They achieved this goal by developing an original translation method, that has elicited the attention of historians of the Italian language, but also, and perhaps mainly, by inserting Italian works and contributions in French dictionary entries. They were in no way isolated or alone, but theirs was one of the most systematic and successful efforts in this direction. Accordingly, this dictionary did not receive good reviews.
An anonymous A. The congress, the ninth of the series, was held in Venice in September, only some months before the political upheaval of A work that might describe the national character, by means of the most exact and well ordained biographical and historical studies; by means of the methods and criteria adopted by our national philosophy in the institution of doctrines, that is, by observation, experience, and strict induction; by means of enquiries on the climate and endemics specific to each Italian province, and of their special production and therapeutic efficacy; and finally, by means of a common medical legislation, something impossible to attain at the time.
The admiration for German achievements, he said, had become exaggerated to the point of abuse. This had happened not only in Italy, but in France as well. This motif would have a long, and even sinister, history in Italy; constitutional medicine was to become one of the means by which Fascism legitimated medical racism.
However, Asson also underlined that histology, much admired by Germans, was in fact Italian, coming from no less than Malpighi. But these developments were yet to come. In a move that was common to a great number of physicians and medical authors of his time, Asson used history as a strong support of the claims of Italian medicine to excellence, and also as a means of exploring the diversity of Italian local cultures. Only after a long historical and ideological introduction did he finally proceed to a detailed catalogue of the events and advancements in surgery in Italy in the s and s, where regional and local schools all received due attention, from Turin to Sicily.
Politically, Italy moved from French domination during the revolutionary and Napoleonic years, to the Restoration, when the hopes for a united Italy slowly began to grow. Scientifically and culturally, Italy shifted from a commitment to the cosmopolitan ideals of the Enlightenment to a national rhetoric that included the re-invention of a tradition, even decades before the actual political unification.
Medicine was the discipline that had ensured Italy a place of pride in European science throughout the Renaissance and the early modern era.
In one morning from ancient times to the 19th century
However, the heritage it had left was controversial and difficult to reconstruct. Venice was an ideal point of departure, both because of the proximity to one of the most important academic centres in the country, Padua, and because of the rich tradition of its printing press. As it happened in many other disciplinary fields, the so-called Italian medical tradition was such mainly, if not only, because of the unifying factor of language; instead, a multitude of medium-size centres in the peninsula had produced a lively and often diverse array of local traditions and research styles, be they academic, theoretical, or centred on practical medicine.
However, up to the late 18 th century, many medical texts, especially in the fields of observations and cases, anatomy, surgery, midwifery and pharmacy, had been written in Italian, while Latin remained the language in use for academic exchanges. Unification implied uniformity, something very difficult to attain, as the s would show, but worth attempting.
Bynum , S. Lock , and R. Porter eds. For a list of Italian specialized dictionaries, p. Dursteler ed. Darnton, The Business of Enlightenment. III, Capolago, Tip. Elvetica, and Torino, Tip. Patria, , pp. XXI, , p. Berengo, Milano, Feltrinelli, , p. Marcolini of this work and of Aglietti's life, in Biblioteca Italiana o sia Giornale di Letteratura, Scienze ed Arti compilato da varj letterati , t. Prima traduzione riveduta e corretta, con varie giunte spettanti alla italiana medicina, teorica, pratica, e legale , Venezia, dalla tipografia di Giuseppe Antonelli, —, 17 tomi, 34 fascicoli.
- Child of Satan, Child of God.
- Ancient Capua and Sparticus: Santa Maria Capua Vetere.
- Tainted (Channeling Morpheus 4).
- Siege of Capua, October -2 November .
- Fox 8: A Story [SINGLE];
- 1860 in Italy!
The Dizionario compendiato is followed by three volumes of Supplimenti , published between and Adelon, Alibert, Barbier [et al. The two editors, Lorenzo Martini and Giorgio Ricci, were also interested in the difficult relations between the French model and the Italian language.
14 Nov - THE SIEGE OF CAPUA. - Trove
Prima traduzione italiana di M. Levi dottore in Medicina e Filosofia; membro del veneto Ateneo, ec. I, pp. Linee di ricerca , Firenze, Olschki, , pp. I , p. Levi , Venezia, G.
- The Mason-Whitney Tango (El Choclo).
- Principality of Capua!
- Battle of Volturnus () | Revolvy.
- Word position?
Antonelli, Sezione di medicina , ms. Fabre , versione italiana arricchita di note a cura dei signori M. Asson e G.
A Guide to Ancient Capua: Santa Maria Capua Vetere
Cohen, Venezia, tipi di Pietro Naratovich editore, — Memoria letta nelle Adunanze 18 giugno e 2 luglio del Veneto Ateneo , Venezia, tip. Filiatre-Sebezio, — For a recent assessment, Claudio Pogliano, Francesco Cassata eds. Dossier d'articles. Plan Vindicating Italian as a scientific language. French and Italian in the Dizionario compendiato — and the Dizionario Classico — Toward from an Italian medical language to the history of Italian medicine. Gli esordi di Giuseppe An The negative reputation that the British Legion, acquired already in contemporary newspaper accounts, largely created the basis for a historiography overwhelmingly defined by the blunders of the expedition.
