Madrid: Akal. Weber, M. Bula: documento emitido por el Papa en el que se refiere a asuntos administrativos, religiosos o judiciales. En la actualidad es conocida como Iglesia anglicana. En lugar del ministerio de la Palabra de Dios tiene un gobierno perverso, forjado de mentiras y falsedades, que oscurece la claridad de la doctrina.
Calvino, J. Iglesia de Inglaterra Escojan uno de los personajes mencionados y elaboren una ficha con las ideas fundamentales de su pensamiento. La Iglesia mantuvo siete sacramentos Doc. Las personas juzgadas por este tribunal eran interrogadas, mediante torturas, y si se les consideraba culpables eran ejecutadas Doc. Si alguno dijere que estos mismos Sacramentos de la nueva ley no se diferencian de los sacramentos de la ley antigua, sino en cuanto son distintas ceremonias, y ritos externos diferentes; sea excomulgado.
Concilio de Trento Arzubialde, S. Bilbao: Mensajero. Lortz, J. Historia de la iglesia II. Madrid: Ediciones Cristiandad. Caro Baroja, J. Describan el Doc. Reflexionen y comenten sobre la importancia del respeto a la diversidad religiosa. Archivo editorial SM Doc. Lindsay, T. La Reforma y su desarrollo social. Barcelona: Clie. Elaborado en base a: Duby, G.
Barcelona: Larousse. Enrique IV le pone fin mediante el edicto de Nantes. En Delumeau, J. El hecho religioso. Describe los cambios producidos en el territorio europeo como resultado de la ruptura de la unidad religiosa occidental. Hazlo con estos pasos. Los buenos copistas eran escasos. Gentes del saber: en la Europa de finales de la Edad Media.
Madrid: Complutense. De Hamel, C. Copistas e iluminadores. Castelnuovo, E. Arte e historia en la Edad Media I. Tiempos, espacios, instituciones. Taller de imprenta grabado , Valencia, siglo XV. Eisenstein, E. Barcelona: Icaria Editorial. Los estudios Doc. En muchos aspectos esto se mantuvo inalterable.
Cohen, B. Barcelona: Gedisa. Munck, T. Da Vinci, L. Cuadernos de notas. Madrid: Edimat. Redondo, F. Sennett, R. Carne y piedra. El cuerpo y la ciudad en la sociedad occidental. Madrid: Alianza Editorial. Kepler, J. Epitomes Astronomiae Copernicanae. Descartes, R. Indaguen sobre el trabajo de Harvey y de Smith. Luego, registra las conclusiones en tu cuaderno.
PASO 4 Resumir los hechos de la trama. Divinas y humanas letras dan ejemplos: es traidor todo hombre que no respeta a su rey, y que habla mal de su persona en ausencia. Lope de Vega, F. El mejor alcalde, el rey. Las ciudades-estado italianas y el parlamentarismo en Inglaterra Doc. El siglo XVI. De los grandes descubrimientos a la Contrarreforma. Parlamento: asamblea legislativa, es decir, encargada de crear las leyes.
El mercader de Venecia. La consecuencia inmediata fue el conflicto permanente con el Parlamento y el estallido de tres guerras civiles entre y En Estudios de Deusto. Voltaire . Madrid: Alba Libros. Describe la diferencia que existe entre lo planteado por Jacobo I y Voltaire. El poder absoluto de los reyes Doc. Poder ilimitado, hereditario y vitalicio. Mousnier, R. Barcelona: Destino. Anderson, P. El Estado absolutista. Madrid: Siglo XXI. Fundamenten su respuesta. Las guerras llevaron a que el Imperio se declarara en bancarrota en , y Corte, integrada por electores de origen noble.
Estados Generales, convocados ocasionalmente. El gabinete: funcionarios que deben cumplir toda voluntad del rey. Apoyados en su labor por la burocracia. Rigaud, H. Elabora un mapa de Europa en el siglo XVI. Explica el Doc. Analizo extractos de una obra de teatro y concluyo a. En esta labor son fundamentales las preguntas que hace el historiador desde el presente sobre el pasado.
Por otra parte, el hacer buenas preguntas nos ayuda a desarrollar nuestro pensamiento y a identificar aspectos relevantes del mundo que nos rodea. Por ejemplo, el comercio entre Europa y Oriente en el siglo XV. Breve resumen de las ideas principales. Investigo sobre Registra las respuestas en tu cuaderno. Para lograr esto, se fomentaron el proteccionismo y las manufacturas del Estado. En Ekelund, R. A history of economic theory and method. Illinois: Waveland Press. Glosario Balanza comercial: diferencia entre el pago por exportaciones y por importaciones. A partir del Doc.
Identifiquen las principales zonas comerciales del siglo XV y describan las rutas comerciales que se visualizan en el mapa. Malynes, G. World History. El banquero y su mujer. Clark, G. La Europa moderna, Chile: FCE. Mun, T. La riqueza de Inglaterra por el comercio exterior: Discurso acerca del comercio de Inglaterra con las Indias Occidentales. Estados Unidos: FCE. Canaletto Wiesner-Hanks, M. Early Modern Europe, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Mackenney, R. Vista del puerto de Amsterdam. Coornaert, E. Caracterizo la ciudad del siglo XVI a. Todos los vestigios de servidumbre rural han desaparecido en sus muros.
Sean cuales sean las diferencias, e incluso los contrastes que la riqueza establece entre los hombres, todos son iguales en lo que afecta al estado civil. La libertad era antiguamente el monopolio de la nobleza; el hombre del pueblo solo la disfrutaba excepcionalmente. Gracias a las ciudades, la libertad vuelve a ocupar su lugar en la sociedad como un atributo natural del ciudadano. Pirenne, H. Las ciudades de la Edad Media. Manuscrito medieval ilustrado que muestra escenas de la vida diaria.
Galvis, C. Pero eso no quiere decir que los derechos se respeten de verdad en todas partes. La respuesta global a los conflictos y a los abusos cometidos por Estados y grupos armados ha sido vergonzosa e ineficaz.
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Pero lo que ahora vemos es violencia a escala masiva y una enorme crisis de refugiados causada por esa violencia. Los derechos de la mujer ya se reconocen como derechos humanos fundamentales …. Las instituciones nacionales de derechos humanos han cobrado mayor independencia y autoridad, y ejercen gran influencia sobre la gobernanza.
Oficina del Alto Comisionado para los Derechos Humanos. Recuperado de www. Para ello, puedes hacer un resumen o mapa conceptual. Observa el mapa y, luego, responde en tu cuaderno. A partir del mapa, describe las principales rutas comerciales europeas del siglo XVII. Completa en tu cuaderno el siguiente cuadro comparativo de la Edad Media y la Edad Moderna. Observa y lee los siguientes documentos y, luego, responde. Siglo XVI. Vives, J. Galilei, G. Argumenta tus decisiones. Comenta con tu profesor o profesora de Lenguaje. Lee los siguientes documentos y, luego, responde en tu cuaderno.
Rice, E. The Foundation of Early Modern Europe, Nueva York-Londres: W. Madrid: Istmo. De acuerdo al Doc. Conocimientos indispensables para desarrollar el tema. Roles de la obra que corresponden a cada integrante actores, sonidistas, dramaturgo, tramoyas, entre otros. Principales elementos del guion. Consideren el contexto espacial y temporal. Una gama de posibilidades e imposibilidades interpretativas se viene desplegando con fervor desde entonces hasta hoy.
