Experimental Plastic Variation. Four performers establish a network of audiovisual events radiating from the piano and pianist. Starting with minimal activity, visual and sonic events captured at the piano are processed in real time and used as the building blocks of a Starting with minimal activity, visual and sonic events captured at the piano are processed in real time and used as the building blocks of a collective improvisation.
Untitled - Audiovisual Performance. Audiovisual performance with Hugo Olim on live visuals. Hugo Olim. Collective Creation and Designing Experiences. Barbara Barroso. For that purpose, we did a review of literature on Portuguese cultural This work also discusses the history of Portuguese cinema since the 60s, attempting to define paradigms and changes, namely around the Portuguese images. In the third part of this thesis, we try to analyse eight feature films made by the director, proposing the idea of a dramaturgy of violence, through intertextuality with Greek tragedy and film melodrama, which gives a perspective of a representation of contemporary Portugal, based on a patriarchal society and its violence.
At last, our analysis debates the issue of realism in cinema, through the prism of contemporary changes suggested by the work of the filmmaker, which fuses fictional and documentary elements. This is part of the catalogue of the 19th Curtas Vila do Conde Com uma estrutura narrativa que segue o When will the Commission do so?
As requested by the Parliament on numerous occasions over the past year, the Commission did however take the opportunity to clarify the text of Art. Since this provision merely preserves the existing meaning of the directive, it has no economic or other impact. Therefore no further studies on the subject have been commissioned. Oggetto: La Commissione vieti l'utilizzo dell'aspartame.
It therefore appears that aspartame, already accused of causing cancer, is also responsible for other illnesses. Based on the conclusions of this full re-evaluation, the Commission will, if needed, take appropriate measures to ensure that the use of aspartame as a sweetener remains safe for the consumer. Oggetto: La Commissione provveda a risolvere il problema dei ritardi di pagamento della pubblica amministrazione in Italia. In Italia occorrono giorni per saldare una fattura, in Germania 37 giorni, in Gran Bretagna 43, in Svezia La Commissione intende aprire una procedura di infrazione nei confronti dell'Italia per correggere questa situazione?
Nei mesi di dicembre e marzo la Commissione ha scritto al Ministro dello sviluppo economico, delle infrastrutture e dei trasporti chiedendo delucidazioni in merito ad alcuni aspetti della normativa italiana.
La Commissione ha indicato al governo italiano di essere disposta a discutere riguardo agli ulteriori aspetti tecnici con gli enti nazionali competenti. The difference between Italy and other European countries in terms of the time taken by public administrations to pay their suppliers is constantly increasing. Does the Commission intend to initiate infringement proceedings against Italy to remedy this situation?
The Commission is currently undertaking a legal analysis of the clarification received by the Italian Government, to verify whether the national measure conforms with the directive. The Commission has also informed the Italian Government about the Commission's availability to further discuss any technicality with the competent national authorities. Should the legal assessment reveal non-compliance with the requirements of the directive, the Commission, in its role as Guardian of the Treaty, may take the necessary action, including where appropriate infringement procedures.
Oggetto: La Commissione protegga il miele europeo. Quali controlli sanitari impone la Commissione a tali importazioni e con quali risultati? La Commissione ritiene che le norme di etichettatura per gli organismi geneticamente modificati autorizzati nell'UE sancite dalla relativa legislazione.
Recent decisions on the labelling of honey, and the decision to review the proposal for a directive — following the impact studies undertaken by the Commission at the request of the European Parliament — highlight the need to apply rules to protect the European honey sector.
Sementes Feminizadas de Canábis
What public health controls does the Commission apply to these imports, and what have the results been? Does the Commission not believe that more restrictive labelling is needed for imported honey, to ensure full and complete visibility in cases where it includes ingredients containing GMOs? Traceability rules apply to honey as to any other foodstuff. Oggetto: Chiusura di stabilimento a Bari, iniziative europee per il suo rilancio. Un noto produttore giapponese di pneumatici ha comunicato pochi giorni fa la sua decisione di chiudere, entro il , la sua fabbrica a Modugno, in provincia di Bari Italia , dove lavorano attualmente persone.
Proprio questa svolta nella strategia di fabbricazione, insieme alle perdite di bilancio, starebbe alla base della decisione di chiudere l'impianto di Modugno. Qualsiasi aiuto concesso all'impresa cui fa riferimento l'onorevole deputato costituirebbe un aiuto di Stato ai sensi del trattato e dovrebbe essere autorizzato dalla Commissione. In view of the competition from producers in the emerging countries in the premium tyre sector, the company has switched its production priorities to concentrate on different product segments. It is this change of manufacturing strategy, together with the loss of profit, that appears to lie behind the decision to close the Modugno plant.
What other measures does the Commission intend to take to revive industrial activity and employment in the industrial zone of Modugno? Any aid to the company to which the Honourable Member refers, would constitute state aid in the sense of the Treaty and would have to be authorised by the Commission. Prior to such authorisation, no EU funds can be allocated. As far as the European Social Fund is concerned, the ESF programme can intervene through measures aimed at fostering the requalification of workers in mobility or at adapting their skills to possible changes in the production system.
In line with the shared management principle used for the implementation of cohesion policy, the selection of individual projects to be co-financed by the ERDF or the ESF is the responsibility of the managing authorities of the aforementioned programmes, at regional and national level.