Internationalist volunteering had had illustrious precedents. As Margot Finn has shown, following the Chartist demise, in , British radicalism had found a new focus in foreign causes. Giuseppe Mazzini — one of many European exiles in London — had been called to head the Roman Republic.
However, republican hopes were soon dashed. The five months devoted to building the Republic in Rome had been marred by repeated military attacks by French troops. In leading the May expedition Garibaldi aimed to secure the liberation of the south and the unification of Italy. The differences which had ensued between Mazzini and Garibaldi were however publicly downplayed as the expedition set sail. A hierarchy of honour, measured on when the volunteers had joined the fight, was a recognized demarcation within the Garibaldians at large.
The early spring volunteers, who followed Garibaldi from Milazzo to Capua, were radicals, moved by internationalist rhetoric. While organizing the British contribution Forbes exchanged secret correspondence with Garibaldi, making use of the radical editor G. A donation of revolvers and carbines was sent by the American manufacturer and freemason, Samuel Colt; more weapons would subsequently be commissioned from him by Garibaldi.
Many more offers of help came to the London Committee from British benefactors. Mr Isaac Campbell of Jermyn Street provided the uniforms, of which were paid for by the Committee while the rest was covered by the funds raised. Nevertheless, republican supporters were quietly at work within the London Committee in the hope of establishing a republic in Italy.
Even before the proposal was muted in London at the St. While they vociferously expressed their disapproval by drawing attention to the violation of the Foreign Enlistment Act — applying for a warrant against the publisher of the Newcastle Daily Chronicle for calling for volunteers — they were unable to stop the British Garibaldians. Indeed, it was becoming apparent that the republican element within the second wave of volunteers was not as powerful as the radical organizers within the Central Committee would have wished. As the country is somewhat unsettled, the excursionists will be furnished with means of self-defense, and with a view of recognising each other, will be attired in a picturesque and uniform costume.
General Garibaldi has liberally granted the excursionists a free passage to Sicily and Italy, and they will be supplied with refreshments and attire suitable for the climate. On the whole, however, the upper classes were scantly represented. The British Legion and the volunteer force The response to the appeal overwhelmed the organizing Committee. As many were left behind, the recruitment of the British Legion volunteers from the ranks of the Volunteer Force crucially qualified the catchment of the recruits.
Modelled on the British Volunteer Movement which had arisen during the time of the Napoleonic threat between and , the later branch of the Volunteer Force had been formed in , in response to the mounting panic surrounding the resurgence of the possibility of a French invasion. One of the traits which defined the armed nation was the ability to cross class boundaries. These British men saw in Garibaldi the liberator of nations; in following Garibaldi they were fighting for liberty — a transnational principle which also resided deeply within British values.
Soldiers were mostly selected from different civic units to form a battalion; yet the problems which were found within the unit of one town were mirrored in those of another. Indeed, the numerous acts of indiscipline which would plague the British Legion were ascribable to the lack of responsible officers, a weakness which ran through the Volunteer Force as a whole. Moreover, many men who set off were not recorded. The description of the departure of the Liverpool contingent eloquently conveys the pride which moved provincial volunteers as they set off.
Forty-seven Liverpool men boarded the train to London, with an extra 30 having proceeded to the capital independently. We were followed to the train by thousands, who formed their way into the station, and lined the tunnel leading to Edgehill […] While listening and returning the cheers with which we were greeted, I, and am sure all there, determined that, come what would, our Liverpool friends should have no occasion to blush for us and that we would […] do our duty, which is in this case our pleasure.
Yet, the presence of the volunteers on a ship destined to Italy suggests that civic virtue could be read both as love of country and love of common liberty. Badly as they have been treated by a people who are perhaps scarce worth fighting for, as Englishmen I think it is incumbent for us to recognise their services to the great cause of national freedom.
As sporadic episodes of indiscipline had been widely reported in Britain, discrediting the name of many, a negative press plagued the expedition. The experience of the British Legion had mixed joys and sorrows, hopes and disappointment, wonder and fear as many volunteers encountered the Italians for the first time and came to terms with their own emotions.
As the British Legion prepared to leave Salerno on 18 December she felt the emotions shared by the departing volunteers and commented: I have come here expressly to take leave of you; to tell you the feelings of sympathy I have for England and her noble sons. That feeling has been shown you on your arrival at Naples, and also here.
Why the jealousy — the envy — that has tried to destroy the spirit of union which is the most important thing in your regiment?
When I think of the ambition and wickedness of few that has been the cause of the ruin of many, my heart beats with indignation. When you have returned to your homes you will at the fireside sometimes speak of the campaign of what you did, of what you have suffered: may you always remember that the Italians are the greatest friends of the Englishmen; that you have a common tie, having fought together in the cause of liberty. For years De Rohan appealed to the American ambassador in Italy, George Perkins Marsh, to obtain the compensation that he felt was due to him.
He never obtained it. The problem for Holyoake consisted not so much in the amount that had been spent but in the results that had been achieved. Among the volunteers, English Mazzinians had fought hard. The last flag carried by the Mazzinians, which was shot through, would have been lost also had not Mr. Hodge sought for it before it was too late. Is it possible that Sir Henry Hoare himself can be unaware of the acts of noble abnegation performed by Mazzini in waving his long-cherished views, and loyally supporting those of his illustrious friend Garibaldi?
For two years Mazzini has suppressed in Italy the very cry for a republic, and has accepted the programme of Garibaldi and avowedly promoted it.