Kovadloff, S. Para empezar 1. Sabato, E. Observa el siguiente esquema y, luego, responde. Elabora en tu cuaderno un cuadro comparativo de las civilizaciones maya, azteca e inca. Observa la imagen y responde. Construye un relato al respecto. Una forma de presentar distintos puntos de vista en torno a un tema son los debates.
PASO 2 Definir el tema del debate y presentarlo en forma de pregunta. En este caso, se debe buscar una respuesta a la pregunta inicial. PASO 5 d. Presentar, por medio de turnos, las ideas, reflexiones y refutaciones de cada uno de los integrantes. Para organizar este intercambio es importante contar con un moderador, que puede ser la profesora o el profesor, o un estudiante que haya preparado previamente el tema.
PASO 6 Extraer conclusiones. Fortalezas Oportunidades Debilidades Dificultades Utiliza este espacio para planificar tu trabajo mediante un texto, punteo, esquema u otro. Para ello, sigue estos pasos. Ambos Estados iniciaron proyectos con el objetivo de conseguir especias, como la pimienta, o metales y telas preciosas Doc. Identificar autor, fecha y lugar de origen. PASO 5 Evaluar la confiabilidad de la fuente.
Papa Alejandro VI. En Instituto Cervantes Sanfuentes, O. Contextualiza a sus autores, ideas y posturas frente al proceso o hecho que vivieron. Madrid: Nowtilus. Silva, O. Bethell, L. Como los aztecas se localizaron en medio de un lago, crearon un sistema de islas flotantes, conocidas como chinampas Doc. Los aztecas se caracterizaron por un gran desarrollo urbano y sus construcciones. Edificaron fortalezas, templos y palacios, y crearon terrazas de cultivo; y Cuzco, la capital del imperio, hoy es una ciudad visitada por personas de todo el mundo Doc. Vitale, L.
Santiago: Lom. Pedro Sancho de la Hoz En Becco, H. Caracas: Biblioteca de Ayacucho. En Von Hagen, V. Los aztecas. Analizo fuentes primarias escritas y concluyo a. Lockhart, J. Barreto, L. En Modernidad iberoamericana. Madrid: Iberoamericana. Planisferio cantino. Solo se sabe que es un mapa en el que se muestran los descubrimientos portugueses del siglo XV. Todorov, T. El Tratado de Tordesillas Docs. Ochoa, M. Madrid: Real Academia de la Historia. Luque, M. Un universo de opiniones. Considerando los Docs. Indaga sobre los autores.
Explica el argumento central de las fuentes. Se le acerca Fray Vicente Valverde con un crucifijo y una Biblia en sus manos. Madrid: Rialp. Madrid: Ediciones Nowtilus. Sagredo, R. Analizo fuentes secundarias y concluyo a. PASO 3 Reconocer el planteamiento de los autores.
Registra en tu cuaderno. Detalle del Lienzo de Tlaxcala Esto, sumado a una epidemia de viruela Doc. Historia general de las Indias. Conquista del mundo andino Doc. Pese a la resistencia de los incas, la ciudad del Cuzco fue saqueada y ocupada. De la Vega, G. Buenos Aires: Imprenta Europea de M. Barcelona: Universidad de Barcelona. Un mundo aparte. Madrid: De la Torre. De Valdivia, P. Carta al rey Carlos V. Ellos desplegaron una gran habilidad guerrera. Villalobos, S. Chile: Editorial Universitaria.
De Coll, J. De Quiroga, J. Memorias de los sucesos de la guerra de Chile. Comparen las rutas de Almagro y Valdivia. Establezcan semejanzas y diferencias. Describan la obra de Pedro Lira. En Lienhard, M. Nosotros lo vimos, nosotros lo admiramos: con esta lamentosa y triste suerte nos vimos angustiados. Con los escudos fue su resguardo, pero ni con escudos puede ser sostenida su soledad.
En Urteaga, H. PASO 2 Identificar el tipo de fuente primaria o secundaria y el contexto en que se crea. PASO 3 Describir la imagen de lo general a lo particular: elementos, actitud de los personajes, colores, contenido y significado de la obra. PASO 4 Analizar el lenguaje visual de la fuente: luz y sombra, los colores, la actitud de los personajes, entre otros. En ella se muestran los rumbos del universo. Formas de hacer la guerra Doc. Titu Cusi siglo XVI. Theodor de Bry fue un orfebre, grabador y editor. Observen el Doc.
De las Casas, B. Acosta, J. Seco, C. Que las madres mataban a sus hijos para salvarlos del tormento en las minas. Galeano, E. Eduardo Galeano fue un periodista y escritor uruguayo. Posse, A. PASO 2 Identificar y describir el hecho y el contexto al que hacen referencia. PASO 5 Doc. Vilar, P. Oro y moneda en la historia. Barcelona: Ariel. Productos de origen americano. Identifica los datos de las fuentes y describe el hecho y el contexto al que hacen referencia.
Identifica los datos de los autores y el mensaje que quieren transmitir. Textos y documentos completos: relaciones de viajes, cartas y memoriales. Observen el continente americano en la obra de Ortelius. Para el fraile dominico, la conquista se legitimaba solo por la necesidad de evangelizar. Y otra cosa no han hecho de seguidas por los civiles. De las justas causas de la guerra contra los indios. Rouland, N. Dumont, J. El amanecer de los derechos del hombre: la controversia de Valladolid.
Madrid: Encuentro. Desarrollo PASO 3 Identificar las ideas principales expuestas en la fuente y explicar la postura del autor o lo que se puede deducir de la fuente. Santiago: Imprenta Cervantes. Early Modern Europe, Press. En www. Berkeley: University of California Press. Tomo I. Antonio de Montesinos Cruz, A. Te invitamos a escribir un ensayo para exponer tu trabajo. Determinen un objetivo claro y acotado para su ensayo. Para ello, puedes hacer un esquema de llaves o un mapa de ideas.
Ubica en el siguiente planisferio: a. Las regiones que se incorporaron al mundo conocido por los europeos. Archivo editorial SM Planisferio 3. Luego, responde: a.
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Biblioteca Nacional de Francia. Mapamundi carta. Minnesota Geological Survey de la Universidad de Minnesota. Argumenta a partir de las fuentes. Contrasta los mapas con un planisferio actual. Lee los siguientes fragmentos y luego responde. Bula Sublimus Deus. Lee los siguientes documentos. Luego, responde. Las naves que llegaron, el 12 de octubre de , a Guanahani no encontraron una isla desierta. Rivera, L. San Juan: Universidad de Puerto Rico.
Proyec to Final a. Esta etapa es clave para entender la realidad y la identidad latinoamericana y chilena. Vista de la plaza de Mendoza. De indio y negra, lobo. Virgen de Guadalupe. Compara los Docs. Esta tarea implica organizar un espacio para que las personas que lo visiten aprendan algo acerca de aquello que se expone.
Es decir, en los museos se muestran y se contextualizan objetos. En este caso, se debe responder a la pregunta inicial. PASO 7 Montar el museo y recibir a los visitantes. Para esta unidad me planteo estos objetivos: 2. Para lograr mis objetivos necesito Las dificultades que puedo tener son Estas aptitudes me pueden ayudar a alcanzar los objetivos que me propuse: 5. Considera los aspectos abordados en las preguntas anteriores. Pease, F. PASO 5 Concluir sobre sus posibles proyecciones hacia el futuro. Controlaron los cargos administrativos, el comercio, las fuerzas de trabajo y gran parte de las posesiones de tierra.