Oggetto: Caso di sottrazione internazionale di due minori. In seguito alla separazione di un cittadino tedesco, residente in Belgio, e di una cittadina olandese, due minori di 9 e 6 anni sono stati portati via dalla madre dal luogo di residenza abituale in Olanda. A conclusione del procedimento svoltosi dinanzi al tribunale competente in Olanda, la sentenza ha stabilito il divieto per la donna di lasciare il paese senza il previo accordo del padre, avendo i genitori l'affido congiunto dei figli.
Following the separation between a German man, resident in Belgium, and a Dutch woman, two children aged 9 and 6 were taken away from the mother from their place of habitual residence in the Netherlands. At the conclusion of the proceedings before the competent court in the Netherlands, the woman was prohibited from leaving the country without the prior consent of the father, given that the parents shared custody of their children.
Despite the ban imposed on her by the judgment, the mother took the children, presumably to France, since when the father has not heard from them. The Commission is therefore not in a position to advise on concrete measures that could be taken to resolve the case in point. To this end, it provides for a maximum period of six weeks for obtaining a decision from the court on the return of the child, starting from the lodging of a return application, and a one-month deadline for the transmission of documents to the court with jurisdiction or the central authority in the Member State of origin of the child after a non-return order is issued.
Un cittadino italiano e una cittadina britannica hanno contratto matrimonio in Italia, ivi stabilendo la residenza coniugale. In effetti l'articolo 8 del regolamento CE n. An Italian man and a British woman were married in Italy, establishing their marital residence there. A son was born to the couple. This has led to a conflict over the applicable jurisdiction. In this case, the child has never been in Italy, is a British citizen and has his habitual residence in the United Kingdom, where he has lived ever since birth.
Based on this assessment, the Commission will examine the need of any further legislative action. What does it think the new conditions for the financial assistance programmes should be? Large financing needs in single years can be a source of vulnerability for market access at reasonable terms, especially when debt levels are already high as it is the case in Ireland and Portugal. Re-establishing private funding is a key objective of both programmes. Both countries are currently subject to an economic adjustment programme.
The programmes aim at restoring fiscal sustainability, enhancing economic growth and safeguarding financial stability. The Greek army has reportedly promised not to intervene, and the Greek Government has turned to private security firms rather than trust the underpaid Greek police to keep order.
It should be noted that as regards the visits of the Troika, the Commission is responsible for ensuring security of the Commission representatives within the Troika. In order to ensure their security when travelling or staying in Greece, security measures are carried out by the competent Commission services in close cooperation with the Greek police authorities and with the security departments of the other Troika members on the basis of security assessments conducted in view of each particular mission.
Depending on the identified safety and security threats, security measures can range from discreet monitoring actions up to a more visible close protection scheme. This increase in borrowing in an election year when they should have used State grants, subject to credit criteria, to service their loans is a violation of the very essence of the democratic process. With their loans from the banks which were totally dependent on the State and funding from European funds , the two parties enjoyed a financial advantage in the elections not only in terms of advertising but also in providing transport for their voters.
They were thus able unfairly to influence the free expression of the will of the Greek people. Does the Commission consider that it has honoured the commitment referred to above? Regarding the expected recapitalisation of banks, the European Commission has followed up on its commitment to put measures in place to ensure that the principles of fair treatment, impartiality and independence from political influence are observed.
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The measures put in place in the context of the recapitalisation of core banks, according to the memorandum of understanding, Paragraph 3. Safeguards to ensure stability and viability of the financial system , include the appointment of monitoring trustees in all banks under restructuring the major part of Greek banking system.
Even in the absence of an approved restructuring plan, the trustees are currently verifying proper governance and the use of commercial basis criteria in key policy decisions including lending. This includes also monitoring lending transactions with political parties. The case has raised a storm of controversy, so it must be clarified as quickly as possible.
In this connection, could the Commission please answer the following questions:. What scale of irregularities does the Commission suspect in this case? The Commission has no information on the details of the ongoing Central Anti-Corruption Bureau investigation or on the specific projects, which — potentially — may be affected by irregularities.
It is therefore impossible to indicate in monetary terms any sums affected. The Commission expects to receive this information from the managing authority, if made available by the investigating authorities. The Commission recommends not certifying expenditure related to projects, which — potentially — may be affected by fraud or irregularities. Due to the recent refusal of the prosecutor to provide the managing authority with more details about the ongoing investigation, the certifying authority itself decided to withdraw the most recent payment claim.
The programme authorities should liaise with the relevant national authorities to obtain the information necessary to identify the projects concerned. Under EU legislation, the certifying authority is responsible for certifying that expenditure declared complies with applicable EU and national rules. Therefore, the Commission has to carry out additional verifications. Until these verifications are completed, the Commission will not process future applications for interim payments.
The Commission has at present no information on the details of the specific projects, which — potentially — may be affected by irregularities. According to the latest information available to the Commission, the investigating authorities refused to share any detailed information on the ongoing investigation with the managing authority.
In these circumstances it is not possible to indicate precisely when such information will become available to the Commission. El plomo y el polonio son elementos de radiotoxicidad muy elevada, que se acumulan en el organismo y pueden suponer un riesgo para la salud de las personas que los ingieren.
Lead and polonium are highly radiotoxic elements which remain in the body and pose a health hazard if ingested. Dicalcium phosphate, an additive used as a calcium supplement, is present in the food chain because it is used to feed animals intended for human consumption. Nevertheless, Ercros will continue to run the plant in Flix to produce dicalcium phosphate for animal feed.
Is the Commission aware of this situation? Is the Commission going to ask the Catalan Government and the Spanish Government to launch an investigation with a view to eliminating any potential risk to human health posed by allowing dicalcium phosphate manufactured by Erkimia to enter the food chain?
