suffers from a form of dementia which makes him lose even his own identity.
As a grieving widower, tortured by life, he seeks refuge in his imagination in order to prevent his fall into the abyss of the memories of his bygone life. The two characters nevertheless succeed in confronting their physical degeneration thanks to the regular work in which they engage on their mind and their imagination.
It is the paradox between physical incapacity and mental virtuosity in people who have reached an advanced age which I propose to study in my presentation. Although thinking narcissism within a temporal structure, he did not describe narcissism particularly in relation to ageing or how the narcissist copes with the passing of time when growing older.
The mortality of man implies a threat to narcissism. Death is stated as the ultimate risk against which there is no defense strong enough. This is exactly what my paper intends to do. In a world, which often appears to value beauty and youth above all else, a world, on the other hand, where people generally live longer, what are the defence mechanisms and the coping or adaptation strategies with regards to the ageing body and how are they represented in contemporary fiction?
This comparative study examines the perceptions of the ageing body and sexuality in the 21 st century in a selection of novels in German, French and English Walser, Maron, Houellebecq, Cixous, Coetzee, Roth published from to Shrinkage, shame, alienation are all figures that influence the identity of the ageing subject. Torn between alienation and desire, the ageing body reveals the passing of time as it tries to defy decrepitude: a constant and inevitable crispation between Eros and Thanatos. In the 21 st century, in an age where everything seems possible and where the fountain of eternal youth seems increasingly accessible due to astounding scientific advances, several ethical complexities are added to the stakes when it comes to ageing.
Bio-medical interventions as well as tangentially related research in, for example, cloning, have created a discourse of ageing as ambivalent and at odds with longevity. As a source of ethical and aesthetic challenges, writing about ageing remains, exactly like eroticism, an effort to make sense of the changing present but also of the past and the future; a struggle to remain truly alive until death. Secondly, Wordsworth seems to pattern his description of the old man on the image of Habitude consuetudo found in the famous medieval iconology of Cesare Ripa.
To my knowledge, no one has ever pointed out this intriguing connection, nor its possible link to Wordsworth. It merits emphasis that unlike most other writers of the romantic age Wordsworth endows the two phenomena of old age and habit both frequently disparaged by his contemporaries with new semantic energy. The idea of the regularity and habitualness exemplified by old persons does not fill Wordsworth with contempt, but with admiration, and in his poem s he seeks to uncover the ethical, epistemological and aesthetic values inherent in this particular form of life such as it unfolds at the threshold of death.
This paper explores how participatory arts practice can engender new conceptions of temporality and vibrant new personal narratives among older people, and in turn challenges conventional paradigms of the ageing process. The paper will discuss how arts participation can shift conceptions of past, present and future in the memories and anticipations of older people to awaken bold new identities in older age. Combining ethnographic and theoretical research, the paper focuses on the work of a community arts group of older adults who regularly devise their own experimental music and dance pieces.
Civil War era Americans grew old in a different culture than the one in which they came of age. The changes American society underwent in the Civil War era, arguably as vast as those of the late twentieth century, can shed light on the experience of ageing in an era of intense change. Civil War era Americans experienced the rapid transformation of their country, culture, and government. Federal discretionary spending, as a percentage of the budget, would rise.
Only five to ten percent of potential carriers choose to learn whether they will have the disease, even though the cost of the test is low.
That suggests knowledge of a finite horizon is itself costly and a source of discomfort. Those who learn they will encounter bad fates from the disease are more likely to divorce, more likely to get pregnant, and much more likely to report significant financial changes and changes in recreational activities. Of course these are solo individuals embedded in societies with normal life expectancies; if everyone were to meet an early untimely end I believe the partial and polarized shift toward conservative and religious norms would be much stronger.
Alex Tabarrok Email Alex Follow atabarrok. Tyler Cowen Email Tyler Follow tylercowen. Personal meanings of death in older adults and young adults in relation to their fears of death. Death Studies , 25 8 , Clements, R. Factor structure, reliability, and validity of the death attitude profile-revised. The Journal of Death and Dying , 40 3 , Cole, T. Gaining and losing a friend I never knew: Reading Claire Philip's journal and poetry.
Book Review: Contemplative Aging | American Society on Aging
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AGEING: HISTORIES, MYTHOLOGIES, TABOOS Sammendrag av konferanseinnlegg
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Wong Eds. Yalom, I. Existential Psychotherapy. New York: Basic Books. Yamaguchi, T. Fear of dying. Intersect, December, p. This is an abbreviated version of a longer paper: Wong, P. Meaning management theory and death acceptance. Tomer, E. Meaning Management Theory and Death Acceptance. Toronto, Ontario Human reactions to death are complex, multifaceted, and dynamic.
The different meanings of death acceptance In the past forty years, the psychology of death has been dominated by how to measure death anxiety and what factors influence it Kastenbaum, ; Neimeyer, a, b ; there was only some recognition of death acceptance in the early literature. Likely they are rooted in the bases of death anxiety: The finality of death - There is no reversal, no remedy, no more tomorrow.