Garavaglia, J. Pintura de castas. Pintura sn. Si no se casaba, su dependencia se prolongaba de por vida. Quito: Abya Yala, Quito. Placeros y rancheros. De regreso de la iglesia, se tomaba desayuno. A eso de la seis, empezaban a reunirse los vecinos para conversar en las tiendas o zaguanes de las casas. En verano se tomaba el fresco en las veredas.
Encina, F. Historia de Chile. Tomo VII. De tente en el aire y mulata, albarrasado. Pereira Salas, E. Santiago: Zig-Zag. Relaciono el pasado y el presente y concluyo a. Fiesta en honor a la Virgen de Andacollo. Volumen 3. Jahare, F. Chingana en Tres Puntas. Estudio el caso de PASO 1 Identificar elementos que pertenecen al patrimonio cultural. PASO 2 Seleccionar una muestra de patrimonio cultural. PASO 4 Reconocer su importancia e identificar formas de protegerlo. Glosario Mano de obra: es la fuerza de trabajo humano. Como sea contra encomendero que ellos propios dizen y alaban que el rrey no se las puede quitar.
Sin embargo, tras el fin del Imperio inca, la mita fue adoptada por los conquistadores Docs. Salazar-Soler, C. En Boccara, G. Quito: Abya-Yala. De plata eran los altares de las iglesias y las alas de los querubines en las procesiones …. Repartimiento y esclavitud Doc. La patria del criollo. Y por haberle admitido no deben ser tratados Doc. Pochet, C. Costa Rica: Universidad Estatal a Distancia. En Suess, P. Casazza, R. Buenos Aires: Teseo.
Bowser, F. En Bethell, L. Tomo 4. Pintura que muestra a esclavos trabajando en un ingenio azucarero, Brasil, siglo XVI. En este sentido, sobresale el papel de los jesuitas, quienes fundaron numerosas misiones en zonas de Paraguay, Brasil, Argentina y Chile. Oesterreicher, W. Alemania: De Gruyter. Una vez aculturados, indios y negros fueron sometidos a los trabajos forzados. Aldea de indios tapuios cristianos. Indaguen sobre la catedral de Cuernavaca. Ospina, W. Colombia: Mondadori. De esta mezcla surgieron algunos platos tradicionales, como las distintas variedades de cazuela, el pastel de choclo, la empanada y las humitas.
Estados Unidos: Georgetown University Press. Dibuja una escena de la vida actual en que se evidencien distintas manifestaciones del mestizaje cultural. La arquitectura Doc. Cabrera, M. Su pintura muestra un ejemplo del mestizaje: un padre negro, una madre mestiza y un hijo mulato. Indaga sobre distintos patrimonios culturales coloniales materiales y crea un afiche en el que destaques los elementos del arte barroco presentes en ellos. Analizo patrimonio cultural y concluyo Doc. Edificio de la Real Audiencia de Santiago, Entre sus autoridades estaban el alcalde, quien actuaba como juez en primera instancia, antes de la Real Audiencia; los regidores, que velaban por el aseo y ornato; el fiel ejecutor, encargado de los precios y medidas; y el alguacil mayor, encargado de la seguridad.
Plano cuadriculado con calles rectas paralelas y perpendiculares. Plaza Mayor o Plaza de Armas. Ocupa un lugar central. Croquis que muestra el desarrollo de Santiago desde a En Thayer Ojeda, L. Plaza Mayor. Goering, A. Vista de la plaza en la ciudad de Mendoza. Ayala, E. Describe la estructura de las ciudades coloniales. Indaguen sobre una ciudad chilena fundada durante la Colonia. Localicen los principales edificios administrativos y religiosos. Stein, S. Pastor, C. Cabildo abierto del 22 de mayo de en la ciudad de Buenos Aires.
Zubiri, M. Creo piezas de museo y concluyo a. Por ejemplo, Chile durante la Colonia. PASO 2 Delimitar el tema. PASO 6 Comunicar los resultados del estudio. Las estancias fueron grandes extensiones de tierra cedidas a los conquistadores, las que se transformaron en centros productivos y fuente de alimento para el ganado. Debido al trabajo, era un espacio de contacto entre esclavos y libertos de distinta procedencia Docs. Testimonio de un esclavo cubano.
En Del Pozo, J. Desde la independencia hasta hoy. Las medias y los zapatos eran poco comunes. Mayo, C. Estancia y sociedad en la pampa Buenos Aires: Biblos. En Schmidtmeyer, P. Travels into Chile over the Andes in the years and Londres: Longman, Hurst, Rees. En Gay, C. Bauer, A. Consideren su orden social y las actividades que se realizaban en ella. Araya, A. Ociosos, vagabundos y malentretenidos en Chile colonial. Escoge una unidad productiva y caracteriza la vida cotidiana en el interior de ella. En Zamorano, P. Santiago: Morgan Internacional. Orbigny, A. Paris: Pitois-Levrault.
Valenzuela, J. La trilla, cuyo objetivo es separar la paja del grano, es otra de las actividades que han permanecido en el tiempo. Vargas, L. Gabriela Mistral. Caminando sobre siembra. Santiago: Lumen. Wikimedia Commons Doc. Sevilla: CSIC. Caracterizo la vida cotidiana y concluyo a.
Tota Pulchra. Establece las similitudes y diferencias entre los planteamientos de las fuentes. El registro puede ser escrito o visual. Luego, haz descripciones del trabajo a realizar. Comparen y complementen las fuentes. Distribuyan tareas y roles. Preparen el material de apoyo. Expongan los resultados frente al curso. Hazlo siguiendo estos pasos. En Sanz, P. Carmagnani, M. El salariado minero en Chile colonial. Su desarrollo en una sociedad provincial: el Norte Chico Vista de Sevilla.
Ramos, F. Valencia: Universidad de Valencia. Bernardos, J. Madrid: UNED. Rey Carlos III Sin embargo, el resto de las potencias europeas estuvieron interesadas en obtener beneficios y riquezas. El intercambio era de manufacturas europeas, esclavos africanos y materias primas americanas. Describan las rutas seguidas por los barcos y mencionen los productos que intercambiaban. Elaboro un dossier y concluyo a. Por otra parte, los pueblos que se localizaban en la cordillera, como los pehuenches, en un comienzo lograron permanecer relativamente alejados de la influencia hispana Doc.
Los que eran para la guerra, tomaron sus armas … que son arcos y flechas. Gobierno de Chile. Glosario Subercaseaux, P. El joven Lautaro. Estrategias en el conflicto hispano-mapuche siglo XVII Impulsada por el gobernador Alonso de Ribera, su objetivo era ocupar gradualmente el territorio mapuche, asegurando que la retaguardia quedase dominada por los europeos. Guerra y sociedad en Chile.
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La Araucana. Salamanca: Casa de Domingo de Portonarijs. Eyzaguirre, J. En Villalobos, S. El mito de la Guerra de Arauco. En los parlamentos se planteaban las condiciones para establecer la paz, se realizaban intercambios de prisioneros y se tomaban acuerdos para mejorar la convivencia. Los resultados de estas reuniones eran difusos, por las dificultades de uno y otro lado para cumplir lo pactado. La honra que se les hace no puede ser mayor, y aunque nosotros tiramos a disminuirla, diciendo que es piedad de nuestro soberano, ellos vocean que es porque son libres y les tienen miedo.