If it is proven that the dicalcium phosphate contains radioactive elements, will the Commission charge Ercros with committing a crime against public health and failing to comply with the relevant legislation? The Commission is aware that the processing of identified, specific source material may result in significant levels of radio nuclides in effluents, residues, waste materials and products. The Commission is also aware that dicalcium phosphate which can be used as food additive and feed material may contain traces of the radio nuclides present in the original phosphate ore.
EU food law requires feed and food to be genuine and safe. There is no specific legislation on the presence of natural radionuclides in feed and food. The safety of phosphates as food additive was assessed by the Scientific Committee on Food, resulting in no specific concern. The directive requires that authorisation of consumer products containing radioactive substances is subject of prior justification and entrusted the regulatory control to Member States. The company is also going to close a plant in Cartagena, Murcia, and carry out further restructuring.
Ercros has issued a labour force adjustment plan and is due to begin negotiations. Ercros is going to continue to run the plant in Flix that produces dicalcium phosphate for animal feed, despite the fact that tests carried out by the laboratories of the Commission for Independent Research and Information on Radioactivity CRIIRAD in Valence, France, and the French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety IRSN in Paris have shown that the phosphate produced by Ercros contains radioactive elements, with the result that the nearby river and the surrounding area are now contaminated.
Does the Commission believe that any EU funding should be strictly conditional on the industrial reconversion of the company in order to prevent further environmental pollution and ensure that the company stops manufacturing radioactive phosphate? The Commission is not aware of the redundancies in Ercros' plants.
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While the Commission is deeply concerned with their social and economic consequences, it has no powers to interfere in company decisions to close plants but it urges companies and stakeholders to anticipate restructuring as far as possible and to manage it in a socially responsible way. This includes the objective to enhance the support to SME and innovation and entrepreneurship competitiveness and access to financing. The Commission is not in a position to comment on the remuneration of directors in individual cases.
The Commission also considers that executive pay restraint is important when companies face challenging economic conditions. Social housing, as a tool for tackling poverty and social exclusion, comprises a series of measures that offer access to housing for those of our fellow citizens who would not normally be able to afford any. Such schemes exist in most EU Member States as a social investment helping to boost growth and employment.
In this context and in the light of the exceptional social conditions facing Europe, will the Commission say:. As regards exchanges of best practices, how does it view the adoption of such schemes in Member States that are subject to a fiscal adjustment regime and report alarming social indicators, such as Greece? How compatible are cuts in social investment sectors, such as social housing, with the objectives of the EU strategy for reducing poverty and social exclusion? Are any appropriations available from the European Structural Funds to boost funding for social housing schemes, given the rapid increase in the number of households that cannot afford housing?
The size of social housing stocks is different in the Member States but they all have supported housing schemes. Member States have the primary competence for implementing housing policies. The Commission supports them addressing housing problems through its general social inclusion strategy and monitors the implementation of relevant actions as well as housing market imbalances.
The Package explores a set of good practices how Member States may improve access to affordable housing and thus preventing homelessness. The EU Funds can finance social housing investments for marginalised populations, homeless services, deinstitutionalisation and reintegration programmes. The seller must give consumers information about the goods or services that they are thinking of buying. This includes a description of the goods or service, the price of the goods or service, delivery and any cancellation rights, and information about the seller.
However, what is the situation when an online company such as Amazon acts as a service provider and not the seller, and the seller is outside the EU? What obligations does the service provider have to consumers, who are not always made aware that they are buying goods or a service from a seller outside the EU? The suppliers must comply with the information requirements provided in the Distance Selling Directive also where they use an intermediary for marketing their products to EU consumers.
Member States have transposed the Distance Selling Directive into their national laws and are responsible for ensuring adequate and effective means for enforcement of the consumer rights under the directive. These will normally provide for the identification of the supplier of a good or a service that is subject to the contract. Following the recent horsemeat scandal which has caused outrage across Europe, it is clearer than ever that consumers should have better information about the meat products they buy, including how the meat is produced.
Given that the Commission places great emphasis on animal welfare and the role of consumers, can the Commission state what actions it will be taking to ensure that full traceability information is available in meat production for the benefit of the consumer? To date, there is no indication on the subject which raises a safety issue, as horse meat can be destined for human consumption.
However, the falsification of labels misleads the consumers as regards the content of foods and therefore constitutes fraud in food labelling. Indeed, under existing rules,. A comprehensive system of food safety rules is already in place at Union level, including traceability requirements for foods of animal origin;. Food business operators are primarily responsible for ensuring that the products placed on the market comply with Union food law requirements, while national competent authorities are responsible for enforcement by conducting appropriate controls and imposing dissuasive and effective penalties.
The Commission has been active both on political and technical levels in coordinating the pending investigations in the Member States concerned. Depending on the assessment of the findings, the Commission will decide on an appropriate course of action. Betreft: Zelfmoorden na huisuitzettingen in Spanje. In sommige lidstaten, waaronder Spanje, komt de tragische situatie voor dat mensen zelfmoord plegen nadat zij uit hun woning zijn gezet.
De Spaanse overheid neemt geen enkele maatregel tegen dit probleem, en de Raad heeft Spanje er geen specifieke aanbevelingen over gedaan. Ondanks het Commissievoorstel voor een richtlijn over woningkredietovereenkomsten COM , waarover momenteel wordt onderhandeld, zijn veel gezinnen met een hypotheek het slachtoffer geworden van oneerlijke gedwongen verkopen.
In afwachting van de goedkeuring van de richtlijn zou een bijzondere procedure moeten worden ingevoerd om de woonrechten van woningeigenaren in de hele Unie te waarborgen. Gaat de Commissie vooruitlopen op de goedkeuring van de voorgestelde richtlijn en snel maatregelen nemen om huisuitzettingen te verzachten en een groeiende maatschappelijke crisis een halt toe te roepen, onder meer door een einde te maken aan nationale regelgeving die op straat gezette mensen verplicht hun hypotheek door te betalen nadat zij uit hun woning zijn gezet?
Gaat de Commissie dit aspect opnemen in haar landenspecifieke aanbeveling voor het Europees semester?
EUR-Lex Access to European Union law
Schuldvereffeningsprocedures vallen in principe onder de bevoegdheid van de betrokken nationale autoriteiten. Het voorstel wordt op dit moment besproken in de Raad en het Europees Parlement. De Commissie wil hierbij een constructieve rol spelen. Het beter aanwenden van de woningvoorraad is een van de punten waar de Commissie rekening mee houdt wanneer zij huizenmarkten analyseert.
In eerste instantie blijven de lidstaten echter bevoegd voor het opstellen van een huisvestingsbeleid. Voor Spanje is in deze aanbevelingen eveneens verwezen naar de behoefte om het woningbezit fiscaal minder voordelig te maken ten opzichte van huurformules. De Commissie blijft in haar aanbevelingen een bijzondere nadruk leggen op de huisvestingsproblematiek. Some Member States, such as Spain, face the tragic situation of people committing suicide after having been evicted from their homes.
The Spanish Government is not taking any form of action on this issue, and the Council has not sent any specific recommendation to Spain with regard to it. While financial institutions that receive EU bailout funds own houses that are empty, neither the Member States nor the Troika are pushing to have these buildings put on the rental market or in the social housing stock. While the real problem for the financial sector is the level of debt within the construction sector, several Member State governments have let households pay the heaviest price of the crisis.
Notwithstanding the Commission proposal for a directive on credit agreements relating to residential property COM , currently under negotiation, many families holding mortgages have been the victims of abusive foreclosures. Will the Commission anticipate the adoption of the proposed directive and act urgently to mitigate evictions and stem a mounting social crisis, avoiding national legislation that would force those evicted to continue making mortgage payments even after they have been ejected from their former property?
Will the Commission include this aspect in its country-specific recommendation for the European Semester? Debt settlement procedures are in principle within the jurisdiction of the national authorities concerned. However, the proposal is currently under discussion in the Council and the European Parliament. The Commission intends to play a constructive role in this process. Using the housing stock better is one of the considerations of the Commission when analysing housing markets.
Still, the design of housing policies remains the primary competence of Member States. Several Member States e. For Spain, the CSRs also referred to the need of reducing tax-induced bias towards home-ownership, as opposed to renting. The Commission will continue giving a special prominence to housing issues in its recommendations. Oggetto: Chiarimenti sulla normativa italiana in materia di OGM. Alcune notizie apparse sulla stampa italiana fanno riferimento a una richiesta ufficiale di informazioni della Commissione europea al Governo italiano e alla Regione Friuli Venezia Giulia in merito alle leggi nazionali e regionali sulla coltivazione di sementi geneticamente modificate.
Potrebbe la Commissione fornire un aggiornamento sullo stato della procedura, precisando in particolare:. La Commissione sta attualmente esaminando tale risposta. Se del caso si avvieranno i procedimenti appropriati. Reports in the Italian press refer to a formal request for information from the European Commission to the Italian Government and the Region of Friuli Venezia Giulia regarding the national and regional laws on the cultivation of genetically-modified seeds.
In its request, the European Commission seems to be asking the Italian authorities to provide answers on the validity and applicability of certain rules concerning, among other things, national authorisation for the cultivation of GMOs and the regional ban on cultivation of GMOs in the Friuli Venezia Giulia Region. Can the Commission provide an update on the status of the procedure, stating in particular:. If so, on the basis of the answers given, whether it deems it appropriate to proceed further and how?
The Commission is currently assessing the reply. Appropriate proceedings will be initiated if and as necessary. Furthermore, does the Commission not agree that applying such rules to sparsely populated areas has not led to any market disturbances so far, and that this would be unlikely to be the case if such rules were applied tomorrow to islands whose economy is characterised by isolation, a very small proximity market and obvious shortfalls in economies of scale?
The Commission is aware of the Shetland Islands situation. El fraude en el etiquetado del pescado puede no estar ligado directamente a la pesca ilegal. Los productos de la pesca se caracterizan por una enorme variedad de especies. Los controles pueden mejorarse mediante requisitos de trazabilidad.
Las pruebas de ADN son una posibilidad prometedora, especialmente para los productos que ya han sido transformados. Los controles corren a cargo de las administraciones nacionales competentes. In addition to raising awareness of fisheries crime, Project Scale will coordinate operations to target this criminal activity, disrupt trafficking routes and harmonise national and regional law enforcement efforts.
One fifth of the fish that come out of the water is believed to be illegal, unreported or unregulated, and the problem is getting worse because new technologies allow fishing boats to stay at sea longer and trawl ever deeper. What measures does the Commission deploy to detect fraudulent mislabelling of fish, which undermines consumer protection? In order to better tackle all the aspects of the phenomenon, the Commission has reinforced its cooperation with other intergovernmental organisations like Interpol. The Commission participates as observer to the Working Group that promotes actions against illegal fishing and all related criminal activities.