Esta formalidad se celebra para asentar paces, siempre que con los indios ha habido guerra …. Historia natural, militar, civil y sagrada del Reino de Chile. Tomo XXII. Imprenta Elzeviriana. Al mismo tiempo, el cacique hace anunciar por medio de una trompeta a sus vasallos la llegada de un mercader con el cual pueden hacer sus negocios. Loveman, B. Las suaves cenizas del olvido. Palabras de Luis Amadeo Frezier. En Barros Arana, D. Historia general de Chile. Santiago: Rafael Jover Editor. Explica a partir de las fuentes. According to the editors, the twentieth century reader understands the various levei of meanings, while concurrently perceiving the discourse as an " en gendered process.
We have learned, as she did, to cross boundaries and read between the lines" Sor Juana not only uses false humility as a social convention, but also brandishes it as a weapon of irony against Sor Philotela. Finally, by 26 Gender and Aesthetics? If one considers the preface and the introduction as a feminist bookends constructed around this famous text, one may begin to iden- tify the feminist characteristics of this particular translation.
And to do so, a male translator, Alan Trueblood, has been chosen to serve as a comparison between a politically charged translation by two women and an apparently politically neutral translation by a man. Reader- response theory will help to determine the effectiveness of Arenal and Powell's stated goal of "doing justice" to the original document, while simultaneously exposing Trueblood's perspective as male-centered and far from being politically neutral. Also, the stated desire to "preserve the meaningful ambiguities" and maintain the document's multiplic- ity must be addressed.
First of ali, from a comparison standpoint the two transia tions on the surf ace appear completely diff erent. In fact, a mere five sentences are translated exactly the same. This amazing dissimilarity may point towards a conscious dialogue with other male-centered translations. This study will limit itself to identifying these dialogues when conceptual differences in one translation deliver a message that is com- pletely distinct from the other translation.
Arenal and Powell seem to stick more faithfully to the original syntax and paragraph structure of the original text, whereas Trueblood tends to re-order the long sen- tences and dissect the original document with paragraph breaks. Arenal and Powell provide the reader with unparalleled annotations, to be exact, which clarify the historical background of the text. Three are found in the mid-hundreds when Sor Juana first defends her self and her writing from outside attacks with three discrepancies in the s where Sor Juana describes her uncon- trollable epistemological drive.
The twenty-three variances can be divided into three broad categories, 1 a feminist recasting of the original text, 2 a change of emphasis which tends towards a collective rather than an individual conception of the world, 3 omissions of two sentences left out of the translation, both by Arenal and Powell, which may impart the ideo- logical position of the translators.
The very first line in Arenal and Powell's translation exposes their ideological tendency to recast the original text into a feminist form. In this sentence Sor Juana alludes to her "justo temor" in replying to Sor Philotela. Sor Juana is justified in her reticence. A major theme in the feminist translation emphasizes forces outside of Sor Juana's that con- trol and oppress her. This kind of translation, surely, is trying to bring to the forefront the patriarchal forces that weighed so heavily on Sor Juana's literary production.
The next discrepancy exposes this same kind of imposition of a feminist perception of reality. The original phrase addresses Sor Juana's inability to respond to Sor Philotela: "tropezar mi torpe pluma" Line 3. The feminist perspective translates the phrase as "my dull pen stum- bling. Trueblood translates the sentence as "my bungling pen. In line 15, Sor Juana expresses her concern that a draft of her writing was published without her consent.
The original phrase is: "mis borrones. In line , Sor Juana describes a situation in which due to a stom- ach ailment, she was prohibited to study. However, her curious nature was so vehement that it taxed her health more than studying. Sor Juana comments: "se redujeron a concederme que leyese. Trueblood's translation indicates the doctors "agreed reluctantly to allow me to read. This duplici- tous perspective of women seems to reflect Trueblood's inability to approach this text in a way that allows him to sympathize, or as Schweickart would say, 'to connect' with the author.
Instead he em- ploys his own patriarchal views of the world, or as Schweickart per- ceives it, he must do a misreading of the text because in reading a text for women, a man must confront himself. Finally, Arenal and Powell rewrite yet another example of false humility when Sor Juana states: "Confiesso desde luego mi ruindad y vileza. Arenal and Powell choose to reinterpret the phrase in a totally different light, shrinking its original meaning.
Trueblood, on the other hand, goes for a literal translation that misunderstands the false humility inherent Ln the phrase and attributes a defiency in Mester, Vol. The feminist translations defer directly to Schweickart's essay in which she states that "gynocritics" must develop a sense of conununity among women by analyzing other women's writing.
In the editors' translations, a change of emphasis ref ocuses the reader 's gaze to a coUective perspective of reality. Arenal and Powell seem to be in constant dialogue with the male translation's tendency to attribute such weaknesses to Sor Juana. In the foUowing two different discrepancies, the feminist translation takes impersonal terms and transports them to reflect a collective female re- ality. Neither translator choose to maintain the neutrality of the sentence, rather the feminists insert "our customs" and maintain the impersonal nature of the first half of the sentence. Of course, "our" metamorphisizes the meaning froni an ambiguous personal to a de- fined collective.
This defined collective is not present in the original and is certainly imposed on the original. Yet, at the same time, the original wording does leave the matter open to interpretation. Mean- while, Alan Trueblood also projects a male perspective when he trans- lates it as "my sex.
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The first appears to be inconsequential, a result of removing a redundancy conceming man's rejection of Christ. Are Arenal and Powell resisting the collective "eUos" which includes and obfuscates the presence of women? Yet, interestingly enough, the omission seems to reflect a desire to revise the text and purge it of any illusions of primacy the text may have in today's world. In other words, one discovers a revisionist feminist perspective that disHkes the presence of "siempre" or always.
Renioving "always" appears to be a revisionary tactic that states: "those days are over. The question remains, however, have they achieved the very goals they themselves Mester, Vol. Indubitably, Arenal and Powell have accomplished their goal of refocusing this famous essay under a feminist light. When exposed to their introduction, their translation, and their annotations, one cannot help but "read" Sor Juana's reply within a different frame of reference, a frame of reference that emphasizes gender and politics.
According to Schweickart's criterion. Arenal and Powell have successfully brought Sor Juana's feminist voice to the foreground. Yet, Schweickart herself states that "gynocritics" should approach texts by respecting their autonomy and not appropriating their mean- ing or inrposing a certain ideological perspective on the author. Yet, one can tum this statement around - to fixate on gender and poli- tics, disrespecting the autonomy of the text, and imposing a feminist perspective on a seventeenth century writer, in fact, limits its meaning.
If ali tianslation is interpretation, then why should anyone cri- tique a translation that chooses to focus more on one aspect of a text than another? The answer lies in deterinining whether this feminist interpretation of Sor Juana's reply is a reader-friendly or a text-friendly translation. Arenal and Powell's translation boasts exhaustive annotations and thus it appears to fit a text-friendly categorization. However, the editors seem to have followed the trans- lation theory of Borges, a process of anthropophagization or appro- priation of the text, recasting it in their own feminist intonation.
This kind of refocusing of the text is at once respectful of its foreignness because it brings to the foreground issues that help the reader under- stand the othemess of women, while at the same time it fixates exces- sively on one element of an extremiely rich and varied text. Yet, in an enthusiasm to "give voice" to women writers are feminists writers actually speaking for them?