On the other hand, fraud on fish labelling may not be directly linked to illegal fishing. Fish products are characterised by a very large number of species. Traceability requirements can help to improve controls. DNA testing is a promising development in particular for products that have already been processed. The Commission has included in its proposal for a new European Maritime and Fisheries Fund specific support to strengthen controls of the marketing chain and labelling obligations. Controls are conducted by relevant national administrations.
Som led i at involvere borgerne mere i EU — citizens-dialogen — har jeg modtaget et forslag fra en borger. Hvad er Kommissionens opfattelse af den ide? The idea is such a good one that I am passing the question on to the Commission straight away. The citizen asks whether there are any EU rules currently in existence or in the pipeline that lay down requirements concerning the packaging of medicinal products. Medicinal product packaging can at present be difficult for citizens with disabilities to cope with.
For example, people with impaired vision can find it difficult to recognise the packaging and administer the dose, and people with other disabilities can find it difficult to open medicinal product packaging. However, it is a good idea to consider common minimum rules for the packaging of medicinal products. This would enable us to ensure that all people with disabilities were able to cope with their medicines themselves. Are there any standards or rules in the pipeline at EU level? Are there any guidelines in preparation? It provides that the name of the medicinal product must be expressed in Braille format on the packaging.
In addition, marketing authorisation holders shall ensure that the package information leaflet is made available on request from patients' organisations in formats appropriate for the blind and partially-sighted. The Commission has to present a report to the Parliament and the Council on, inter alia , the package leaflet and how it could be further improved in order to better meet the needs of patients. For that purpose, the Commission has commissioned a study on the assessment of the readability of the package leaflet which is ongoing and which should be available this autumn.
Albania treats the Greeks living in Northern Epirus and the Roma harshly, while adopting an aggressive stance particularly towards Greece: this can be seen in its unwillingness to cooperate in finally resolving the problem of determining the Exclusive Economic Zone between the two countries. Most Greek households are facing an extremely difficult economic situation. They are radically changing their consumption habits, since most are on a very tight budget and are barely able to survive.
Many others have gone without heating altogether on account of the difficult economic situation. Although the tax on heating oil has increased, the Panhellenic Federation of Fuel Service Station Dealers, drawing on official Ministry of Finance data, has noted in this connection that tax revenue from the State excise duty and VAT not only have failed to increase, but have decreased significantly due to the unprecedented decline in consumption.
In view of the above, will the Commission say:. Does it rule out the possibility that a reduction in the tax on heating oil could have an equivalent effect, namely by increasing consumption and thereby revenue, while at the same time significantly reducing the burden on family budgets? This difference in excise duties provoked an incentive for fuel fraud for heating oil to be used for transportation purposes.
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Un nuovo rapporto pubblicato questo mese dalla Open Society Justice Initiative denuncia l'ampiezza del ricorso da parte della CIA alle extraordinary renditions — la pratica di rapire sospetti terroristi e trasferirli in paesi in cui si reputa che si torturino i prigionieri durante gli interrogatori. Secondo il rapporto, 54 paesi hanno partecipato al programma statunitense di detenzione segreta.
Il Consiglio potrebbe organizzare audizioni con le pertinenti agenzie di sicurezza dell'UE, in particolare Europol, Eurojust e il coordinatore antiterrorismo dell'UE, per chiarire la loro conoscenza della partecipazione di Stati membri al programma della Cia, e la reazione dell'UE? Esiste un dialogo regolare tra i consulenti giuridici UE e USA sugli aspetti della lotta al terrorismo relativi al diritto internazionale, nel cui ambito sono discusse questioni quali l'arresto, la detenzione, l'interrogatorio e il trasferimento di terroristi sospetti.
Le due parti accolgono con favore la determinazione degli Stati Uniti d'America di chiudere il centro di detenzione assieme ad altre iniziative intraprese, fra cui l'approfondito riesame delle politiche USA in materia di detenzione, trasferimento, processi e interrogatori nella lotta al terrorismo ed una maggiore trasparenza sulle prassi applicate in passato relativamente a queste politiche, come pure l'eliminazione dei centri di detenzione segreti.
L'UE ha fornito un contribuito alle task force per il riesame delle politiche in materia di detenzione, interrogatori e trasferimento una lettera a nome del Consiglio al segretario di Stato e al segretario della difesa, copresidenti, e un briefing del coordinatore antiterrorismo dell'UE per garantire il rispetto dei suddetti principi nell'attuazione delle politiche USA.
Quanto alle garanzie volte ad assicurare il rispetto dei diritti fondamentali, le istituzioni, gli organi e gli organismi dell'UE sono tenuti a rispettare la Carta dei diritti fondamentali. Il medesimo obbligo si applica agli Stati membri quando attuano il diritto dell'Unione. In many of these countries, the rule of law is weak or nonexistent, such as in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Egypt, Malaysia and Somalia. But even more alarming is the collusion of full-fledged democracies such as Belgium, Finland and Denmark, which, according to the report, have allowed their airports and airspace to be used for flights associated with CIA rendition operations.
Moreover, the report states that Britain, Italy, Germany and Australia have helped interrogate one or more suspects and either allowed or actively aided in their transfers to countries known for torturing prisoners. Parliament has on many occasions reiterated its condemnation of the practices of extraordinary rendition, secret prisons and torture. Is the Council willing to propose safeguards so as to guarantee respect for human rights in intelligence-sharing activities, and a strict delimitation of roles between intelligence and law-enforcement activities so that intelligence agencies are not permitted to assume powers of arrest and detention?
The Council has stated on a number of occasions that the fight against terrorism has to take place in full respect of international law, including human rights law, international humanitarian law and refugee law, and that the existence of secret detention facilities where detained persons are kept in a legal vacuum is not in conformity with international law. There is a regular dialogue between EU and US legal advisers on the international law aspects of the fight against terrorism, where questions such as the arrest, detention, interrogation and transfer of terrorist suspects are discussed.
Both sides welcomed the determination of the United States of America to close the facility together with other steps taken, including the intensive review of its detention, transfer, trial and interrogation policies in the fight against terrorism and increased transparency about past practices in regard to these policies, as well as the elimination of secret detention facilities.
As for safeguards aimed at guaranteeing respect for fundamental rights, EU institutions, offices and bodies are required to comply with the Charter of Fundamental Rights. The same obligation applies to the Member States when they implement Union law. All national acts, including those carried out by the intelligence services, are subject to the jurisdiction of the European Court of Human Rights, which is competent to declare whether such acts do or do not respect the fundamental rights and freedoms recognised in that Convention.
Secondo dati raccolti dal database del governo britannico per il controllo delle esportazioni strategiche dal CAAT Campagna contro il commercio di armi , il governo britannico sta vendendo armi di piccolo calibro e munizioni per milioni di sterline allo Sri Lanka, nonostante la disastrosa situazione dei diritti umani nel paese. Infatti, le statistiche tratte dal database mostrano che l'anno scorso sono stati venduti al governo dello Sri Lanka articoli che vanno da fucili d'assalto e fucili a canna liscia a congegni di mira, fino a pistole e munizioni.
Moreover, in a December update, the Foreign Office said that the human rights situation there had been marked by negative developments. However, the arms export licences granted by the Member States have to be assessed against the eight criteria laid down in the Common Position and Member States have to take into account possible denials issued by other Member States for similar transactions. A number of issues have been identified for further improving the implementation of the Common Position, and these are currently being discussed by the relevant Council bodies.
Oggetto: Politiche comunitarie per i disabili e gli ipovedenti. Facendo riferimento alla circolare UICI n. Quali sono i metodi attraverso i quali la Commissione intende promuovere l'attuazione dei suddetti obiettivi? Europe shall introduce a new plan for employment, growth and the social inclusion of people with disabilities — new strategies for resolving the crisis. Europe shall ensure that financial support will be used primarily to take care of the most deprived citizens in the European Union and will not create greater social exclusion. Europe shall guarantee political support for the implementation of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.
What methods does the Commission intend to use to promote the implementation of the above objectives? Specifically, what actions does the Commission intend to take to improve the living conditions of persons with disabilities in the EU? The regulatory package on European Structural and Investment Funds for , as proposed by the Commission, identifies several fields of intervention addressing the needs of disabled people.
Betreft: Vervolgvragen subsidieverlening aan Egypte.
- Sementes Autoflorescentes de Canábis;
- The Epistle of James?
- Full text of "Portuguese conversation-grammar".
In dat kader de volgende vervolgvragen:. Wie zijn de begunstigden die dit geld gaan ontvangen? Het is niet aan de Raad om commentaar te leveren op antwoorden op parlementaire vragen die door de voorzitter van een andere instelling zijn gegeven. Who are the beneficiaries who will receive this money? And just check out this development of the extraordinarily rise in energy use since the great acceleration started in the mids.
And what you see here is the growth of coal , and particularly oil and gas , as the predominant sources of energy. The challenge, thus, is a transition into a zero coal or non-fossil fuel-based economy in the future. But overall it shows that however you twist and turn the analysis the era of cheap oil is behind us, which may help us also as an incentive to a transition to renewable energy systems. But a very important challenge in terms of this transition is to recognize that not only is there a linear relationship between economic growth and energy use , what has enabled our quick economic growth is that energy has been cheap.
And if you look at a key parameter in this regard called energy return on investmen t, meaning how much value do you get out for each input of investment into your extraction of energy. But look at what happens with, for example, nuclear energy, biomass, photovoltaics, oil sands, with energy returns on investment being very low. Now if you look into the future the drama is equally stark. This is an analysis from the Global Energy Assessment showing that even in a transition to a sustainable energy future, here illustrated by the label Global Energy Assessment efficiency , or the Global Energy Assessment mix, which if you look carefully shows a very rapid rise in renewable energy systems and a contraction in the use of particularly oil and coal, but still the overall picture is growth of energy demand in the world.
So a reminder again of the enormous challenge. Well, most analysts would agree today that the long-term future is a future world basically or predominantly supplied from solar energy systems.
And what you see here is that up until , we had a very slow rise in technology and uptake of these renewable energy systems. Many of these energy systems are provided from small-scale distributed households, farms, small businesses, that produce their own energy and buy and sell energy to a flexible energy market. While a transition in terms of energy in a safe operating space can be, should be, and must be the opportunity for a much more clean, modern energy system for a world that of course will demand more energy to truly achieve sustainable development, but which needs to be sustainable.
The science on planetary boundaries builds on the remarkable advancements in Earth system science over the past 20 to 30 years. What may surprise you is that the approach of finding planetary boundaries is illustrated very nicely in this first slide here where a Moon lander is looking at our wonderful, small, little marble Earth planet from a distance.
We step out as humanity and try to understand the Earth system and ask ourselves to question what are the Earth system processes that regulate the stability and the resilience of the Earth system? And for each such process we ask ourselves what is the boundary beyond which the system could be pushed outside of a desired state? And science shows very clearly that we know what this desired state is.