Feminists obviously wish to make women speak; but from another viewpoint [this goal] carries some dubious politicai and aesthetic implications. Is it right that woman now should take up precisely that masculine position in relation to other women? By making that which was previously ambiguous explicit, the text has been di- minished aesthetically. Aesthetics and feminism have had a stormy relationship and Toril Moi has called for a reassessment of this rela- tionship: Surely, we should ask ourselves if it is not time to revise a feminist aesthetics that seems in these particular respects to lead to the same patriarchal and authoritarian dead end.
In other words, it is time for us to confront the fact that the main problem in Anglo- American feminist criticism lies in the radical contradiction it presents between feminist politics and patriar- chal aesthetics. Indubitably, Arenal and Powell have recast La Respuesta into a feminist form, thus enriching the scholarship on Sor Juana; however, the problem is the mold can be considered extremely myopic and re- strictive. Now, the emphasis has changes from an aesthetic, non- gendered perspective to an excessively politicai and gender sensitive viewpoint.
However, Alan Trueblood's translation of La Respuesta is a shin- ning example of the need for feminist perspectives of Sor Juana's work. On the surface, Trueblood's translation appears to be politicaUy neu- tral; yet, his translation consistently attributes blame to Sor Juana as incapable of writing, while simultaneously ascribing deceitful charac- teristics to her person.
His translation is not historically contextuaHzed; in fact his few annotations exemplify a tendency to "find" errors. At least Arenal and Powell have contributed to the scholarship of Sor Juana's work with their exhaustive historical annotations and their emphasis of the feminist elements of Sor Juana's text. Trueblood, on the other hand, not only frequently misunderstands the text, execut- Mester, Vol.
In fact, Trueblood's translation does not contribute to the understanding of Sor Juana's timeless text, but rather hinders its comprehension. He not only hinders its comprehen- sion, by ignoring the feminist nuances in the text, he, also, boldly reinscribes meaning on the text by leaving out this important aspect of the text. Although Arenal and Powell clearly ascribe new meaning to Sor Juana's text by overemphasizing the politicai and gender characteris- tics in her work, one must recognize the invaluable contribution they have made by contextualizing the socio-political environment in which Sor Juana produced her famous Respuesta.
Clearly, the time has come for a generation of scholars to weigh equally aes- thetics and gender issues. Arenal and Powell may have overstressed the feminist aspects of Sor Juana's renowned Respuesta, but in doing so they have enriched our understanding of the text. New York: The Feminist Press, Bloom, Harold.
Anxiety of Influence: a Theory ofPoetry. New York: Oxford University Press, Benjamin, Walter. New York: Schoken Books, Borges, Jorge Luis. Bovie, Smith Palmar. William Arrowsmith and Roger Shattuck. Austin: University of Texas Press, Moi, Toril. New York: Methuen, Paris, Jean.
Austin: Univer- sity of Texas Press, Schleiermacher, Friedrich. Leslie Wilson. New York: Continuum, Schweickart, Patrocinio P. Elizabeth A. Flynn, Schweickart, Patiocinio P. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, Steiner, George. After Babel: Aspects of Language and Translation. Trueblood, Alan S. A Sor Juana Anthology. This is particularly true of the New World, where the desire for literary innovation was coupled with a powerful new socio-political consciousness. The dynamic of breaking away and beginning anew characterizes the Latin American avant-garde.
Politically, during this period colonies recently independent from Spain struggled to engender their own national iden- tities and systems. It is in the rhetoric of these m. However, the images the texts contain of the new woman are ambiguous. Others, notably several foundational texts of Brazilian Modernismo, contain depictions of women as active participants in the new society they envision.
These generally make 35 36 Woman Scomed the rejection of the pamassian idealization of the "woman-object" a focal point of their rhetoric. However the new woman they propose can also be read as a recasting in avant-garde terms of what remains an essentially passive, supporting role for women. An examina tion of the images of women and the rhetorical use of the female in several of these manifestos in light of the circumstances of two Brazilian women poets of the early twentieth century suggests much regarding this question.
It casts doubt on the degree to which the actual woman of the period was supported in her attempt to break out of her traditional role and raise a voice that was truly her own. Some of the pattems characterizing the rhetorical treatment of the woman in the manifestos of the Latin American avant-garde can be traced to the texts that began the line of avant-garde manifestos: the writings of the Italian Francisco Tomasso Marinetti. He casts as positive — new, fast, technological, violent — masculine images: young men in speeding cars, a phallic locomotive penetrating the night, war.
Maples Arce's text makes use of the same vocabulary of speed, technology, and violence typical of Marinetti's manifestos, as well as making several direct references to the Italian's ideas. The text declares: Mester, Vol. The second group is the "concubinas. Its tone dismisses the daughters as a worthless burden whose only purpose in lif e is to marry. These and other references in the manifesto belittle women, dismiss- ing them as frivolous, empty-headed, and generally useless. This char- acterization of women condemns the whole class, the bourgeoisie, with which the text associates them.
The absence of posi- tive female images in the text subtiy but distinctiy reinforces this mes- sage. Guglielmini, also uses the as- sociation with femaleness to express contempt for their predecessors. The editors of Inicial, like the estridentistas, associate female images with the rejected literary aesthetic of the previous generation.
These young writers, seeking both literary and politicai power, use "feminine" as equivalent to "weak" and "impo- tent. This tendency probably reflects the criticai role female artists played in the Brazilian avant-garde. For example, the forces that were later to produce the Semana de Arte Moderna, the event marking the birth of the Brazilian avant-garde, gath- ered around painter Anita Malfatti's controversial exhibition of mod- em art in The rhetoric of these texts does, however, give reason Mester, Vol.
Like his Spanish American counterparts, Menotti focuses on the image of the woman to embody the charge of superficiality he leveis at the pamassian poetry of the previous literary genera tion: "Na poesia. In this article, Menotti does not present a con- trasting image of the new woman, but in "Arte Moderna," the confer- ence he presented on February 15, , the second night of the Semana de Arte Moderna, he describes in detail an "Eva ativa," a pivotal figure in his contrast of the modernista aesthetic with that of the pamassians. La ter in the text, the poet elaborates on this point: E a mulher?
On the other hand, the actions presented as comprising the new female role can be interpreted as rather servile. The woman serves "usefuUy" in the home and in business. She reacts to the "noitada futurista" by applauding and booing, but doesn't appear to be a presenter in the spectacle. Thus, even her more active role remains substantially passive. The new woman this text describes has exchanged the parnassian piano keys for the modernista typewriter keys, but her role essentially follows and supports a male lead.
Although the modernista manifestos cali for radical change, they remain curiously superficial with regard to the particular restrictions the traditional social structure placed on women. However, despite the stature and impor- tance of her work, Meireles cannot be said to have asserted a particu- larly female voice in her poetry. In contrast, in the work of Gilka Machado, a poet who immediately preceded Meireles chronologically, the ques- tion of the female condition and the development of a distinctiy fe- male poetic voice are criticai.
Cristais Partidos For Machado, even the lowest, free-living thing enjoys a better fate than a woman. Machado further explores the theme of freedom in relation to the female spirit, particularly female sexuality, imprisoned and repressed by societal norms, in the sonnet "Ser Mulher," also included in Cristais Partidos. Here Machado develops the idea of the frustration provoked by the conflict between woman's true nature and the limitations soci- ety imposes on her. Society's restriction of the woman, enforced by the "Senhor," prevents her fiom striving for the heights for which she, like the eagle, was destined.
Despite this early recognition of the probable futility of her ef- fort, in other poems Machado takes up a struggle that mirrors the cali of the avant-garde manifestos to challenge and break with the existing 42 Woman Scomed social code. She lyrically and erotically expresses her female sexuality. In creating daring images for a woman in the early decades of this century, she raised a truly new, authentically female voice. The year of the Semana, Machado published Mulher Nua, a coUec- tion which includes the sonnet "Eu sinto que nasci para o pecado.
Meanwhile, she carefully lead a chaste life, dedicating her days to abstinence. Machado's balancing act failed, however, and as a young widow with two children. Machado suffered severe consequences for having dared to raise her own, radically female voice, a voice that did not conform to that expected of a "poetisa.
Esse pioneirismo, contudo, foi-lhe bastante fiinesto. However, none of the young lions Mester, Vol. The case of Gilka Machado raises the question of the existence of other unknown, or barely known, Latin American women writers of the early twentieth century whose work might contam the voices of truly new women for the new century.
The yoimg male writers of the avant-garde m Brazil and elsewhere in Latin America focused tremen- dous energy and creativity on their own struggle to break free from what for them was an oppressive tradition, and assert themselves as new men with new visions for a new reality. Ironically, it seems they were unable or unwilling to understand and support their sisters' par- allel and even more arduous struggle.
As was the case for its fathers and grandfathers, it was as if the assertion of this new male voice were dependent on the marginalization and silencing of the female voice. November, n. Madrid: Editorial Alhambra, S. Machado, Gilka. Poesias Completas. Femando Py. Maples Arce, Manuel. Hugo J. Rome: Bulzoni, Masiello, Francine. Marinetti, F. Giovanni Lista. Lausanne: L'Age d'Homme, Menotti del Picchia. October, 4. Py, Femando.
Did his abhorrence precede the writing of Romancero gitano, co- incide with the writing of Romancero gitano, or derive from the writing of Romancero gitano? Why did he choose to compose in the rich bailad tradition when the weight of that tradition is overwhebningly narra- tive? If, as he declared, he discovered at the start of his poetic career that the romance form was an ideal mold for his "sensibilidad" Lorca, Obras 1 , what role can narrative play in evoking sensibility?
Romancero gitano does, of course, contain unequivocally narrative poems, with a linear development and carefully modulated phases, stages, and tempos. The other fea- tures, enigmatic, oblique, and ambiguous, are ones that they never detected, and their myopia offers a distorted view of the work and misrepresents Lorca's intentions. Lorca, Epistolario I Here paradoxes and antitheses are the surface markers of complex in- tentions: while "misteriosa y clara" and "arbitraria y perfecta" point to the desired result, "construir con lagunas," "sacar de la sombra," and "perder" presumably "en la sombra" specify activities that liken po- Mester, Vol.
The Oxford Book of Narrative Verse contains a preface by lona and Petar Opie, who state suggestively that "A narrative poem is in the nature of a sea voyage, and it is no good poking about in the rock pools waiting for the sea anemones to unfold their fronds" ix. Anyone who has been to exhibitions of twentieth-century art, particulary of abstract or Surreal- ist art, will realize just how strong is the need for meaning and expla- nation expressed in the oft repeated question "But what does it mean?
However, this emphasis on mystery should not inhibit us from trying to explain to ourselves Unes of Beckett 48 horcas "Horror a Lo anedoctico' or Unes from the Romancero gitano that elude a simple, fixed meaning. In this denial of schematic connection, Lorca joins hands with Beckett, Eliot, Magritte and many others in a vehicle as improbable as the Spanish romance. Firstly, we have to digest the difficult fact that a bailad — of all genres — may recount nothing at aU, that it may appear to tell a story in the same way as an impromptu by Chopin appears to be improvised: both are illusions.
This is espe- cially true of the two romances that I want to consider: "La monja gitana" and, in more detall, "Muerto de amor. The sun has a natural — and semantic — rela- tionship with the sunflowers, the girasoles, which are one actor in the colorful parade of flowers flashing through her mind. And here Lorca poses a challenge: how many of us can iirtmediately bring to mind the flowers and herbs he names as part of the context or as elements in the nun's fantasising? How many of his readers are aware that llagas de Cristo can be nasturtiums? Why five? Five, of course, points us toward the five senses, and the grapefruit sweetening are a defiant recognition of their power and an unrepentant cementing on Lorca's part of an historie association between grapefruit and nuns.
Frenk no. After all, her heart, which is breaking, is one composed of sugar and yarrow, and folklore offers us advice as picturesque as this: "A bunch of dried yar- row hung over the bed or yarrow used in wedding decoration ensures a love lasting at least seven years. Yarrow is also used in love speUs" Cunningham This connection should not surprise us if we have been attentive to the signal emitted in the first Une. Myrtle is added to aU love sachets and spells, especially those designed to keep love alive and exciting" Cunningham This is the only movement that her body, apart from her hands, makes in the poem.
If we ask what is "La monja gitana" about, we can answer sim- ply: it is about a nun sitting and dreaming. If we ask what "Muerto de amor" is about, we are unable to provide an answer that is simple, or remotely satisfying, for Lorca has written a poem that has been faulted by one critic for "an excessive allusiveness in the presentation of the theme" Harris 61 and described by another as "the most mystifying poem in the volume" Havard Aguilar y Tejera no.
Certainly, the child has made a sobering discovery: that the lofty corridors of popular song and popular bailad exist in real life, that life itself can be more frightening than the fantasies of verse, that the cocoon of a child's world can be punctured by circumstances which, however confusing and dramatized, are dominated by four lights and tall corridors; these combine half-way through the poem The lights that yell like warriors and flash like swords appear more as agents of death; they are certainly more active than the characters who react to events: the women by weeping and taking down presumably from the lofty corridors the victim's blood, and the sera- phim and gypsies by playing accordions.
Furthermore, these screams are appropriate to the wake that is being recreated for us by the mind of a child through an extraordinary dis- play of understanding on Lorca 's part. While the com- plicity of seraphim and gypsies glorifies the latter, it is achieved through an instrument that, although "now heard in concert halls and sym- phony orchestras," is still associated in the minds of many people with vaudeville acts, square dances, and f estive occasions Charahus 9.
However, one of the four angeHc musicians painted by Memling plays a portative organ, which, Like the accor- dion, requires the pumping of a bellows with one hand and the finger- ing of keys with the other. In imagining the gypsies playing in har- mony with seraphim, Lorca makes them too into descendants of the musical angels. And his insistence on "cuatro faroles" 1.
What kind of reaction did Lorca expect to evince when he intro- duced into the nocturnal scene a smell of wine and amber? If we draw on the common knowledge that amber, when heated, exudes a pleas- ant smell, we can then wonder why it would have been heated during the events that he is sketching? Among the amber figurines found in the ancient tombs of Vetulonia, of the 7th century B. Sexual enticement is certainly implicit in the old Scottish custom by which a mother gave her daughter on her wed- ding night a set of lanuner beads, which, when warmed up, would make her smell sweet to her husband Opie and Tatem Behind the wine, amber, and accordions, behind the weeping and the shouting, are human beings who react in complex, even irrational, ways to the incidents in which they become involved.
Validated by centuries of superstitious association with curative and antropopaic powers, amber hints at the menace of dark forces and life-threatening conditions such as plague or childbirth. Saetas populares. Madrid: CIAP, Carrere, Emilio. Barcelona: Maucci, ?. Charahus, Tony. The Accordion. Cunningham, Scott. Cunningham's Encyclopedia of Magicai Herbs. Paul, Minnesota: Llewellyn Publications, Frenk Alatorre, Margit. Fuentes, Tadea. Granada: Universidad de Granada, Obras completas. Madrid: Aguilar, Madrid: Alianza, Harris, Derek. Romancero gitano. Edited, with introduction and notes by Derek Harris.