And in this slide as a synthesis of that shows the ice core data from Greenland indicating the enormously jumpy ride that humanity has had throughout his entire period on Earth as modern human beings. So the planetary boundary framework is about safeguarding the desired Holocene-like state on Earth by recognizing this state as the only state we know that can support the modern world as we know it, and from science determining the Earth system processes that regulate this state.
And that is what led us to defining the nine Earth system processes that we know , with the best science at hand, regulates the stability of the Earth system. And here we have of course the big systems with large scale tipping points , such as: climate change, ocean acidification, stratospheric ozone depletion. We have the four slow variables that operate under the hood of the Earth system regulating the ability of the large systems to be stable: land system change, fresh water use, the rate of biodiversity loss , and the way we interfere with the large nutrient cycles of nitrogen and phosphorus.
And then we have the two processes that are so highl y manmade: namely aerosol loading , which is all the soot and the particles in the atmosphere that cause large health challenges but also influences, for example, rainfall patterns and weather conditions; but finally of course the novel entities , the exponential growth of chemical compounds that aggregate themselves in the Earth system. By tapping on the best science we can put quantitative boundaries that gives us in green a safe operating place.
This is where we can put humanity back, to prosper, develop, evolve, and thrive within this safe operating space. In my mind this is the new definition of sustainable development.
Harry Potter e a Criança Amaldiçoada – Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre
And a few exciting updates have occurred based on scientific colleagues around the world publishing updated work in this area. The first one is the recognition that the nine boundaries are not entirely , so to say, even in the role of regulating Earth resilience. In fact we do identify now that three of the boundaries are what we call core boundaries. They operate and regulate the entire Earth system , and they are the endpoint depending upon how the other boundaries operate.
So the best example of these three core boundaries is climate change. Climate change is the end result of how we manage fresh water, nitrogen, phosphorus, land, biodiversity, oceans. It all aggregates up into the functioning of the climate system. The other core boundary is biodiversity. We now recognize increasingly that the genetic diversity on Earth, and the functions they play to sustain resilience and to build human well being, is a high level aggregate result of how we manage fresh water, land, oceans, nutrients, and even the climate system.
And the third core boundary we believe is novel entities. The reason for this is that chemicals, such as everything from endocrine disruptors, persistent organic polluters, all the way to nuclear waste and loading of heavy metals, is so totally lien to the operations of the Earth system, in fact the Earth system has never seen, at least not in millions of years, the kind of human-induced artificial loading of new totally artificial compounds into the Earth system.
But this is an entity of its own core right. And these three we call core boundaries. We call it now biosphere integrity , because we recognize that genetic diversity is one thing which we captured in the first analysis. So we can secure, for example, that we do have the minimum amount of pollinators in an agricultural landscape. And this is truly exciting giving the tools for sustainable development in the Anthropocene. And I would just like to share a few of the key developments here.
And the number one is on phosphorus. In the original analysis, we were preoccupied with how much phosphorus can we load into the oceans before we risk a large scale tipping point in the oceans into anoxic, oxygen-free dead states in the ocean? We were criticized for this. So now we actually have a twin definition of the phosphorus boundary. One, which we maintained from the original analysis, which is the amount of phosphorus that we can load in the oceans. It emains in fact eleven million tons of phosphorus per year.
But can you imagine? The analysis shows that already at averaging at 4 million tons of phosphorus per year on what we call erodible soil , which is essentially how much phosphorus we can load on productive agricultural land, when we go beyond that number we risk large scale tipping points in fresh water systems. These twin boundaries need to be considered for phosphorus. For nitrogen finally we took, which was a very wise decision, the valve of how much inactive nitrogen we can maximum take out of the atmosphere, and transform into reactive nitrogen which would plug into the biosphere.
You may be aware that the fantastic invention of the Haber Bosch process, which produces reactive nitrogen fertilizers is the vehicle for our modern agriculture, without which we probably could not feed ourselves in the modern world. But it loads reactive nitrogen into the biosphere at an extent, which is so large that we humans are now a much larger force than the entire global natural nitrogen cycle. We estimated in the first analysis that the maximum loading of nitrogen in order to avoid that nitrogen triggers tipping points in ecosystems was 35 million tons of nitrogen per year.
It was a first best guess. So, we have also biological fixation nitrogen actively induced by us humans in modern agriculture. Now we have included that, so now we have a boundary that includes both the industrial uptake of nitrogen from the atmosphere in the industrial production of fertilizers, and the additional human-induced nitrogen fixation by, for example, legumes in modern agriculture.
And together that forms a much more robust boundary, which ends up being an estimated 44 million tons of nitrogen as a maximum boundary per year. I really urge you to look at the analysis and the materials that come with this lecture. But I really want to close by emphasizing that every boundary has an uncertainty range. And the uncertainty range is often quite large. The coupling of the phosphorus boundary for fresh water, with a maximum amount of phosphorus per hectare of land that we can allow ourselves to apply.
Same for nitrogen , taking it down to the hectare level. The first thing I need to do right now is explain what I mean by the term novel entities. Back in , Johan Rockstrom and colleagues argued that there should be a planetary boundary for chemical pollution.
In recent years this challenge has been a topic of a lot of conversation between Earth system scientists, my own field of research, and ecotoxicologists, people who deal with the problems of chemical pollution. We now refer to the process as the release of novel entities into the environment. Why did we change the name? When I talk about self-correcting behavior I simply mean that the toxic substances that exist in nature generally break down in nature. And there are many chemicals that have toxic effects, some of them like salt, or alcohol, or kerosene, or snake venom can be very toxic indeed, but they are dissipated in the environment because living organisms have co-evolved with the processes, the chemical processes, that produce them.