London: Grant and Cutler Ltd. Havard, Robert G. Translated with an introduction by Robert G. Warminster, England: Aris and Phillips, A Dictionary ofSuper- stitions. Magritte, Rene. Ecrits complets. Paris: Flammarion, Granada: D. Odeberg, Hugo. Edited and translated for the first time with introduction, commentary and criti- cai notes by Hugo Odeberg.
Opie, lona and Peter. Opie, lona, and Tatem, Moira. A Dictionary of Superstitions. Pacheco, Patrick. Nosotros los gitanos. Barcelona: Ediciones , Ramsden, H. Lorca's Romancero gitano. Eighteen commentaries. Seville: Francisco Alvarez y C. Ruiz, Juan. Libro de buen amor. Cejador y Mester, Vol. Madrid: Espasa-Calpe, Barcelona: Planeta, Smith, C. Spanish Ballads. Oxford: Pergamon Press, Spekke, Amold. Stockholm: M. Gopopers, However damaging and alienating the late s and early 30s were for Neruda, social and existencial alienation serves paradoxically as the very basis for the rejuvenation of Neruda's po- etry.
Indeed, we could go as far as to claim that this alienating state of affairs is the necessary preamble for creating more comprehensive po- etry, found, for instance, in Canto general. But hope is the subject's intemalizing of conditions over which he often has little or no control. The individual who hopes generally does so passively. Neruda's Residencia en la tierra and the first section of Tercera residencia document his battle with language as a struggle to be accepted socially and not be marginalized in society.
Neruda's struggle for artistic autonomy and professional recog- nition plays a decisive role in these poems. While this holds true, particularly in the case of those who have inherited cultural and economic capital, it is exceedingly difficult for an artist from a work- ing-class background, such as Neruda, to gain recognition and accep- tance in the poetic field. The disadvantages weigh him down fiom the very start, making the chances of "success" all the more tenuous.
So Neruda's "avantgardist" stage — the Residencias — is not a game, a moment of position jostling, or a chance 60 The Tenacity ofFaint Hopes to ruffle the feathers of traditionalists, but rather a serious and suffer- ing moment of his life expressed in his poetry. I use the term "phase" here intentionally. Huidobro's poetry, even in the s, gen- erally remains straightjacketed in vanguard aesthetics. For Neruda, by contrast, this vanguardist stage fits into a larger framework as a dialectically related part to the whole.
The severity and immediacy of the war-time situation transf orm the way he conceives his poetry: in a poetic reportage he graphically records the events of the civil war from a Republican point of view. So Neruda's concems with and pas- sionate interests in the experimentalism of the avant garde gradually begins to wane as he is challenged to express the socio-political reality that is painfully exploding around him. His vanguardist phase.
Residencia en la tierra, is intimately associated with cultural and per- sonal alientation in the Orient, and simply cannot survive in historical conditions that demand its repudiation. Yet Neruda's experience in the Orient, recorded in the Residencia en la tierra poetry, lays the ground- work formally and thematically for Tercera residencia and Canto general. Without Residencia en la tierra the later works, which gain a sophisti- cated understanding of historical, politicai, social and poetic factors, would be impossible. His own social situation was nothing but ironic.
He had been given an official post working for the Chilean govemment abroad and thus was socially and rhetorically accepted as a member of the Professional class. As a foreign diplomat he was granted a special sta- tus that allowed him to associate with other official representatives of the British govemment. But his own real economic status contradicted the politicai position with which he had been "consecrated. The reality of his eco- nomic status made him feel uncomf ortable among the British civil ser- vants who had much more when it came to economic means and who were the official representatives of the Empire in India.
By the same token, even though his economic status made him a natural ally of the working population in India, he held a special poHtical post which made him a professional. From his autobiography, letters he wrote during this period, and the work of his biographers, we know that the open social conflicts that beset Indian society had a very profound effect on Neruda but he did not feel empowered to do anything about them. His working condi- tions, in which he fuLfiUed his duty as a bureaucrat who at times would have to wait for weeks or months before carrying out official duty, also added to the solitude that engulfed him.
In this atmosphere poetry takes on two different general roles. This alienation drowns him, but he is able to keep his head above water by believing, desperately, that poetry represents a refuge, an escape valve that helps him affirm himself and gives him a reason to live. This, in effect, is the "prophetic" stage of his poetry. At this stage in his life, Neruda does seem somewhat persuaded by the bourgeois canoniza- tion of the poet as a "genius" or "prophet. This type of a reaction makes sense if we look at his dominated position in the field of cultural production as well as the socio-economic and affective im- pact of exile in India.
The more ephemeral and esoteric, the more he can champion himself as a survi- vor of the circumstances. Even more significantly, he can perhaps aban- don his Job as a bureaucrat who sells his labor power to the State, and aspire to be a "professional" poet, which would allow him to have more control over his own destiny. In this latter case, he would be at the mercy of pubUshing houses and editors, but if he were successful, he could attain a certain degree of autonomy. But this is an uneasy proposition that is weighed down by the reaUty of his real economic and social dependence.
Spectres and the Weight of Objectivity Mester, Vol. The problem is that the virtual omnipotence of matter engulfs the speaker. At this poLnt, he is incapable of accessing or approximating these natural elements in language. The poet confronts nature with the apparent impotence of poetic language. En- tropy and chance have seized the poet's imagination: all forms seem to decompose or disintegrate to the point where they may be "o recordadas o no vistas.
While there is a by-product in Nature's work — the cherries' perfume, the ash, the populating seas, the bell's sound — it is in peril of escaping the senses of human beings. Nature's own labor and our work in it face the probability of being enveloped by natural laws and of being forgotten by other human beings.
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The only oblique references to human beings are the senses — someone must be hearing the bells and smelling the cherries. Yet, even at this stage of his poetic production, there are among the gaps in this stanza, presences which are generated. These positive or generating elements are in fact relations: the sound of the bell, for instance, is pro- duced by the impact of two metais, and must be created or rung by 64 The Tenacity ofFaint Hopes someone.
But the sound is not something that one can empirically point to because it is the mediation of material production. Like the language of the poet, it is a cominunicative vessel which has social rainifications; it is the production of matter, but it fades away, except in the consciousness and daily life of the community. But if that com- munity is absent, the poet's labor cannot attain fruition.
While nature can carry on without human intervention, human beings are depen- dent on nature for everything that they are. Human activity and its Creative products poetry or a bell's music are helplessly dependent on nature, but nature, human beings' "inorganic body" in the words of Marx, outlives us. In "Galope muerto," then, Neruda affirms the rift between human beings and their creative or forced labor; the latter immersed in the former. In the first verses we come across the interpenetration of mate- rial forms and their apparently ephemeral by-products.
Yet the re- sult at this stage in the dialectial process is the reification — or referen- tial detachment — that is necessary to make the part intelligible in its relation to the whole. The part, nature in this instance, is detached from human life even though both are part of a whole — our vital expe- riences as human beings. By observing things this way Neruda has isolated objectivity and tried to analyze its motion. And the result is that as he underlines the destructiveness of this process — of material change — the remnants act as positive counterforces to this entropy.
So Neruda has focused his attention on the social despair that besieges him in the Orient. Since humans are absent, or are only present in the fruits of their labor, Neruda's dialectical method and understand- ing has not reached the heights it does in Canto general. These existing things "existiendo" are in the process of becoming, or of "secreting time" as Christopher Caudwell puts it. Significantiy, the only verbs are gerunds — the very expression of be- ing in a grammatical form. Contradictions are in fact the motorforce of these natural and inanimate things.
In slowness and, even more graphi- cally, in immobility velocity meets it's opposite. As a metaphor the pulley captures succinctiy the idea that Neruda is tiying to convey: even though the wheel appears, from a distance, to be a still sphere, it is rotating at a rapid rate. But the wheel's shape does not change when it is in motion. The same can be said for the rope attached to the pulley: its geometiical outline — the stiaight line — seems to be immobile, but the rope too is moving.
Notice, however, that Neruda places the emphasis on the pulley itself or, as in the fol- lowing verse, on motor wheels. However, Neruda is not content to simply block off all access to the origin of the movement that surrounds him by declaring it a mys- tery.
His criticai realist method and way of thinking encourages him to go beyond those limits. In the first stanza he already suggested a possible solution: it is not found in things-in-themselves, but in the relations among things and human beings. Indeed, the last two verses of this stanza revisit the consequences of these internai relations. While change may reign supreme — in the case of the ox's death — it does not lead to nothingness.
Implicit references in these two verses point to metaphors for poetry. The ox's tongue and homs are communicative and artistic vehicles respectively. Following a familiar artistic claim, Neruda may be suggesting that, even though the poet is mortal, his works may stand as popular Instruments to be used posthumously. Indeed, it is this search for meaning and, ultimately, immortality that produces anxiety in him and drives him foward.
But this is on the level of appearance. On a deeper, intemally related level, there is an infinite amount of natural activity that lies undemeath the appearance of chaos. The fourth and fifth stanzas retum to the question that he posed in the second; namely, what is the origin of relations sound, the transi- tion between night and time, etc. Adentro del anillo del verano Mester, Vol. These final stanzas address and clarify the questions raised throughout the poem if we follow the images highlighted previously.
If we claim that the doves, commonly associated with poets and po- etry, fulfill their archetypal role, the connection with the sound "ese sonido" becomes more apparent. The poet's words, like stones on the road, are only meaninghil when they are read and understood by most human beings. His words only have "eternal charm," as Marx put it in the Grundrisse, when they become part of living history. It is only by joining social history that poetry can hope to become an historical in- variant, that is, an active part of human memory. In this poem, as in the bulk of the Residencia en la tierra poems, Neruda is torced to come to grips with time, or the recognition of dif- ference and finality, even in Chile where he faced no language bar- rier just before his departure to the Orient, where his tenuous eco- nomic status seems to weigh on him so heavily.
Indeed, we know from biographical sources and Neruda's own memoirs that he led a precari- ous existence as a student and, later, as a poorly paid functionary in Santiago before his departure to the Orient. Significantly though, Neruda does not turn away from the pressure of time, but rather launches himself into an exploration of it. The title of the poem itself, "Galope muerto," testifies to this negative dialectic. The "gallop" metaphorically represents change, motion, entropy; while the "dead" figures are emblems of tinxe and the end of life.
Affirmation Amidst Destruction This is in fact the thread that the reader can follow throughout Residencia en la tierra including the first half of the Tercera residencia. The social situation in which Neruda was living at the time hindered the flowering of his needs and potentials. Yet the poet advances beyond his stance in "Galope muerto" by affirming himself in the ruins that surround him.
In this context Neruda suffers from existential anguish yet he tries to make it a cre- ative part of himself. In the beginning of Residencia en la tierra, voids appeared in tandem with motion, a motion in which the individual was lost. This sense of misdirection is captured in the images "vague leagues," "confused," "uncertain.
These very forces, along with his exile, contribute to a new personal transformation. But the speaker now reverses his direc- tion. Rather than fleeing from what threatens him — change in the uni- verse, the finality of the self — he now faces the destruction that lays before him.
As the title suggests, the very instrument of his liberation "sonata" — poetry becomes imbricated in the realm of necessity those forces that exist semi-autonomously from human life. He begins with ambiguous and inconstant images — "vague," "confused," "imcertain" — and then moves, in verses three and four, to apparent oxymorons or dialectical relations — "faint hopes," "unfaithful company" and "distrustful dreams"— to bold affirmations— "I love," "I hear," "I bite.
Moreover, Neruda's understand- ing of this transformation has evidentiy followed a similar partem: the images develop from the abstract to the concrete. Neruda has become accustomed to the alienation that has plagued him and it has become the force against which he can make his life meaningful and less alien- ated. In this context his poetry becomes a recording of his engagement with these objective forces. This sharpens his social consciousness. Now the speaker states that he feels himself becoming, or, as he an- nounces in the second stanza, he adores his "propio ser perdido" El hueso del padre, la madera del buque muerto, y su propio final, su misma huida, su fuerza triste, su dios miserable?
This poetic technique forces the reader to digest the bittemess of these characterizations of the speaker 's home. It is as though his desire is coming to terms with reality — the reality of motion, change, as well as the social reality of living in those specific economic conditions in the Orient: "adoro mi propio ser perdido, mi substancia imperfecta.
The suffering he has endured has led to a berter understanding of himself. So, rehabilitating him- self necessarily involves critiquing this antagonistic tie with his father. Repetition plays a crucial role here. Possessive adjectives pertaining to the first person — the speaker — clash structurally and thematically with those connected to the third person his father. It is interesting to note in passing that his rejection of direct mon- etary rewards and the "respectable" and well-paid position his work- ing-class family wanted him to enter, while typical of the field of the cultural production, produces a great deal of frustration if he does not reap symbolic profits.
Neruda feels mag- netically attached to women and accepts adventures as they come. Poetiy and erotic explorations help provide him with creativity and Mester, Vol. Intemalizing the alienations that plague him helps Neruda, and his erotic encounters and poetry give him the strength to survive and then to combat his solitude. The first verse, in fact, encapsulates precisely the essence of his struggle. He lies in wait of the inanimate the material forces that change con- stantiy and the harmful the effects of those forces on human beings, in particular, on the poet.
Yet I hope it is evident from the analysis of "Galope muerto" and "Sonata y destrucciones" that the speaker and his Weltanshaaung undergo meta- morphosis in the first volume of Residencia en la tierra. No longer ad- versarles, but rather allies in his journey, nature, econonnic deprava- tion, and social isolation fumish him with the weapons for his struggle. Armed with these and his many rendezvous with Josie Bliss, he trans- forms his poetry into the testament of his revitalization.
In the face of the overwhelming force of economic, social, and natural phenomena, which envelop and almost smother the poet, we are left with "faint hopes. The torrent of anguish Neruda feels is never presented as a statement about human nature per se. To consider only the "faint hopes" or the "mystery" in the Residencias is to resign oneself to a fixed view of hu- man nature. This reading overlooks the vital countervailing tendency, the dynamic, negative force in Neruda's dialectic. Immersed in the Spanish civil war, in the heat of class struggle, Neruda is able to negate the negation of his experi- ence in the Orient.
No longer suffering from a language barrier, social isolation, and the tedium tied to his job, and faced with outwardly unjust socio-poli tical condi tions that affect him on a daily basis, Neruda is able to expand the range of his poetry both in form and content. The harsh realism of the civil war demands to be heard and the moral im- perative of the poet responds.
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Madrid: Ediciones Jacar,