Our human technical capability lets us put together chemical substances in combinations that did not exist before , and that no ecosystem has been adapted to, or can adapt to, on the time scales that we see for technological change. Life can and does adapt to toxic substances. So for that reason the term chemical pollution was too general for our purposes. The most obvious category of novel pollutants is the completely new synthetic substances. Compounds like persistent organic pollutants for instance, often called POPs. Another Earth system problem is the production and the environmental release of highly reactive molecules that contain some of the toxic or radioactive heavy metals.
These organic compounds can be transported through water and the atmosphere to some of the most remote parts of the Earth system. Mercury is one very concrete example. Volatile organomercury compounds are emitted into the atmosphere and they can be transported and they expose ecosystems, and human populations, to very high levels of pollution very far away from their original sources.
Here we have a few other examples where Earth system functioning has already been impacted by human technological capability to produce new chemical substances. Another very well known example is the problem of DDT, a synthetic pesticid e that kills agricultural pests and mosquitoes, but many other organisms too. DDT accumulates in fatty tissues and so it can be carried through the food chain. It persists for years in soils and sediments. It has now become a globally distributed problem and it has fundamentally changed the way that ecological processes happen in the Earth system.
As a result of planetary experiments like these we know that particular traits make novel entities a problem in the Earth system. Toxicity is important but we must take a big picture view that goes beyond just the effects on individual organisms through to ecosystems and actually the whole planet. Problem substances persist in the environment. This means that they can be transported large distances around the world, either in living organisms or through water in the atmosphere. We see systemic effects when these substances accumulate in living tissue. For instance, the problem of bioaccumulation makes substances become more concentrated as you work up the food chain.
So, some of our keystone species in ecosystems are the ones that are most vulnerable. Another important trait in this is the very high risk of irreversibility. All of this means that we are still no closer practically to achieving a single quantitative boundary value for chemical pollution or these other novel entities. Because of this colleagues at Stockholm University, and many places around the world, are working on defining principles that will let us identify planetary risks associated with the creation of these novel entities and their release into the environment.
We really want to improve the way that we screen for hazards , and the way that we manage and monitor environmental changes caused by novel and synthetic substances in the environment. One of the big implications of this is that we simply must halt the environmental release of the most problematic substances. So this also means that we must apply the precautionary principle much better.
We, here at SRC, and in many of our global change partner organizations, [are] encouraging dialogue about this new area of research. Aerosol is a rather technical term to describe the phenomenon of liquid droplets or particles , very small particles, that are held suspended in the atmosphere. Aerosols play many very important roles in the atmosphere and in the Earth system.
They provide condensation nucleus points; water condenses on aerosol particles and affects where clouds are formed and where rainfall happens. And they also provide microsurfaces for chemical reactions in the atmosphere. So, they influence atmospheric chemistry. For example, the reactions leading to stratospheric ozone depletion, or the ozone hole, happened on polar clouds that formed on stratospheric aerosols in the upper atmosphere.
To understand atmospheric aerosols, and the additional loading that humans are creating, we take physical and chemical measurements of gases, of particles, and of rainfall. A lot of this work is done in particular locations in different ecosystems, especially in urban ecosystems where the particulate loading is highest. But we can also measure aerosols from space.
Aerosols can be emitted directly into the atmosphere and they can also be formed through chemical processes in the atmosphere. Other natural primary sources include fire, volcanoes, and air-blown dust. There are natural sources for secondary aerosol too. For example, plankton and land vegetation emit organic compounds that react in the atmosphere to make very small particles.
These reactions that create aerosols that affect the distribution of clouds over forests and coastal zones. We also see human impacts in both direct and secondary aerosols. Land use change and combustion processes change the global patterns of dust and smoke emission. And together with transport and industrial processes we are currently changing the emissions of a very large number of chemical precursor gases that become aerosols in the atmosphere.
Smoke is a suspension of carbon particles in the air; fog is a suspension of water droplets; and the gas emissions associated with human activities, interact with each other and with these natural systems, creating really much more complex aerosol systems like smog and photochemical haze. In the last century killer smogs, or pea soupers, were a severe environmental problem, so industrial smoke emissions are very tightly controlled in many cities of the world.
But however industrial and urban emissions are still the cause of many problem aerosols in other parts of the world. Photochemical haze plagues cities like Shanghai and Los Angeles and many other mega-cities in the world. These aerosol systems are complex. They involve both natural and anthropogenic sources, they involve many different kinds of chemical substances, they involve direct emissions and reactions that happen in the atmosphere, and these reactions involve solids, and liquids, and gases.
In other words, the composition and the ultimate fate of aerosols depend on many different geographic and meteorological conditions. In some instances human activities are removing or relocating aerosols. We risk setting off physical and ecological tipping points when we change atmospheric chemistry in this way. This animation shows the global patterns and total aerosol loading of the atmosphere. This figure is from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and it shows the complex effect of atmospheric precursor gases in the top of the red box, and aerosols in the lower part of the red box.
Some have a positive effect on radiative forcing, leading to warming of the atmosphere; and others have a negative forcing, in other words they lead to cooling. The net global effect is a cooling, at the moment. The climate planetary boundary already addresses the radiative forcing effect of aerosols. But there are good reasons to address anthropogenic aerosol directly in the planetary boundaries concept, in ways that address their physical and biogeochemical impacts, not just their effects on the global energy balance.
One example where humans are causing regime shifts that might affect the whole Earth system is the change to the Asian monsoon system caused by the intense brown cloud of atmospheric pollution over south Asia and the Indian Ocean.